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Trueblood C E - - 1997
Protein prenyltransferases catalyze the covalent attachment of isoprenoid lipids (farnesyl or geranylgeranyl) to a cysteine near the C terminus of their substrates. This study explored the specificity determinants for interactions between the farnesyltransferase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its protein substrates. A series of substitutions at amino acid 149 of the ...
Manary M J - - 1997
This study tested the hypothesis that during treatment of kwashiorkor (including marasmic kwashiorkor) with infection there is a lower rate of amino acid oxidation when the dietary intake of amino acids resembles the amino acid composition of acute phase proteins (APPs). Twenty-two children in Blantyre, Malawi, with kwashiorkor and acute ...
MacLeod M G - - 1997
1. An experiment was performed with growing broiler chickens (14 to 21 d old) to examine 3 diet characteristics which have been implicated in regulatory elevation of metabolic rate: an imbalanced amino acid mixture, high dietary energy concentration and low protein concentration. 2. Differences in energy expenditure could be explained ...
Adán C - - 1997
The arterio-venous differences and balance of amino acids across the hind leg of rats were measured during an intense bout of exercise in a treadmill, as well as in the subsequent recovery period. The size and composition of muscle amino acid pool were also determined using another series of animals. ...
Runnerstam M - - 1997
The extracellular fluid of two cortical regions was investigated in eight patients who underwent surgery for subarachnoid hemorrhage within 7-96 h after the rupture of an arterial aneurysm. Microdialysis samples, collected from the cortex of the ipsilateral gyrus rectus and temporal lobe for 52-127 h, were analyzed with respect to ...
Casseron F - - 1997
The aim of this work was to determine by ion-exchange liquid chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry the specific 15N enrichment of amino acids in casein and plasma proteins in cows receiving three successive daily oral doses (300, 150 and 150 g) of (15NH4)2SO4 (10 atom per cent isotopic enrichment) ...
Herrero M C MC Department de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, - - 1997
To determine how the ability of skeletal muscle to manage amino acids is conditioned by obesity. The test was performed in two different models of obese rats: diet-obese rats and genetically obese rats. Lean and genetically obese (fa/fa) male Zucker rats were used. For up to 60 d of life ...
Dufton M J - - 1997
The synonym quotas within the genetic code for the 20 common amino acids are examined in relation to the ways in which these amino acids can be marshalled into different sets on the basis of shared physico-chemical properties. This reveals which shared properties are encouraged or discouraged during the course ...
Cilliers S C - - 1997
1. A study was conducted to compare apparent and true digestibility of amino acids in a high protein experimental diet between young ostriches (7 months of age) and cockerels. 2. A mean value for true digestibility of amino acids (TAAD) of 0.837 +/- 0.0073 (range 0.780 to 0.862) was derived ...
Heal R D - - 1997
The induction of the stress protein Grp75 in response to amino acid deprivation of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells was characterised using a specific monoclonal antibody. A 2-fold increase in the Grp75 protein content occurred over a period of 5-10 h after incubation of the cells in amino acid-free medium. A ...
Gerrits W J - - 1997
In a companion paper, a mechanistic model is described, integrating protein and energy metabolism in preruminant calves of 80-240 kg live weight. The model simulates the partitioning of nutrients from ingestion through intermediary metabolism to growth, consisting of accretions of protein, fat, ash and water. The model also includes a ...
Gerrits W J - - 1997
This paper describes the development of a mechanistic model integrating protein and energy metabolism in preruminant calves of 80-240 kg live weight. The objectives of the model are to gain insight into the partitioning of nutrients in the body of growing calves and to provide a tool for the development ...
Hill J L - - 1997
This study examined the effects of incorporating an ovine oviducal oestrus-associated glycoprotein (oEGP) and amino acids, at the concentrations present in the ovine oviduct around the time of oestrus, on in vitro production and subsequent viability of bovine embryos. The first experiment compared the influence of ovine oviducal concentrations of ...
