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Bacher Jamie M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The widespread introduction of amino acid substitutions into organismal proteomes has occurred during natural evolution, but has been difficult to achieve by directed evolution. The adaptation of the translation apparatus represents one barrier, but the multiple mutations that may be required throughout a proteome in order to accommodate an ...
Mueller Geoffrey A - - 2003
A new approach for the isotopic labeling of proteins is proposed that aims to facilitate side chain resonance assignments. Residue-correlated (RC) labeling is achieved by the expression of a protein on a medium containing a mixture of labeled, e.g., [U-13C,15N]amino acids, and NMR silent, [U-2H]amino acids. De novo synthesis of ...
Yoshidome Kouichi - - 2003
E-64 [trans-epoxysuccinyl-1-leucyl-amido (4-guanido) butane] is teratogenic, inducing a spec-trum of malformations in vivo and producing similar effects in vitro. Numerous studies support the concept that E-64-induced malformations result from embryonic nutritionaldeficiency, without affecting the maternal nutritional status. This has provided a useful model with which to investigate the nutritional requirements ...
Du Qishi - - 2003
A correlation analysis among 20 amino acids is performed for four protein structural classes (alpha, beta, alpha/beta, and alpha+beta) in a total of 204 proteins. The correlation relationships among amino acids can be classified into the following four types: (1) strong positive correlation, (2) strong negative correlation, (3) weak correlation, ...
Kanazawa Takumi - - 2004
Autophagy, a major bulk proteolytic pathway, contributes to intracellular protein turnover, together with protein synthesis. Both are subject to dynamic control by amino acids and insulin. The mechanisms of signaling and cross-talk of their physiological anabolic effects remain elusive. Recent studies established that amino acids and insulin induce p70 S6 ...
Köhrer Caroline - - 2003
The site-specific insertion of an unnatural amino acid into proteins in vivo via nonsense suppression has resulted in major advances in recent years. The ability to incorporate two different unnatural amino acids in vivo would greatly increase the scope and impact of unnatural amino acid mutagenesis. Here, we show the ...
Li X - - 2003
Background - Peas (Pisum sativum) are an important source of dietary protein for humans and animals due to its high protein content and excellent amino acid profile. The pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum) causes substantial economic loss in pea production especially in Australia. The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) (-amylase inhibitor has ...
Bojarski A J - - 2003
Like all other complex biological systems, proteins exhibit properties not seen in free amino acids (i.e., emergent properties). The present investigation arose from the deduction that proteins should offer a good model to approach the reverse phenomenon, namely top-down constraints experienced by protein residues compared to free amino acids. The ...
Jacob Claus - - 2003
Sulfur and selenium occur in proteins as constituents of the amino acids cysteine, methionine, selenocysteine, and selenomethionine. Recent research underscores that these amino acids are truly exceptional. Their redox activity under physiological conditions allows an amazing variety of posttranslational protein modifications, metal free redox pathways, and unusual chalcogen redox states ...
Horiuchi Tsukasa - - 2003
Searching for life in extreme terrestrial environments can be a model of that for extraterrestrial life. Submarine hydrothermal system is one of promising sites for the frontier of life on the earth. Here seawater and vent chimnies were collected from deep-sea hydrothermal vents at Suiyo Seamount, Izu-bonin arc, Pacific Ocean ...
Sonawane Avinash - - 2003
The acidic amino acids (Asp, Glu) and their amides (Asn, Gln) are excellent growth substrates for many pseudomonads. This paper presents proteomics data indicating that growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 and Pseudomonas putida KT2440 on these amino acids as sole source of carbon and nitrogen leads to the induction ...
Cirino Patrick C - - 2003
In this study we have replaced all 13 methionine residues in the cytochrome P450 BM-3 heme domain (463 amino acids) with the isosteric methionine analog norleucine. This experiment has provided a means of testing the functional limits of globally incorporating into an enzyme an unnatural amino acid in place of ...
Percot Aline - - 2003
The aim of this paper was to contribute to the interpretation of the mechanism of shrimp shell deproteinization. We used amino acid analysis to quantify the amount of proteins remaining in chitin. NaOH 1 M was added to a demineralized shrimp shell powder with a solution-to-solid ratio of 15 mL/g ...
