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Lim Victoria S - - 2005
Hemodialysis (HD) is a protein catabolic procedure. Whole-body amino acid turnover studies identify dialysate amino acid loss and reduced protein synthesis as the catabolic events; proteolysis is not increased. Regional amino acid kinetics, however, document enhanced muscle protein breakdown as the cause of the catabolism; muscle protein synthesis also increased ...
Jordan I King - - 2005
Amino acid composition of proteins varies substantially between taxa and, thus, can evolve. For example, proteins from organisms with (G + C)-rich (or (A + T)-rich) genomes contain more (or fewer) amino acids encoded by (G + C)-rich codons. However, no universal trends in ongoing changes of amino acid frequencies ...
Ayodeji O. Fasuyi
Cassava leaf samples harvested from local and genetically improved cassava varieties were processed into cassava leaf meal (CLM) and cassava leaf protein concentrate (CLPC) using the low cost village-level fractionation scheme. Chemical and physicochemical analyses were carried out to determine the proximate and amino acids composition and to also ascertain ...
Ferrando Arny A - - 2005
This review discusses the concept that skeletal muscle intracellular amino acids (ICAAs), in particular the essential amino acids, are regulated throughout a wide range of physiologic circumstances. Whether in critical illness, severe injury, or healthy states, ICAAs are closely regulated by a coordinated response in 1 or more of the ...
Adam Petra - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Insect cells can serve as host systems for the recombinant expression of eukaryotic proteins. Using this platform, the controlled expression of 15N/13C labelled proteins requires the analysis of incorporation paths and rates of isotope-labelled precursors present in the medium into amino acids. For this purpose, Spodoptera frugiperda cells were ...
Tian Hong Er - - 2005
The contents of amino acids and proteins and the activity of Na+,K+-ATPase were determined in roots, stems, and leaves of Eu3+-treated Lathyrus sativus L. The results showed that the treatment of Eu3+ made the contents of amino acid and protein and the activity of Na+,K+-ATPase change. The first possible mechanism ...
Dasgupta Mou - - 2005
Adequate dietary intakes of all indispensable amino acids are vital to optimal health. Using three random 24-hour dietary recalls and the newly released Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), we examined the extent and correlates of inadequate dietary intakes of indispensable amino acids among 323 homebound older adults who received home-delivered meals. ...
Chaudhuri Barnali N - - 2005
In several natural settings, the standard genetic code is expanded to incorporate two additional amino acids with distinct functionality, selenocysteine and pyrrolysine. These rare amino acids can be overlooked inadvertently, however, as they arise by recoding at certain stop codons. We report a method for such recoding prediction from genomic ...
Adebiyi Abayomi Peter - - 2005
The acid hydrolysis of proteins was miniaturized and simplified by employing microcapillary tubes (100 microl in volume) with 6 M HCl containing 1% 2-mercaptoethanol and 3% phenol for an amino acid compositional analysis. The method not only eliminated the laborious evacuation step for the hydrolysis tube but also decreased the ...
Cuthbertson Daniel - - 2005
The nature of the deficit underlying age-related muscle wasting remains controversial. To test whether it could be due to a poor anabolic response to dietary amino acids, we measured the rates of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in 44 healthy young and old men, of similar body build, ...
Benedict Christian - - 2005
The enhanced cortisol release after protein-rich meals might represent a neuroendocrine response to food allergens. We tested whether the antigenicity of proteins contributes to this effect. Twelve healthy men nasogastrically received casein, its less allergenic hydrolysate, and placebo. Contrary to expectations, secretion of cortisol (area under the curve, 742.70 +/- ...
Cropp T Ashton - - 2004
More than 30 novel amino acids have been genetically encoded in response to unique triplet and quadruplet codons including fluorescent, photoreactive and redox active amino acids, glycosylated and heavy atom derived amino acids in addition to those with keto, azido and acetylenic chains. In this article, we describe recent advances ...
Sugimoto Megumi - - 2004
The hypersensitive response (HR) is one of the most critical defense systems in higher plants. In order to understand its molecular basis, we have screened tobacco genes that are transcriptionally activated during the early stage of the HR by the differential display method. Among six genes initially identified, one was ...
