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Mingji Xie - - 2009
A solution culture experiment was performed to investigate the impact of phenanthrene (PHE) on organic acids secretion and accumulation by Lolium perenne L. root. Data showed that, oxalic acid was the dominant composition of organic acids in root and root exudates. In root exudates, increased levels of PHE resulted in ...
Clough Michael R I - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Gastric acid secretion is subject to complex control mechanisms, and varies widely between individuals and populations. Its measurement has previously required intubation of the stomach with ingestion of a test meal or injection of a secretion stimulant. AIM: We describe a novel method of measuring gastric acid secretion noninvasively ...
Shrestha Yogendra B - - 2009
Ghrelin is a powerful orexigenic peptide predominantly secreted by the stomach. Blood concentration of ghrelin increases before meals and fall postprandial. Its regulation appears to be influenced by the type of macronutrient ingested, the vagus nerve stimulation and by other post-meal stimulated hormonal factors. However, the direct role of nutrients ...
Lauffer Lina M - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Intestinal L-cells secrete the incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in response to ingestion of nutrients, especially long-chain fatty acids. The Galphas-coupled receptor GPR119 binds the long-chain fatty acid derivate oleoylethanolamide (OEA), and GPR119 agonists enhance GLP-1 secretion. We therefore hypothesized that OEA stimulates GLP-1 release through a GPR119-dependent mechanism. RESEARCH ...
Flachsbarth Birte - - 2009
The lipophilic content of the cloacal gland secretion of the tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) was investigated. GC/EI-MS Analysis of CH2Cl2 extracts of the secretions revealed triacylglycerols as major glandular constituents. Twelve major medium-chain fatty acids were found to be conjugated to glycerol in different combinations, resulting in complex mixtures. These acids ...
Imatake Kazuhiro - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Capsaicin has beneficial pharmacological properties, such as the ability to improve appetite and digestion. However, capsaicin has been reported to suppress gastric acid output, but to increase secretion; no consensus as to its effects on gastric acid output has been reached, and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. ...
Iijima Katsunori - - 2009
BACKGROUND: We recently reported the expansion of the acid-secreting mucosa following Helicobacter pylori eradication with Congo red chromoendoscopy for a short-term follow-up of up to 7 months. We aimed to extend the observation period and to clarify the characteristic features of acid-secreting and non-acid-secreting mucosa. METHODS: In 24 H. pylori-positive ...
Khropycheva Raisa - - 2009
Dietary L-glutamate (Glu), an amino acid abundant in many foodstuffs in a free form, is able to modulate physiological functions in the stomach, including secretion and motility. Recently, specific receptors for Glu were identified in the apical membrane of chief cells in the lower region of fundic glands and in ...
Eisner Thomas - - 2008
Anting, the plumage-dipping behavior to which ants (mostly formicines) are commonly subjected by birds (mostly passerines), is shown in tests with hand-raised Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) and the ant Formica exsectoides to be instinctive: the birds displayed typical renditions of the behavior on the first occasion that they encountered ants. ...
Kanai Setsuko - - 2009
Gastrin is important for stimulating acid secretion as well as differentiating gastric mucosal cells via cholecystokinin-2 receptors (CCK-2Rs). In turn, CCK acts preferably via CCK-1R to release somatostatin, and somatostatin has been postulated to exhibit a tonic inhibition of gastrin bioactivity. The present study was designed to examine the hypothesis ...
Subramanian Hari H - - 2008
The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) organizes basic survival behavior, which includes respiration. How the PAG controls respiration is not known. We studied the PAG control of respiration by injecting D,L-homocysteic acid in the PAG in unanesthetized precollicularly decerebrated cats. Injections in different parts of the PAG caused different respiratory effects. ...
Yakabi Koji - - 2008
Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of ...
Mori Hiroki - - 2009
Inhibition of H(+),K(+)-ATPase is accepted as the most effective way of controlling gastric acid secretion. However, current acid suppressant therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease, using histamine H(2) receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors, does not fully meet the needs of all patients because of their mechanism of action. This study ...
Ito Yasuyuki - - 2008
We investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the hypersecretion of acid and pepsinogen induced by stomach distension. The rat stomach was distended by instillation of saline through an acute fistula under urethane anesthesia. Both secretions of acid and pepsinogen were increased by the distension depending on the volume ...
