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Chen Duan - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize key aspects from recent research as well as review articles on the topic of genetic mouse models, particularly in knockout mice, that have considerably contributed to understanding the pathways and mechanisms underlying gastric physiology. RECENT FINDINGS: A series of knockout mouse models has proven to ...
Shimano H - - 2007
It has long been known that excess intracellular fatty acids cause impaired insulin secretion, referred to as beta-cell lipotoxicity. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c is a transcription factor that controls hepatic fatty acid synthesis. Activation of SREBP-1c by overnutrition also inhibits insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) and induces insulin resistance in ...
Rafsanjani Fatemeh Nabavizadeh - - 2007
Considering the high consumption rate of marjoram in the Iranian population, this study was designed to investigate the effects of marjoram extract on gastric acid and pepsin secretion. In this study, Wistar rats (n=12) were divided into two equal case and control groups. Under general anaesthesia with 50 mg/kg i.p. ...
Apodaca-Torrez Franz R - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of iodine contrast media and gadoteric acid in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. METHODS: Fifty rabbits were distributed in 5 groups: 10 rabbits were assigned in the control group (group 5) and 40 rabbits were assigned in the pancreatitis group, wherein acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced through ...
Shabani Shkelzen - - 2007
Sea hares such as Aplysia californica, gastropod molluscs lacking a protective shell, can release a purple cloud of chemicals when vigorously attacked by predators. This active chemical defense is composed of two glandular secretions, ink and opaline, both of which contain an array of compounds. This secretion defends sea hares ...
Geiselhardt Sven - - 2008
Males of the genus Parastizopus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) exhibit a special pheromone-emitting behaviour. They do a headstand, expose the aedeagus and remain in this posture for a few seconds. The pheromone emitted by P. transgariepinus was collected by solid-phase micro-extraction (100 microm polydimethylsiloxane fibre) and identified as 1-tridecene by gas chromatography/mass ...
Katayama Shigeru - - 2007
The protective effects of amino acids against H 2O 2-induced oxidative stress were investigated in an in vitro assay using human intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were pretreated with amino acids (1, 2, and 5 mM) for 2 h and then stimulated with 1 mM H 2O 2 for 6 ...
El-Zaatari Mohamad - - 2008
The Shh pathway has been implicated in gastric carcinogenesis, and inhibition of this pathway has been shown to inhibit tumour growth in gastric cell lines. Assessing the in vivo efficacy of Shh pathway antagonists in blocking Shh signaling in the stomach is important for clinical trial design, but has not ...
Preisig P A - - 2007
On a typical Western diet, the body is faced with the generation of a metabolically derived acid load that must be excreted to maintain systemic acid-base balance. The kidney is responsible for this task and matches daily acid excretion with daily acid production. Multiple nephron segments are involved in the ...
Zavros Yana Y Department of Internal Medicine-Gastroenterology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, - - 2007
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is not only essential to the development of the gastrointestinal tract, but is also necessary to maintain the characteristic acid-secreting phenotype of the adult stomach. Gastrin is the only hormone capable of stimulating gastric acid and is thus required to maintain functional parietal cells. We have shown ...
Nishio H - - 2007
We investigated the roles of cyclooxygenase (COX) isozymes and prostaglandin E (PGE) receptor EP1 and EP3 subtypes or prostacyclin IP receptors in the decrease in acid secretion in the damaged mouse stomach. Male C57/BL6 mice, both wild type and animals lacking EP1, EP3, or IP receptors, were used after 18 ...
Louw Stefan - - 2007
The giant girdled lizard or sungazer, Cordylus giganteus, is endemic to South Africa. It has been suggested that in this species, as in other lizard species, epidermal glands in the femoral, pre-cloacal regions, and cloacal glands are the main sources of semiochemicals and that these secretions could play an important ...
Cain William S - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess the relation between occupationally relevant exposures to dust of boric acid and magnitude of feel in the eye, nose, and throat during activity (pedaling) equal to light industrial work. (2) To compare feel from the dust of boric acid with that of the alkaline dusts calcium ...