Jinn Tsung-Luo - - 2004
Accumulation of class I small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) is induced by the proline analog, azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (Aze) in soybean seedlings to a level similar to that induced by exposure to 40 degrees C. However, only the treatment with 10 mM Aze for 6 h and subsequently with 10 mM ...
van Gammeren A J - - 2004
Partly biosynthetic site-directed isotopically (13)C enriched photosynthetic light-harvesting 2(LH2) complexes have been prepared from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila strain 10050 by using chemically labeled [1,2,3,4-(13)C], [1,4-(13)C] and [2,3-(13)C] succinic acid as a precursor in the growth medium. Two-dimensional proton driven spin diffusion (PDSD) solid state NMR correlation spectroscopy has been used to ...
Hinault Charlotte - - 2004
Amino acids are nutrients responsible for mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulation in mammalian cells. The mTOR protein is mainly known for its role in regulating cell growth, notably via protein synthesis. In addition to amino acids, mTOR is regulated by insulin via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)-dependent pathway. mTOR ...
Coye Lisette H - - 2004
Streptococcus pyogenes, the aetiological agent of both respiratory and skin infections, produces numerous exotoxins to establish infection. This report identifies a new exotoxin produced by this organism, termed SpyA, for S. pyogenesADP-ribosylating toxin. SpyA, MW 24.9, has amino acid identity with the ADP-riboslytransferases (ADPRTs) Staphylococcus aureus EDIN and Clostridium botulinum ...
Ronchi Virginia Paola - - 2004
The contents of glutathione S-transferase (GST) subunits, carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and a 230 kDa protein are affected by protein deprivation in mouse liver. In order to know if particular amino acids control these contents, the effects of feeding for 5 days with diets containing different amino ...
Salerno C - - 2004
An homology model of human adenylosuccinate lyase structure shows that P100A substitution distorts the amino acid chain of domain I in the proximity of His-86, which behaves as general acid in the catalysis, and may expose Cys-98 and Cys-99 to oxidising agents. This model is in line with the observation ...
Van Melckebeke Hélène - - 2004
A detailed theoretical and experimental analysis of the artifacts induced by homonuclear band-selective decoupling during CT frequency labeling is presented. The effects are discussed in the context of an amino-acid-type editing filter implemented in (1)H-(13)C CT-HSQC experiments of methyl groups in proteins. It is shown that both Bloch-Siegert shifts and ...
Maheshwari R - - 2004
It is of great interest and importance to study how different amino acid residues contribute to and affect the properties of proteins coated as films on solid surface. This work shows that the solid/liquid interfacial energy of surface localized amino acid films and their Gibbs energies of transfer at the ...
Stevens Anthony - - 2004
The specificity determinants for susceptibility to resistance by the Fv1 n and b alleles map to amino acid 110 of the murine leukemia virus CA protein. To study the interaction between Fv1 and CA, we examined changes in CA resulting in the loss of susceptibility to Fv1 resistance in naturally ...
Lougheed Tyler - - 2004
Incorporation of photo-switchable amino acids into peptides and proteins offers prospects for the control of complex biochemical processes using light. Currently, only a few photo-switchable amino acids are known. We report the design and synthesis of a novel hemithioindigo-based amino acid and its incorporation into the model ion channel gramicidin. ...
Pack Seung Pil - - 2004
Structural distributions of each amino acid were compared between 20 pairs of thermophilic and mesophilic proteins to obtain thermostable factors. Five kinds of residual structure states such as fully-exposed, exposed, partially exposed (or partially buried), buried, well-buried states were considered for analyzing the structural patterns of amino acids. The statistical ...
Fatufe A A - - 2004
Male chickens of a broiler (B) and a layer (L) genotype were grown in floor pens from d 8 to 21 posthatch in groups of 10. Three pens per genotype were allocated to each of 10 experimental diets. The diets were offered ad libitum and they differed in lysine concentration ...