Kataoka H - - 1997
A selective and sensitive method for the determination of protein and non-protein amino acids by capillary gas chromatography (GC) has been developed. The amino acids were converted into their N(O,S)-isobutoxycarbonyl methyl ester derivatives and measured by GC with nitrogen-phosphorus selective detection using a DB-17ht capillary column. Using this method, the ...
King J. E. - - 1997
The mobilization and utilization of the major storage proteins in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seeds following imbibition were investigated. Most of the seed protein reserves were contained within the megagametophyte. Breakdown of these proteins occurred primarily following radicle emergence and correlated with a substantial increase in the free amino ...
Beckman D A - - 1997
The technique pioneered by D.A.T. New for the in vitro culture of early post-implantation rat embryos has been used to study nutritional mechanisms during early organogenesis. The results indicate that the principal route for amino acid supply to the 8.5- to 11.5-day embryo involves the endocytosis of proteins into cells ...
Liu Z - - 1997
Five experiments, utilizing 3741 embryos produced in vitro, were designed to test the effects of Eagle's nonessential amino acids, and combinations of Eagle's essential amino acids and the RNA polymerase inhibitor alpha-amanitin on the development of preimplantation bovine embryos in a modified protein-free KSOM medium. Embryos were cultured in 5% ...
Samuel D - - 1997
The effect of proline on the prevention of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-induced protein precipitation is studied. It is found that proline at high concentrations (> 4.0 M) completely prevents TCA-induced precipitation of hen egg white lysozyme. Other osmolytes such as ethylene glycol, glycerol and sucrose fail to prevent the TCA-induced precipitation ...
Jakubowski H - - 1997
Editing of the non-protein amino acid homocysteine, a frequent type of error-correcting process in amino acid selection for protein synthesis by an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, results in formation of a cyclic thioester, homocysteine thiolactone. Here it is shown that human cells in which homocysteine metabolism is deregulated by a mutation in ...
Lien K A - - 1997
The 15N-enrichments (atom percentage excess) were determined in the plasma free amino acids of blood samples taken at the time of feeding and in samples taken hourly and pooled over 12 h, as well as in ileal digesta, crude mucin, and bacteria collected at the distal ileum of pigs fed ...
Tomandl D - - 1997
The insertion of random sequences into protein-encoding genes in combination with biological selection techniques has become a valuable tool in the design of molecules that have useful and possibly novel properties. By employing highly effective screening protocols, a functional and unique structure that had not been anticipated can be distinguished ...
Wheatley D N - - 1996
In previous work, no chiral differences were found between D and L enantiomers of Leu in their ability to displace one another from the acid-extractable pool in mammalian cells. Recent evidence suggested otherwise. Our aim is to examine whether, in physiological range, D-amino acids have an equivalent ability to displace ...
Beckman D A - - 1996
It was previously shown that uptake and digestion of protein by the visceral yolk sac supplies almost all of the amino acid needed by the 9.5-11.5-day rat conceptus cultured in vitro. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that protein uptake and digestion may not be as important as an ...
Schindler J F - - 1996
Improved and efficient techniques have led to an explosive growth in the application of site-directed mutagenesis to the study of enzymes. However, the limited availability of only those 20 amino acids that are translated by the genetic code has prevented the systematic variation of an amino acid's properties in order ...
Lloyd J B - - 1996
Rat conceptuses at 9.5 days post-conception were cultured for 27 h in whole rat serum. [3H]Methionine, or rat serum proteins containing [3H]methionine, was introduced at 24 or 6 h before the termination of the culture. The total clearance of radioactivity into the embryo and the visceral yolk sac from the ...
Wolfe R R - - 1996
The optimal nutritional support of critically ill patients should be based on the metabolic response. Therefore, we performed a series of experiments in patients using stable isotopic tracers designed to elucidate the responses of glucose, fatty acids, and protein metabolism in severely burned patients. Glucose production was elevated above normal ...
Stephanie Ann Hoogendoorn
The purpose of this project is to enable high-quality visualization of the primary data from protein X-ray crystallography, electron-density contours, alongside molecular models. No current software package does this well. Such visualization is critical to assessing how well a model describes the data. We are designing and implementing a package ...