Caplan Michael J - - 2007
Since it was discovered 3 decades ago the H,K-ATPase has come to be recognized as the key both to the generation and pharmacologic suppression of gastric acid secretion. Although 30 years of concerted research has answered many questions, it is perhaps not surprising that these efforts have raised many new ...
Falótico Tiago - - 2007
Formic acid is a substance produced by some ants for defense, trail marking, and recruitment. Some animals are known to rub ants or other arthropods on parts of their plumage or fur to anoint themselves with released substances. A recent study with a semifree-ranging group of capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella ...
Wrede C E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Blood contains a mixture of different fatty acids (FFAs) with palmitate and oleate as major components whose molar ratio is dependent on dietary habits. Based on the theory of lipotoxicity for the development of type 2 diabetes such variances in the FFA composition might interfere with lipotoxic effects on ...
de la Cour Charlotta Dornonville - - 2007
Ghrelin is produced by A-like cells (ghrelin cells) in the mucosa of the acid-producing part of the stomach. The mobilization of ghrelin is stimulated by nutritional deficiency and suppressed by nutritional abundance. In an attempt to identify neurotransmitters and regulatory peptides that may contribute to the physiological, nutrient-related regulation of ...
Heo Ho Jin - - 2007
This study investigated whether carbenoxolone, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid affect ATP-induced mucin secretion from cultured airway epithelial cells. Confluent primary hamster tracheal surface epithelial (HTSE) cells were metabolically radiolabeled using (3)H-glucosamine for 24 h and chased for 30 min in the presence of varying concentrations of each agent to ...
Pinna Antonio - - 2007
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of oral linoleic and gamma-linolenic acid, 2 omega-6 essential fatty acids, on meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). METHODS: Fifty-seven patients with MGD (27 men and 30 women) were randomly divided into 3 groups of 19. Group A received tablets containing linoleic acid (28.5 mg) and gamma-linolenic ...
Derby Charles D - - 2007
Some marine molluscs, notably sea hares, cuttlefish, squid, and octopus, release ink when attacked by predators. The sea hare Aplysia californica releases secretions from the ink gland and opaline gland that protect individuals from injury or death from predatory spiny lobsters through a combination of mechanisms that include chemical deterrence, ...
Taylor Josi R - - 2007
The effects of feeding on both acid-base and ion exchange with the environment, and internal acid-base and ion balance, in freshwater and seawater-acclimated flounder were investigated. Following voluntary feeding on a meal of 2.5-5% body mass and subsequent gastric acid secretion, no systemic alkaline tide or respiratory compensation was observed ...
Hira Tohru - - 2007
Our previous study demonstrated that intestinal administration of triglycerides suppressed protein-induced increases in pancreatic exocrine secretion in pancreatico-biliary diverted (PBD) rats, though the mechanism has not been clarified. The present study was conducted to determine whether esterified fatty acids or free fatty acids are responsible for this suppression, and whether ...
Simon W A - - 2007
After treatment of millions of patients suffering from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and other acid-related ailments with proton pump inhibitors, there are still unmet medical needs such as rapid and reliable pain relief, especially for nocturnal acid breakthrough. In this work, we introduce and characterize the biochemistry and pharmacology of ...
Kim Jae Hak - - 2007
Adult beetles of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (western corn rootworm) feed on pollen of Zea mays L. (corn) and other plant species. To identify D. virgifera feeding stimulants, beetle responses to mixtures of known and novel phagostimulants, presented at their naturally occurring concentrations in maize pollen, were compared to individual ...
Hensel A - - 2007
Thirty commonly used medicinal plants were screened by a selective and specific LC-MS/MS method for the occurrence of N-phenylpropenoyl- L-amino acid amides, a new homologous class of secondary products. In 15 plants, one or more of the respective derivatives (1 to 12) were found and quantitated. Especially roots from Angelica ...
Horng Jiun-Lin - - 2007
In the skin of zebrafish embryo, the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase, H(+) pump) distributed mainly in the apical membrane of H(+)-pump-rich cells, which pump internal acid out of the embryo and function similarly to acid-secreting intercalated cells in mammalian kidney. In addition to acid excretion, the electrogenic H(+) efflux via the ...