Rudholm T - - 2009
The impact of exposure of the intestinal mucosa to acid and hyperosmolal solutions on the release of the inhibitory gut peptides somatostatin (SOM), neurotensin (NT) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was studied in conscious rats during pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion. The animals were equipped with a chronic gastric fistula to ...
Hojo Masaru K - - 2008
Here we show that larvae of the lycaenid butterfly Niphanda fusca secrete droplets containing trehalose and glycine. These droplets attract the larva's host ants Camponotus japonicus, which collect and protect the larvae. We comparatively investigated gustatory preference for trehalose, glycine or a mixture of the two between host (C. japonicus) ...
Brownlie Ruth - - 2008
GPR40 (G-protein-coupled receptor 40) has been shown to be a physiologically relevant receptor for long-chain fatty acids. It is a family A G-protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in the beta-cell where it increases insulin secretion by signalling via Gq and phospholipase C. Fatty acids are well known to mediate both acute ...
Reyes-Zurita Fernando J - - 2009
We have investigated the mechanisms of maslinic acid with regard to its inhibitory effects on the growth of HT29 colon-cancer cells. High concentrations of maslinic acid are present in the protective wax-like coating of olives. Our results show that treatment with maslinic acid results in a significant inhibition of cell ...
Waterhouse John S - - 2008
The dorsal gland secretions of captive-reared male and female Chacoan peccaries (Catagonus wagneri) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. C8-C19 carboxylic acids, squalene, cholesterol, cholestanol, and cholest-7-en-3-ol were present in both males and females. Heptylbenzene, C14-C18 methyl esters, and an isomer of springene were observed in males. C15-C19 aldehydes were ...
Lin B R - - 2008
It remains unclear whether enhanced ion fluxes occur in the esophageal stratified squamous epithelium upon acid exposure. Rat esophageal tissues devoid of submucosal glands displayed basal short-circuit current (Isc) of 5.03 +/- 1.93 microA/cm(2) and lumen-negative potential difference (PD) in association with net absorption of Na+ and Cl-, and secretion ...
Verma Anita - - 2008
Pertussis toxin (PT) is secreted from Bordetella pertussis by a type IV secretion system, known as the Ptl transporter, that comprises nine different proteins, PtlA to PtlI. In this study, we found that PtlD is required for the stability of three Ptl proteins, PtlE, PtlF, and PtlH. A region limited ...
Lan Hong - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: FFAR1/GPR40 is a G-protein-coupled receptor expressed predominantly in pancreatic islets mediating free fatty acid-induced insulin secretion. However, the physiological role of FFAR1 remains controversial. It was previously reported that FFAR1 knockout (Ffar1(-/-)) mice were resistant to high-fat diet-induced hyperinuslinemia, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hepatic steatosis. A more recent report suggested ...
Adisakwattana Sirichai - - 2008
Cinnamic acid derivatives are naturally occurring substances found in fruits, vegetables, and flowers and are consumed as dietary phenolic compounds. In the present study, cinnamic acid and its derivatives were evaluated for insulin secreting activity in perfused rat pancreas and pancreatic beta-cells (INS-1) as well as an increase in [Ca(2+)]i ...
Fukumoto Kaori - - 2008
Gastrin and ghrelin are secreted from G cells and X/A-like cells in the stomach, respectively, and respective hormones stimulate gastric acid secretion by acting through histamine and the vagus nerve. In this study, we examined the relationship between gastrin, ghrelin and gastric acid secretion in rats. Intravenous (iv) administration of ...
Anhê A C B - - 2008
The Triatominae subfamily has medical sanitary importance, since these insects are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas Disease, and Trypanosoma rangeli, which develops in the salivary glands and it is frequently found in mixed infections with T. cruzi. Triatomines of Triatoma and Panstrongylus genera possess a salivary gland ...
Eslimi Delaram - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Pectic acid extracted from plants increases the secretion of prolactin (PRL) when injected intravenously into ewes or fed to rats. Fragments of ewe hypophysis and lactating rabbit mammary gland incubated in vitro in the presence of pectic acid secreted more PRL and caseins compared to the controls. However, it ...