Millward D J - - 1996
Current post-prandial studies of amino acid metabolism and utilization are consistent with a feeding mechanism mediated primarily by insulin and amino acids, with the balance between protein conservation and net deposition dependent on the amino acid supply [1-13C]leucine post-prandial kinetic tracer studies of leucine oxidation, non-oxidative disappearance and endogenous appearance ...
Ge S J - - 1996
The enzymatic complete hydrolysis of casein was investigated by using immobilized endopeptidase and exopeptidase packed in the jacketed column reactors. The mass transfer efficiency of proteins was improved by using sliced shrimp chitin hull as enzyme support, which formed a network structure inside the column reactor that prevented the formation ...
Svanberg E - - 1996
Synthesis and degradation of globular and myofibrillar proteins across arm and leg muscles were examined during stepwise increased intravenous infusion of amino acids (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 g N.kg-1.day-1) to healthy volunteers. Protein dynamics were measured by a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine and the release of 3-methylhistidine from ...
Dragutan H - - 1996
Stable free mono- and diradicals containing reactive primary or secondary amino groups in the side-chain have been synthesized by transesterification of amino-substituted esters with paramagnetic alcohols or from spin-labeled acid derivatives and amines. In the second approach the new radical 18 (1-oxyl-3-(2-bromoethoxycarbonyl)-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrroline) is proposed as an efficient alkylating species. The ...
Saks M E - - 1996
A new tRNA, THG73, has been designed and evaluated as a vehicle for incorporating unnatural amino acids site-specifically into proteins expressed in vivo using the stop codon suppression technique. The construct is a modification of tRNAGln(CUA) from Tetrahymena thermophila, which naturally recognizes the stop codon UAG. Using electrophysiological studies of ...
Volpi E - - 1996
The contribution of dietary amino acids and endogenous hyperinsulinemia to prandial protein anabolism still has not been established. To this end, leucine estimates ([1-14C]leucine infusion, plasma alpha-ketoisocaproic acid [KIC] specific activity [SA] as precursor pool SA) of whole-body protein kinetics and fractional secretory rates (FSRs) of albumin, fibrinogen, antithrombin III, ...
Iyer M S - - 1996
A novel cyclic dipeptide -cyclo[(S)-His-(S)-NorArg] - has been prepared which catalyzes an enantioselective version of the Strecker amino acid synthesis. The catalyst, when present in 2 mol % quantity in methanol solution, catalyzes the addition of hydrogen cyanide toN-alkylimines to affordα-amino nitriles in high yield and high enantiomeric excess. Furthermore, ...
Hubert F - - 1996
Plasma from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis previously immunized by injecting them with bacteria contains several bactericidal proteins. One protein, MGD-1, was purified by reverse-phase HPLC of supernatant from acidified cell-free hemolymph. Its biological activity is directed against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria but it is not cytotoxic towards human erythrocytes ...
Mansour E H - - 1996
The effects of germination, extraction (double extraction with 70% ethanol and water at isoelectric point) and alpha-amylase treatments of chick pea seed flours on crude protein, total carbohydrate, protein efficiency ratio (PER), biological value (BV), true digestibility (TD), net protein utilization (NPU), essential amino acid composition, in-vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) ...
Citores L - - 1996
The new type 2 RIPs ebulin l, nigrin b and nigrin f present in Sambucus display toxicity to HELA cells several orders of magnitude lower than that displayed by ricin. Despite N-terminal amino acid homology between the three RIPs in both the A and the B chains, these compounds display ...
Tanhuanpää P K - - 1996
Bulk segregant analysis was used to search for RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers linked to gene(s) affecting oleic acid concentration in an F2 population from the Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera cross Jo4002 x a high oleic acid individual from line Jo4072. Eight primers (=8 markers) out of 104 discriminated ...
Robertson E S - - 1996
The ability of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent infection nuclear protein EBNA3C to activate transcription of two EBNA2-responsive genes and to inhibit EBNA2 activation of transcription in transient-transfection assays appears to be due to its ability to interact with RBPJkappa, a cell protein that links EBNA2 to its response elements. We ...