Cui Guanglin G Laboratory of Gastroenterology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø N-9037, Norway. - - 2007
Gastric acid plays an important role in digesting food (especially protein), iron absorption, and destroying swallowed micro-organisms. H+ is secreted by the oxyntic parietal cells and its secretion is regulated by endocrine, neurocrine and paracrine mechanisms. Gastrin released from the antral G cell is the principal physiological stimulus of gastric ...
Lin Chao - - 2007
An extracellular beta-1,3-glucanase with antifungal properties was secreted by the novel mycoparasite, Periconia byssoides. The glucanase has a molecular mass of 35 kDa estimated by SDS-PAGE. Its optimum activity was at pH 6.0 and 50 degrees C (over 2 h). The purified beta-1,3-glucanase was capable of degrading cell walls, and ...
Kanai Setsuko - - 2007
Gastric acid secretion in response to chemical stimulation and to mechanical stimulation was investigated in adult and old mice. The protein expression of a proton pump (H(+)-K(+)-ATPase), a marker of parietal cell function, was determined by Western blotting. Acid secretion was stimulated by histamine (500 and 1000 microg/kg) or carbachol ...
Safer Daniel - - 2007
Host-seeking behavior by parasitic nematodes relies heavily on chemical cues emanating from potential hosts. Nonspecific cues for Strongyloides stercoralis, a nematode that infects humans and a few other mammals, include carbon dioxide and sodium chloride; however, the characteristic species specificity of this parasite suggested the existence of other, more specific ...
Flodgren Erik - - 2007
The free fatty acid receptor, GPR40, has been coupled with insulin secretion via its expression in pancreatic beta-cells. However, the role of GPR40 in the release of glucagon has not been studied and previous attempts to identify the receptor in alpha-cells have been unfruitful. Using double-staining for glucagon and GPR40 ...
Farine Jean-Pierre - - 2007
In Leucophaea maderae, male calling behavior involves the release of a sex pheromone from the abdominal sternal glands. An extract of sternal glands attracted conspecific females over a distance. The compounds present were identified as hydroxy-3-butan-2-one, (2R, 3R)-butanediol, senecioic acid, and (E)-2-octenoic acid. The same components are also present in ...
Ueno D - - 2007
It has been suggested that some perennial grasses secrete phytosiderophores in response to iron (Fe) deficiency, but the compounds have not been identified. Here, we identified and characterized the phytosiderophores secreted by two perennial grasses, Lolium perenne cv. Tove and Poa pratensis cv. Baron. Root exudates were collected from the ...
Johnson David R - - 2007
Production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in joint tissue of patients with inflammatory arthritis facilitates cartilage degradation and bone erosion, and leads to joint deformities and crippling. Thus, MMPs are important targets for agents designed to treat inflammatory arthritis. Oral administration of ajulemic acid (AjA), a synthetic, nonpsychoactive cannabinoid acid, prevents ...
Shusterman Dennis - - 2007
The upper airway occupies a sentinel position with respect to the physical and chemical qualities of the inspired atmosphere. Responses of the upper airway can be acute or chronic, as well as primary (sensory) or secondary (physiologic). Olfaction and sensory irritation are cofactors in the perception of air quality. Secondary ...
Cai Jia - - 2007
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) could inhibit the secretion of gastric acid. Meanwhile, it could also decrease the secretion of other digestive glands besides gastric parietal cell. As we know, PPIs have been widely used to treat acute pancreatitis, and it is effective in clinical practice. However, research showed the side ...
Ruth Katinka - - 2007
An efficient method to prepare enantiomerically pure (R)-3-hydroxycarboxylic acids from bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) accumulated by Pseudomonas putida GPo1 is reported in this study. (R)-3-Hydroxycarboxylic acids from whole cells were obtained when conditions were provided to promote in vivo depolymerization of intracellular PHA. The monomers were secreted into the extracellular environment. ...