Jacob Claus - - 2004
Recent studies on the redox behaviour of cysteine residues in peptides and proteins have dramatically changed our perspective of the amino acid's role in biocatalysis, intracellular redox sensing and cell signalling. Cysteine sulfinic acid formation in proteins, for example, has long been viewed as an irreversible 'overoxidation' process that might ...
Gibney Michael J - - 2004
Although the amino acid composition of almost all food proteins is known, estimating the amino acid intake from the diet is extremely difficult because of the lack of available data. A conservative approach would be to determine the population distribution of protein intake, select the 97.5(th) or higher percentile of ...
Baracos Vickie E - - 2004
One important advantage of animal models is that they permit invasive approaches and can be especially valuable when evaluating tissue and specific features of metabolism in situ. The focus of this presentation is current models, which are providing insights into the pivotal importance of the gastrointestinal tract in amino acid ...
Soeters Peter B - - 2004
Amino acid utilization and, therefore, demand differ between the healthy state and various disease states. In the healthy state most circulating amino acids are derived from dietary proteins that are stored and broken down in the gut and released gradually into the portal circulation, and from continuous turnover of body ...
Orita Yoshimasa - - 2004
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that an acute load of beefsteak (200 g) significantly enhanced the glomerular filtration rate (GFR; inulin clearance and creatinine clearance) in healthy human subjects compared to that in the same subjects in the fasted state. However, no comparative study of the effects of the same ...
Tang Hua - - 2004
Different nonsynonymous changes may be under different selective pressure during evolution. Of the 190 possible interchanges among the 20 amino acids, only 75 can be attained by a single-base substitution. An evolutionary index (EI) can be empirically computed for each of the 75 elementary changes as the likelihood of substitutions, ...
Lichtenecker Roman - - 2004
A novel method is proposed for the analysis of protein NOEs in solution. In this approach, chemically synthesized precursor compounds for the amino acids valine, leucine, and isoleucine are used for amino acid specific labeling of these hydrophobic residues. The methodology is based on a novel synthetic route to 12C,1H,2H ...
Aquilani Roberto - - 2004
Amino acids are essential for body protein synthesis. Moreover, they can be used to produce energy within the cells. For protein turnover, normal plasma amino acid concentration enhances proteolytic suppression by insulin; furthermore, hyperaminoacidemia can stimulate protein synthesis both in the presence of baseline insulin and in hyperinsulinemic subjects with ...
Pasini Evasio - - 2004
Amino acids are the "alphabet" of protein structure, determining many of the properties of proteins. Amino acids are rapidly absorbed and readily available in the blood. In the cell, amino acids maintain protein stores and counteract hormone-mediated catabolic stimuli. Thus, amino acid supplementation may be effective in counteracting the metabolic ...
Dioguardi Francesco S - - 2004
Amino acids contained in proteins can be transformed either in glucose precursors or in acetate, the end product of free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation. The dynamics of glucose, FFA, and amino acid competition for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid [TCA] cycle) are very complex and not fully ...
Huang Shihshieh - - 2004
The predominant proteins in maize grain are a family of alcohol-soluble prolamin storage proteins called zeins. They account for >50% of total seed proteins but are deficient in several essential amino acids. As a result, the corn grain is considered to be nutritionally poor for monogastric animals with respect to ...
Fu Wen-Xian - - 2004
We have previously cloned the mouse platelet basic protein (mPBP), a homologue of human PBP, from mouse thymic stromal cells. Using EST alignment and RT-PCR, the rat homologue of human and mouse PBP was cloned from lung and named as rPBP. The complete open reading frame and part of the ...
Zhou Guoli - - 2004
We developed a method to follow the metabolic fate of [(14)C]-labeled Euglena gracilis protein amino acids in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes under three different adult nutritional regimes. Quantitative analysis of blood meal protein amino acid metabolism showed that most of the carbon of the amino acids was either oxidized to CO(2) ...
Iuga Adriana - - 2004
Solid-state 31P NMR spectroscopy was applied to measure the isotropic chemical shifts, chemical shift anisotropies and asymmetry parameters of three phosphorylated amino acids, O-phospho-L-serine, O-phospho-L-threonine and O-phospho-L-tyrosine. The cross-polarization buildup rates and longitudinal relaxation times of 31P and 1H were-determined and compared with the values measured for a triphosphate (GppCH2p) ...