Giard J C - - 1996
Compared with growing bacteria, carbohydrate-starved cells of Enterococcus faecalis show development of a multiresistance state against heat, H2O2, acid, and ethanol, but not against UV irradiation. The kinetics of acquisition of resistance is different according to the stress. Three hours of starvation provide maximal resistance against ethanol, while the tolerance ...
Darragh A J - - 1996
Hydrolyzing a protein in acid for a single hydrolysis interval, normally 24 h, will lead to inaccurate estimates of the amino acid composition of that protein due to an effect of the time of hydrolysis on peptide bond cleavage and amino acid degradation. The simultaneous yield and decay of amino ...
Basahy A Y - - 1996
The proximate composition, minerals, amino acid profiles, grain protein contents of Pennisetum typhodies (Burm.f.) Stapf & Hubbard were analysed. The crude protein was 12.3%, fat 5.3% and ash 2.4%. The grains contained similar amounts of phosphorus, calcium and iron as compared to some Indian and African millets. Amino acid analysis ...
Stoll T S - - 1996
A chemically-defined protein-free medium (FMX-Turbodoma) has been improved for the production of monoclonal IgA antibodies by hybridoma cells, using a systematic method. Cell growth rate, IgA production, activity and molecular weight pattern have been used as optimization criteria. Of potentially important supplements, glucose, glutamine, Pluronic acid F-68 as well as ...
Burton K S - - 1996
Polyomavirus VP1 has been shown to be modified by phosphorylation, sulfation, acetylation and hydroxylation. The major capsid protein VP1 is now shown to be modified by methylation. Addition of cycloheximide to infected cultures followed by addition of [3H-methyl]-L-methionine and subsequent immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE and fluorography revealed methylation occurring on VP1. Amino ...
Melendez R F - - 1996
To determine whether the acyl chains modifying P0, the major protein of PNS myelin, turn over independently of the protein backbone, sciatic nerve slices from 10 to 65 day-old rats were incubated with a mixture of [3H]palmitic acid and [14C]amino acids, and proteins were analyzed by electrophoresis. Incorporation of [14C]amino ...
Laine R O - - 1996
Our understanding of the metabolite control in mammalian cells lags far behind that in prokaryotes. This is particularly true for amino-acid-dependent gene expression. Few proteins have been identified for which synthesis is selectively regulated by amino-acid availability, and the mechanisms for control of transcription and translation in response to changes ...
Wu T D - - 1996
This paper introduces a method for identifying empirically conserved amino acid substitution groups. In contrast with existing approaches that view amino acid substitution as a pairwise phenomenon, the method presented here identifies conserved groups of amino acids using a data structure called a conditional distribution matrix. The conditional distribution matrix ...
Jacob R - - 1996
Infusion of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) lowers plasma amino acid and insulin concentrations, which may limit the capacity of IGF-I to promote muscle protein synthesis in vivo. We measured heart and skeletal muscle incorporation of continuously infused L-[ring-2,6-3H]phenylalanine in awake postabsorptive rats receiving 4-h intravenous infusions of saline (n ...
Lamzin V S - - 1995
All natural proteins are composed of L-amino acids and are inherently chiral. The properties of both L- and chemically synthesized D-amino acids are identical except in optically asymmetric interactions. Structural studies of D-I racemic mixtures of crystallographic interest are discussed. The review also gives some recent examples of stereospecificity: how ...
Kirihata M - - 1995
The efficient synthesis ofδ-hydroxy-β,γ-dehydroα-amino acids (1) was achieved by the hybrid process, in which the Pd(II)-assisted rear-rangement ofβ-acetoxyallylglycine ester (6) afforded the corresponding (E)-δ-acetoxyvinylglycine derivatives (7) in a moderate yield. The chemo- and stereo-selective hydrolysis of7 was accomplished by the use of microbial lipase (Amano PS) to afford the allylic ...
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