Wang Ping - - 2006
The wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Yangzhou 158 was used as a reference. The wheat root exudates were collected using a hydroponic mode. The changes of the electrolytes, H+, sugar, organic acids, amino acids, and secondary metabolites in wheat root exudates induced by aluminum (Al) were studied. The research results ...
Mouri Akihiro - - 2007
Neurotrophins are synthesized first as precursors called pro-neurotrophins, and their propeptides are then proteolytically removed to form mature neurotrophins. However, a significant proportion of total neurotrophins has been shown to be secreted as pro-neurotrophins. Furthermore, pro- and mature neurotrophins have been shown to elicit opposite effects on cell survival. Thus, ...
Papastamatiou Yannis P - - 2007
Vertebrates are known to differ in their response of gastric acid secretion during periods of fasting, yet the reasons for these differences remain unclear. Previously, continuous measurements of gastric pH in leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) had determined that acid secretion in this species is continuous. In order to determine if ...
Dee Derek - - 2006
A zymogen-derived protein, pepsin, appears to be incapable of folding to the native state without the presence of the prosegment. To better understand the nature of the irreversible denaturation of pepsin, the present study reports on the characterization of the stability and low-resolution tertiary and secondary structures of native, alkaline ...
Schultz Carla - - 2007
This work assessed the mechanism underlying the antisecretory gastric acid effect of Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) and active constituents. Popularly known as "false-boldo", this plant is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and hepatic ailments. The plant aqueous extract (AE) and isolated compounds were assayed in vivo in ...
Mandey Saskia H L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by recurring episodes of inflammation. MK catalyzes the phosphorylation of mevalonic acid, which is an early step in isoprenoid biosynthesis. The goal of our study was to determine whether a temporary shortage of certain isoprenoid end products and/or the accumulation ...
Hou Wei - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the literature over the past year on the regulation of gastric exocrine and endocrine secretion. RECENT FINDINGS: Gastric acid secretion by parietal cells is precisely regulated by overlapping neural, hormonal, and paracrine pathways, both centrally and peripherally. Too much acid can induce gastroduodenal injury. Too ...
Schultz David J - - 2006
Anacardic acid (2-hydroxy-6-alkylbenzoic acid) produced and secreted from glandular trichomes of zonal geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum; Geraniaceae family) provides resistance to small pests (aphids and spider mites). To assess the potential bioactivity of anacardic acid against larger insect pests and to determine if an alternate mode of application (ingestion rather ...
Sugiura Shozo H - - 2006
Oxynticopeptic cells of fish stomach are thought to secrete less acid than the specialized parietal cells of mammalian stomach. Gastric acidity, however, has not been directly compared between fish and mammals. We therefore fed rainbow trout and rats the same meal, and found that the lowest postprandial pH of trout ...
Piwnica David - - 2006
Cathepsins are lysosomal enzymes that were shown to release the antiangiogenic fragments 16K prolactin (PRL), endostatin, and angiostatin by processing precursors at acidic pH in vitro. However, the physiological relevance of these findings is questionable because the neutral pH of physiological fluids is not compatible with the acidic conditions required ...
Sekine Hitoshi - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Gastric-acid secretion is reduced in Helicobacter pylori-positive fundic atrophic gastritis, but it is restored by the eradication. However, changes in the distribution of acid-secreting mucosa after the eradication remain unknown. Congo red chromoendoscopy is capable of visualizing the acid-secreting fundic mucosa. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of H pylori ...
Zhao Hua - - 2006
Trehalose is the main sugar in the haemolymph of insects and is a key nutrient source for an insect pathogenic fungus. Secretion of trehalose-hydrolysing enzymes may be a prerequisite for successful exploitation of this resource by the pathogen. An acid trehalase [EC 3.2.1.28] was purified to homogeneity from a culture ...
Neyraud Eric - - 2006
Whole and parotid salivas, collected after stimulation with tastants, were analyzed by 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. In whole saliva, the number of proteins affected by taste stimulation increased in the order sweet < umami < bitter < acid. Annexin A1 and calgranulin A, involved in inflammation, were over-represented after ...
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