Schaeffler Andreas - - 2009
To study the effects of fatty acids and the involvement of the Toll-like receptor-4/nuclear factor-kappaB (TLR-4/NF-kappaB) pathway with respect to the secretion of adipokines from adipocytes 3T3-L1 adipocytes were stimulated with increasing doses of fatty acids. The secretion of adiponectin, resistin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was measured by enzyme-linked ...
Edderkaoui Mouad - - 2008
AIM: To determine the effect of ellagic acid on apoptosis and proliferation in pancreatic cancer cells and to determine the mechanism of the pro-survival effects of ellagic acid. METHODS: The effect of ellagic acid on apoptosis was assessed by measuring phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation; ...
Ceglia L - - 2009
In 17 adults on a fixed metabolic diet, an 11-day course of cinacalcet increased serum gastrin and basal gastric acid output, but not maximal gastric acid output, compared with a placebo. These findings indicate that the calcium sensor receptor plays a role in the regulation of gastric acid. Gastric acid ...
Park Jong - - 2008
Vibrio vulnificus has been known to secrete one form of metalloprotease VvpE (45 kDa) that is cleaved to 34 kDa-VvpE and 11 kDa-C-terminal propeptide via extracellular autoproteolysis. However, we found that extracellular secretion of both the 34 and 45 kDa forms of VvpE began in the early growth phase; moreover, ...
Campbell Colin A - - 2008
Identification of novel drug molecules requires the extensive evaluation in vitro and in vivo. Following in vitro evaluation it is necessary to efficiently screen numerous novel molecules in vivo using relatively simple methodology that requires small numbers of animals, is rapid to perform, and provides results that can definitely discriminate ...
Hsu Ssucheng J - - 2008
The peptide hormone gastrin is a key factor in regulation of gastric acid secretion. It has also been implicated in the development or maintenance of various types of cancer, such as pancreatic and stomach carcinoma. Inhibition of gastrin activity has potential for therapeutic use as a suppressor of acid secretion ...
Chew Catherine S - - 2008
Lasp-1 (LIM and SH3 domain protein 1) is a multidomain actin-binding protein that is differentially expressed within epithelial tissues and brain. In the gastric mucosa, Lasp-1 is highly expressed in the HCl-secreting parietal cell, where it is prominently localized within the F-actin-rich subcellular regions. Histamine-induced elevation of parietal cell [cAMP]i ...
Schubert Mitchell L - - 2008
Recent milestones in the understanding of gastric acid secretion and treatment of acid-peptic disorders include the (1) discovery of histamine H(2)-receptors and development of histamine H(2)-receptor antagonists, (2) identification of H(+)K(+)-ATPase as the parietal cell proton pump and development of proton pump inhibitors, and (3) identification of Helicobacter pylori as ...
Souccar C - - 2008
Cecropia glazioui Sneth (Cecropiaceae) is used in folk medicine in tropical and subtropical Latin America as cardiotonic, diuretic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic. The hypotensive/antihypertensive activity of the plant aqueous extract (AE) and isolated butanolic fraction (BuF) has been confirmed and putatively related to calcium channels blockade in vascular smooth musculature ...
Franch-Marro Xavier X National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, NW7 1AA, - - 2008
Two lipids (palmitate and palmitoleic acid) are appended onto Wnt proteins. It has been suggested that palmitate is required for signalling, whereas palmitoleic acid is necessary for progression through the secretory pathway. By mutating the relevant amino acids, we have investigated how these adducts contribute to the secretion and signalling ...
Ito Keiichi - - 2008
In the present report, we evaluated the effect of the novel acid pump antagonist 7-(4-fluorobenzyloxy)-2,3-dimethyl-1-{[(1S,2S)-2-methylcyclopropyl]methyl}-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyridazine (CS-526) and 2-[3-methyl-4-(2,2,2-trifluoro-ethoxy)-pyridin-2-ylmethanesulfinyl]-1H-benzimidazole (lansoprazole) on rebound gastric acid secretion, using an intragastric dialysis membrane perfusion model and on the serum and antral gastrin level after a 14-day treatment in rats. The effect of CS-526 on ...
