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Schumacher Andrea B - - 2010
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a good source of vitamin E containing high quality protein. A dark chocolate with the addition of 12, 16 or 20% quinoa was developed. The protein concentration of the products increased as the percentage of quinoa increased. The product containing 20% quinoa showed only 9% ...
Nunn Peter B - - 2010
Non-protein amino acids are common in plants and are present in widely consumed animal feeds and human foods such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa), which contains canavanine, and lentil (Lens culinaris), which contains homoarginine. Some occur in wild species that are inadvertently harvested with crop species. Some non-protein amino acids and ...
Pacheco Fábio Luiz C - - 2010
Clean rooms are largely employed in pharmaceutical companies whose purpose is to produce sterile drugs and devices. We employed Gram staining and gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters extracted from whole cells of environmental isolates to characterize and identify bacteria isolated in each of 50 different clean rooms designed ...
Jha Anupam Nath - - 2010
Understanding the key factors that influence the interaction preferences of amino acids in the folding of proteins have remained a challenge. Here we present a knowledge-based approach for determining the effective interactions between amino acids based on amino acid type, their secondary structure, and the contact based environment that they ...
Uddin M Hafiz - - 2010
Physico-chemical modifications of hydroxyapatite (HAp) materials are considered as pre-requisites for the development of new bioactive carrier materials for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Since acidic amino acids have well-documented affinities to both HAp and basic proteins, HAp modified by aspartic acid (Asp, acidic amino acid) might be one ...
Collier Timothy S - - 2010
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are self-renewing pluripotent cells with relevance to treatment of numerous medical conditions. However, a global understanding of the role of the hESC proteome in maintaining pluripotency or triggering differentiation is still largely lacking. The emergence of top-down proteomics has facilitated the identification and characterization of ...
Schir? Giorgio - - 2010
Elastic incoherent neutron scattering has been used to study the temperature dependence of the mean-square displacements of nonexchangeable hydrogen atoms in powders of a series of homomeric polypeptides (polyglycine, polyalanine, polyphenylalanine and polyisoleucine) in comparison with myoglobin at the same hydration level (h = 0.2). The aim of the work ...
Yue Q-X - - 2010
To elucidate the cytotoxicity mechanism of Ganoderma triterpenes, a chemoproteomic study using five purified ganoderic acids, ganoderic acid F (GAF), ganoderic acid K (GAK), ganoderic B (GAB), ganoderic acid D (GAD) and ganoderic acid AM1 (GAAM1) was conducted. GAF, GAK, GAB, GAD and GAAM1 treatment for 48 h inhibited the ...
Kino Kuniki - - 2010
L-amino acid ligase catalyzes dipeptide synthesis from unprotected L-amino acids in an ATP-dependent manner. We recently identified a new member of L-amino acid ligase, the plu1440 protein, from Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii TT01 by in silico analysis. This protein was found to synthesize dipeptides containing L-asparagine at the N-terminus, which ...
Liu Shupeng - - 2010
Salvianolic acid B is one of the effective components from the Chinese traditional drug Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), which is widely used as a usual clinic drug for atherosclerosis-related disorder patients in China. But the targeting protein of salvianolic acid B is still not known. The possible targeting proteins of salvianolic ...
Wang Feng - - 2010
New tools are needed to study the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), to facilitate new drug discovery and vaccine development. We have developed methodology to genetically incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in Mycobacterium smegmatis, BCG and Mtb, grown both extracellularly in culture and ...
Gaci Omar - - 2010
In this chapter, we study the amino acid interaction networks. An amino acid interaction network is a graph whose vertices are the protein's amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. Using a graph theory approach, we identify a number of properties of these networks. Some of them ...
Liu Bin - - 2010
Several chemokines have been shown to act as antimicrobial proteins, suggesting a direct contribution to innate immune protection. Based on the study of defensins and other antimicrobial peptides, it has been proposed that cationic amino acids in these proteins play a key role in their antimicrobial activity. The primary structure ...