Consoli Fernando L - - 2004
Insect endoparasitoids modulate the host physiology through the injection of maternal-derived substances into the host, inducing physiological and hormonal changes in the host's internal environment to benefit parasitoid development. These changes are direct to control host development and regulate nutrient availability to the developing parasitoid, and they are synchronized with ...
Han Shoufa - - 2004
S-Ethyl 2-azidohexanethioate (N3-Hex-SEt), an unnatural amino acid analog of leucine, is coupled with L-cysteine ethyl ester (NH2-Cys-OEt) to obtain N3-Hex-Cys-OEt by native chemical ligation. Coupling of this dipeptide with N-t-butoxycarbonyl-2-diphenylphosphinoethanethioglycinate produces the tripeptide, t-Boc-Gly-Hex-Cys-OEt, in high yield. These reactions suggest an approach for the incorporation of unnatural amino acids into ...
Wang Yunjun - - 2004
Empirical shielding surfaces are most commonly used to predict chemical shifts in proteins from known backbone torsion angles, phi and psi. However, the prediction of (15)N chemical shifts using this technique is significantly poorer, compared to that for the other nuclei such as (1)H(alpha), (13)C(alpha), and (13)C(beta). In this study, ...
Liu Zhenqi - - 2004
Amino acids are unique anabolic agents in that they nutritively signal to mRNA translation initiation and serve as substrates for protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Glucocorticoid excess antagonizes the anabolic action of amino acids on protein synthesis in laboratory animals. To examine whether excessive glucocorticoids modulate mixed amino acid-signaled translation ...
Dröge Wulf - - 2004
Melendez et al. [Science 301 (2003) 1387] have recently shown that the increased longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans mutants with defective Daf-2 protein, i.e. an insulin receptor analog, involves increased autophagy. Autophagy increases the free amino acid pool and is in certain cells essential for survival at times of limited amino ...
Estrada Ernesto - - 2004
The folding degree index (Estrada, Bioinformatics 2002;18:697-704) is extended to account for the contribution of amino acids to folding. First, the mathematical formalism for extending the folding degree index is presented. Then, the amino acid contributions to folding degree of several proteins are used to analyze its relation to secondary ...
Thiyagarajan Manimekalai M - - 2004
G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) specifically phosphorylate agonist-occupied G protein-coupled receptors at the inner surface of the plasma membrane (PM), leading to receptor desensitization. GRKs utilize a variety of mechanisms to bind tightly, and sometimes reversibly, to cellular membranes. Previous studies demonstrated the presence of a membrane binding domain in ...
Matsunami Hiroaki - - 2004
Sugars and amino acids are mainly associated with desirable taste sensation. A new study using knockout mouse models shows that the detection of various sugars, artificial sweeteners and L-amino acids is exclusively mediated by taste cells that express one or pair-wise combinations of three G protein coupled receptors, T1R1, T1R2 ...
Nakanishi Jun - - 2004
We demonstrate herein a new protein conformation indicator based on biarsenical fluorescein with an extended benzoic acid moiety. The present indicator is reactive to a genetically introduced tetracysteine motif (Cys-Cys-Xaa-Xaa-Cys-Cys, where Xaa is a noncysteine amino acid) of proteins. Compared to the original biarsenical fluorescein (FlAsH) and the biarsenical Nile ...
Meijer Alfred J - - 2004
It has become clear in recent years that amino acids are not only important as substrates for various metabolic pathways but that they can also activate a nutrient-sensitive, mTOR-mediated, signalling pathway in synergy with insulin. Leucine is the most effective amino acid in this regard. The signalling pathway is antagonised ...
Zacharias, Niki Marie
The study of the three-dimensional shape and structure-function relationships of ion channels is a very challenging field of research. Ion channels are integral-membrane proteins that when open allow ions to flux across the cell membrane. The structure and function of ion channels are dependent on the cell membrane that surrounds ...
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