Rubach M - - 2008
Consumption of coffee beverages has been reported to cause gastric irritation in some consumers as a result of increased gastric acid secretion. In the complex mechanisms of gastric acid secretion, the activity and expression of the H+,K+-ATPase is regulated by transmitters, such as histamine, acetylcholine, gastrin, somatostatin, and their corresponding ...
Iwatsuki Masato - - 2008
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) expressing the Type III secretion system (TTSS) induced hemolysis of sheep blood cells. Using this assay, six structurally related compounds designated as guadinomines were isolated as inhibitors of TTSS-induced hemolysis by ion exchange column chromatography and HPLC from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. K01-0509. Guadinomines ...
Singh A K - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We investigated the role of the recently discovered, villous-expressed anion exchanger Slc26a6 (PAT1) and the predominantly crypt-expressed cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) in basal and acid-stimulated murine duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion in vivo, and the influence of blood HCO(3)(-) concentration on both. METHODS: The proximal duodenum of anaesthetized ...
Hausmann Sascha - - 2008
Lipases are important biocatalysts used as detergent additives to manufacture biodiesel, and in particular, for the production of enantiopure compounds such as alcohols, amines and carboxylic acids. Extensive efforts were conducted trying to optimize lipase properties and lipase LipA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa comprises the best-studied example in terms of optimizing ...
Petersen Ole H OH MRC Group, Physiological Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK. - - 2008
Alcohol induces Ca(2+)-dependent intracellular trypsinogen activation in the apical granular area via non-oxidative metabolites, such as fatty acid ethyl esters and fatty acids. Intracellular trypsinogen activation is a crucial initiating event in the development of acute pancreatitis, but the specific organelle in which this process takes place has been unknown. ...
Drewe Juergen - - 2008
CONTEXT: Cholecystokinin (CCK) and neurotensin are stimulated during meal intake by the presence of fat in the small intestine. The sequence of events suggests that fat hydrolysis is crucial for triggering the release. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether CCK mediated the effect of intraduodenal (ID) ...
Zhang Jian-Xu - - 2008
With a combination of dichloromethane extraction and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we found 39 compounds (corresponding to 38 GC peaks) in the anogenital gland secretion (AGS) of captive adult giant pandas, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, during the non-mating season. In addition to indole, squalene, and some of the straight-chain fatty ...
Silver Debra L - - 2008
ADAMTS20 (Adisintegrin-like and metalloprotease domain with thrombospondin type-1 motifs) is a member of a family of secreted metalloproteases that can process a variety of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and secreted molecules. Adamts20 mutations in belted (bt) mice cause white spotting of the dorsal and ventral torso, indicative of defective neural ...
Goswami Suchandra - - 2008
Employing a silica gel column modified with carboxyl groups and an eluent consisting of 4.0mM tartaric acid and 0.75mM dipicolinic acid in 2% acetone, an otherwise difficult quantification of K(+) at ppb level in presence of 6000ppm NaCl was achieved by incorporating 0.75mM 18-crown-6 ether in the mobile phase and ...
Ota Tsuguhito - - 2008
ER stress can cause hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis. Increased VLDL secretion could protect the liver from ER stress-induced steatosis, but the effect of lipid-induced ER stress on the secretion of VLDL is unknown. To determine the effect of lipids on hepatic ER stress and VLDL secretion, we treated McA-RH7777 ...
Shin J M - - 2008
Inhibition of gastric acid secretion is the mainstay of the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulceration; therapies to inhibit acid are among the best-selling drugs worldwide. Highly effective agents targeting the histamine H2 receptor were first identified in the 1970s. These were followed by the development of irreversible ...
Donatti Ariane C - - 2008
Extracellular proteases have been shown to be virulence factors in fungal pathogenicity toward insects. We examined the production of extracellular proteases, subtilisin-like activity (Pr1) and trypsin-like activity (Pr2), by Beauveria bassiana CG425, which is a fungus of interest for control of the grasshopper Rhammatocerus schistocercoides. To access the role of ...
Valle Jaione - - 2008
Biofilms are structured communities characterized by distinctive gene expression patterns and profound physiological changes compared to those of planktonic cultures. Here, we show that many gram-negative bacterial biofilms secrete high levels of a small-molecular-weight compound, which inhibits the growth of only Escherichia coli K-12 and a rare few other natural ...
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