MacLachlan James N - - 2010
Studies during early development have shown that the precursor availability of amino acids directly affects protein synthesis both at the whole-body level and for select organ tissues, although this has not been studied for the brain. We utilized a mixed amino acid infusate and an insulin euglycemic clamp technique in ...
Noiarsa Pawadee - - 2010
A new phenylethanoid glycoside acylated with syringic acid, namely acanmontanoside, was isolated from the aerial portions of Acanthus montanus (Nees). T. Anderson, along with decaffeoylverbascoside, verbascoside, isoverbascoside, leucosceptoside A, (2R)-2-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (HBOA-Glc), (2R)-2-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-4-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIBOA-Glc), (3R)-1-octen-3-ol-3-O-ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→6)-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside and ebracteatoside B. The structure elucidations were based on physical data and spectroscopic analyses including 1D- ...
Gaci Omar - - 2010
We represent proteins by amino acid interaction networks. This is a graph whose vertices are the proteins amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. Once we have compared this type of graphs to the general model of scale-free networks, we analyze the existence of nodes which highly ...
McClellan David A - - 2010
TreeSAAP has been used in a variety of protein studies for detecting adaptation in terms of the physicochemical properties involved in amino acid replacement. The accuracy of TreeSAAP was here tested using simulated protein-coding DNA data. A sampling of 1402 simulated amino acid replacements resulted in a default accuracy of ...
Kim E J - - 2010
As ethanol production is increasing, new processes are being developed to maximize ethanol production from corn and to create new, more highly marketable corn distillers dried grains with or without solubles (DDGS or DDG, respectively). This current study evaluated coproducts produced from 2 new modified processes, the enzymatic milling (E-Mill) ...
Arai Toshinobu - - 2010
L-Amino acid ligase synthesizes various peptides from unprotected L-amino acids in an ATP-dependent manner. Known L-amino acid ligases catalyze only dipeptide synthesis, but recently we found that RizB of Bacillus subtilis NBRC 3134 catalyzes oligopeptide synthesis. In the present study, we searched for new members of the L-amino acid ligase ...
Shaikh Afshan S - - 2010
Microbial production of many commercially important secondary metabolites occurs during stationary phase, and methods to measure metabolic flux during this growth phase would be valuable. Metabolic flux analysis is often based on isotopomer information from proteinogenic amino acids. As such, flux analysis primarily reflects the metabolism pertinent to the growth ...
Pittas G - - 2010
The aim of this study was to determine whether creatine ingested in combination with relatively small quantities of essential amino acids, simple sugars, and protein would stimulate insulin release and augment whole-body creatine retention to the same extent as a large bolus of simple sugars. Seven young, healthy males underwent ...
Onodera Ken-ichi - - 2010
Guided by anti-degranulation assays, we isolated from leaves of Camellia japonica an ellagic acid glucoside named okicamelliaside. The structure was elucidated as 3,4-dioxoloellagic acid 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Okicamelliaside was 12,000 times more potent than the antihistaminic drug, ketotifen fumarate, in inhibiting the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells.
Wang Guang-Zhong - - 2010
Among bacteria and archaea, amino acid usage is correlated with habitat temperatures. In particular, protein surfaces in species thriving at higher temperatures appear to be enriched in amino acids that stabilize protein structure and depleted in amino acids that decrease thermostability. Does this observation reflect a causal relationship, or could ...
Braun Manfred - - 2010
The hydrochloride of the racemic amino acid (7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine, a versatile fluorescent probe in proteins, has been synthesized in five steps from commercially available (7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)acetic acid. The key step involves the alkylation of a glycine-enolate equivalent.
Barton Michael D - - 2010
Every protein has a biosynthetic cost to the cell based on the synthesis of its constituent amino acids. In order to optimise growth and reproduction, natural selection is expected, where possible, to favour the use of proteins whose constituents are cheaper to produce, as reduced biosynthetic cost may confer a ...
McDonald John H - - 2010
Whether particular amino acids are favored by selection at high temperatures over others has long been an open question in protein evolution. One way to approach this question is to compare homologous sites in proteins from one thermophile and a closely related mesophile; asymmetrical substitution patterns have been taken as ...
Samsonov Sergey A - - 2009
Noncanonical amino acids with newly designed side-chain functionalities represent powerful tools to improve structural, biological, and pharmacological properties of peptides and proteins. In this context, fluorinated amino acids have increasingly gained importance. Despite the current wide use of fluorination in protein engineering, the basic properties of fluorine in protein environments ...
Huang Ying - - 2010
2-Amino-8-oxononanoic acid has been genetically incorporated into proteins in Escherichia coli by the use of an evolved pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase/pylT pair. The direct usage of the exclusive reactivity of the keto group in this amino acid with hydrazide- and alkoxyamine-bearing compounds to site-specifically label proteins under a mild condition close to ...
Nodet Gabrielle - - 2009
An atomic resolution characterization of the structural properties of unfolded proteins that explicitly invokes the highly dynamic nature of the unfolded state will be extremely important for the development of a quantitative understanding of the thermodynamic basis of protein folding and stability. Here we develop a novel approach using residual ...
Nasim S A - - 2009
Direct somatic embryo formation (without intervening callus) from garlic clove basal tissue was induced in which the influence of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on various explants was examined. Medium added with 2.0 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.5 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were the most effective PGR combination for somatic embryo ...
Ruman Tomasz - - 2010
In search of an activity-preserving protein thiophosphorylation method, with thymidylate synthase recombinant protein used as a substrate, potassium thiophosphoramidate and diammonium thiophosphoramidate salts in Tris- and ammonium carbonate based buffer solutions were employed, proving to serve as a non-destructive environment. Using potassium phosphoramidate or diammonium thiophosphoramidate, a series of phosphorylated ...
Sagebakken Gry - - 2010
It is well known that many animals with placenta-like structures provide their embryos with nutrients and oxygen. However, we demonstrate here that nutrients can pass the other way, from embryos to the parent. The study was done on a pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, in which males brood fertilized eggs in a ...
Sullivan Michael L - - 2010
Red clover (Trifolium pratense) leaves accumulate several mumol of phaselic acid [2-O-caffeoyl-L-malate] per gram fresh weight. Post-harvest oxidation of such o-diphenols to o-quinones by endogenous polyphenol oxidases (PPO) prevents breakdown of forage protein during storage. Forages like alfalfa (Medicago sativa) lack both foliar PPO activity and o-diphenols. Consequently, breakdown of ...
H??gy P - - 2009
Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. TRISO) was grown for three consecutive seasons in a free-air carbon dioxide (CO(2)) enrichment (FACE) field experiment in order to examine the effects on crop yield and grain quality. CO(2) enrichment promoted aboveground biomass (+11.8%) and grain yield (+10.4%). However, adverse effects were predominantly ...
Kleiger Gary - - 2009
Ubiquitin ligases, together with their cognate ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, are responsible for the ubiquitylation of proteins, a process that regulates a myriad of eukaryotic cellular functions. The first cullin-RING ligase discovered, yeast SCF(Cdc4), functions with the conjugating enzyme Cdc34 to regulate the cell cycle. Cdc34 orthologs are notable for their highly ...
Riebeseel Erik - - 2010
Heterotrophic plastids of seeds perform many biosynthetic reactions. Understanding their function in crop plants is crucial for seed production. Physiological functions depend on the uptake of precursors by a range of different metabolite translocators. The 2-oxoglutarate/malate translocator gene (PsOMT), which is highly expressed during pea (Pisum sativum) embryo maturation, has ...
Fregolente Patricia B L - - 2009
Gamma linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3, cis- 6,9,12- octadecatrienoic acid), an important compound in n- 6 eicosanoid family biosynthesis, occurs in the lipids of a few plant and microbial sources. This study focused on the screening of microbial strains with suitable lipase activity for enrichment of GLA by selective hydrolysis of ...
Kilberg Michael S - - 2009
Mammals respond to dietary nutrient fluctuations; for example, deficiency of dietary protein or an imbalance of essential amino acids activates an amino acid response (AAR) signal transduction pathway, consisting of detection of uncharged tRNA by the GCN2 kinase, eIF2alpha phosphorylation and ATF4 expression. In concert with heterodimerization partners, ATF4 activates ...
Miyamoto Tetsuya - - 2010
It has long been believed that amino acids comprising proteins of all living organisms are only of the L-configuration, except for Gly. However, peptidyl D-amino acids were observed in hydrolysates of soluble high molecular weight fractions extracted from cells or tissues of various organisms. This strongly suggests that significant amounts ...
Millington Keith R - - 2010
Chemiluminescence (CL) with maximum emission in the range 550-650 nm is observed when proteins and certain amino acids are heated in air, and CL intensity is significantly reduced in nitrogen. Of the 20 common amino acids, lysine (Lys) has the highest thermal CL intensity by a factor of approximately 30 ...
Jamal Shazia - - 2009
We report the effects of stabilizing osmolytes (low molecular mass organic compounds that raise the midpoint of thermal denaturation) on the stability and function of RNase-A under physiological conditions (pH 6.0 and 25 degrees C). Measurements of Gibbs free energy change at 25 degrees C (DeltaG(D) degrees ) and kinetic ...
Voloshchuk Natalya - - 2010
The challenge of synthetic biology lies in the construction of artificial cellular systems. This requires the development of modular "parts" that can be integrated into living systems to elicit an artificial, yet programmed, response or function. The development of methods to engineer proteins bearing unnatural amino acids (UAAs) provides essential ...
Chinta Jugun Prakash - - 2009
A lower rim naphthylidene conjugate of calix[4]arene [L] has been synthesized and characterized, and the structure has been established on the basis of single crystal XRD. The L has been found to be selective toward Zn(2+), which induces appropriate changes in the arms of L so that the N(2)O(2) coordination ...
Farnfield Michelle M - - 2009
Background and objectives The digestion rate of proteins and subsequent absorption of amino acids can independently modulate protein metabolism. The objective of the present study was to examine the blood amino acid response to whey protein isolate (WPI), β-lactoglobulin-enriched WPI, hydrolysed WPI and a flavour-identical control. Methods Eight healthy adults ...
Churchill Cassandra D M - - 2009
The pi-pi stacking (face-to-face) interactions between the five natural DNA or RNA nucleobases and the four aromatic amino acids were compared using three different types of dimers: (1) a truncated nucleoside (nucleobase) stacked with a truncated amino acid; (2) a truncated nucleoside (nucleobase) stacked with an extended amino acid; and ...
Catalfo Alfio - - 2009
The aromatic amino acid tryptophan is the most susceptible protein residue involved in various photosensitized adverse effects. Of these processes, the tryptophan photosensitization induced by methylene blue has been well studied. A predominant type II photosensitizing activity, mediated by singlet oxygen, has been already demonstrated on various models. The purpose ...
Jones David H - - 2010
A large number of amino acids other than the canonical amino acids can now be easily incorporated in vivo into proteins at genetically encoded positions. The technology requires an orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair specific for the unnatural amino acid that is added to the media while a TAG amber or ...
Salwiczek Mario - - 2009
Systematic model investigations of the molecular interactions of fluorinated amino acids within native protein environments substantially improve our understanding of the unique properties of these building blocks. A rationally designed heterodimeric coiled coil peptide (VPE/VPK) and nine variants containing amino acids with variable fluorine content in either position a16 or ...
Panza Víctor - - 2009
Comparative studies on fatty acid and protein composition of the endosperm and embryo of palmito (Euterpe edulis Martius) were conducted using gas-liquid chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. On a dry weight basis, the embryo contained extremely lower amounts of lipids and proteins than did the endosperm, which was ...
Dovidchenko N V - - 2009
We have investigated the possibility to predict protection of amino acid residues from hydrogen-deuterium exchange. A database containing experimental hydrogen-deuterium exchange data for 14 proteins for which these data are known has been compiled. Different structural parameters related to flexibility of amino acid residues and their amide groups have been ...
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