Sarin Jyoti - - 2003
The nucleotide-binding subunit of phosphate-specific transporter (PstB) from mesophilic bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a unique ATP-binding cassette (ABC) ATPase because of its unusual ability to hydrolyze ATP at high temperature. In an attempt to define the basis of thermostability, we took a theoretical approach and compared amino acid composition of ...
de Almeida Lúcia Maria Vieira - - 2003
In this study we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of methylmalonic (MMA) and propionic acids (PA), at concentrations usually found in methylmalonic acidemia and propionic acidemia respectively, on the phosphorylation of intermediate filament proteins in cerebral cortex of rats during development. Rats of 9, 12, and 17 ...
Rioux Vincent - - 2003
This study was designed to examine the metabolic fate of exogenous lauric acid in cultured rat hepatocytes, in terms of both lipid metabolism and acylation of proteins. Radiolabeled [14C]-lauric acid at 0.1 mM in the culture medium was rapidly taken up by the cells (94.8 +/- 2.2% of the initial ...
Park Keun-Joon - - 2003
The subcellular location of a protein is closely correlated to its function. Thus, computational prediction of subcellular locations from the amino acid sequence information would help annotation and functional prediction of protein coding genes in complete genomes. We have developed a method based on support vector machines (SVMs). We considered ...
Chin Jason W - - 2003
We describe a general and rapid route for the addition of unnatural amino acids to the genetic code of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Five amino acids have been incorporated into proteins efficiently and with high fidelity in response to the nonsense codon TAG. The side chains of these amino acids contain a ...
Bohé Julien - - 2003
To test the hypothesis that muscle protein synthesis (MPS) is regulated by the concentration of extracellular amino acids, we investigated the dose-response relationship between the rate of human MPS and the concentrations of blood and intramuscular amino acids. We increased blood mixed amino acid concentrations by up to 240 % ...
Strauss André - - 2003
Culture conditions for successful amino-acid-type selective isotope labeling of proteins expressed in Baculovirus-infected insect cells are described. The method was applied to the selective labeling of the catalytic domain of c-Abl kinase with (15)N-phenylalanine, (15)N-glycine, (15)N-tyrosine or (15)N-valine. For the essential amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and valine high (15)N-label incorporation ...
Ngudi D Diasolua - - 2003
Cassava leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz) constitute the main daily source of protein as supplement to the major staple food, the processed cassava roots in remote rural areas of Africa. Konzo, an upper motoneurone disease with permanent spastic paralysis of both legs, has been reported among populations consuming this unbalanced diet. ...
Volpi Elena - - 2003
Nutritional supplementation may be used to treat muscle loss with aging (sarcopenia). However, if physical activity does not increase, the elderly tend to compensate for the increased energy delivered by the supplements with reduced food intake, which results in a calorie substitution rather than supplementation. Thus, an effective supplement should ...
Salchert Katrin - - 2003
Biomolecular surface engineering of materials often requires precise, versatile and efficient quantification of immobilized proteins at solid surfaces. Acidic hydrolysis of surface-bound proteins and subsequent HPLC analysis of fluorescence-derivatized amino acids were adapted and critically evaluated for that purpose. Contaminations and concentration-dependent amino acid retrieval during HPLC were found to ...
Ng Pauline C - - 2003
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) studies and random mutagenesis projects identify amino acid substitutions in protein-coding regions. Each substitution has the potential to affect protein function. SIFT (Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant) is a program that predicts whether an amino acid substitution affects protein function so that users can prioritize substitutions for ...
Rosselló-Mora Ramon - - 2003
The combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization and microautoradiography (FISH-MAR approach) was applied to brine samples of a solar saltern crystallizer pond from Mallorca (Spain) where the simultaneous occurrence of Salinibacter spp. and the conspicuous square Archaea had been detected. Radioactively labeled bicarbonate, acetate, glycerol, and an amino acid mixture ...
Biswas Kallol M - - 2003
The concept of hydrophobicity has been addressed by researchers in all aspects of science, particularly in the fields of biology and chemistry. Over the past several decades, the study of the hydrophobicity of biomolecules, particularly amino acids has resulted in the development of a variety of hydrophobicity scales. In this ...
Meijer Alfred J - - 2003
Amino acids are not only important precursors for the synthesis of proteins and other N-containing compounds, but also participate in the regulation of major metabolic pathways. Glutamate and aspartate, for example, are components of the malate/aspartate shuttle and their concentrations control the rate of mitochondrial oxidation of glycolytic NADH. Glutamate ...
Kadowaki Motoni - - 2003
Proteolysis, as well as protein synthesis, is a major process that contributes to the body protein turnover. Despite the huge variety of proteases in the body, there are very few proteolytic systems contributing to the complete hydrolysis of proteins to amino acids. The autophagic-lysosomal pathway is responsible for bulk proteolysis, ...
Aoki Takashi - - 2003
The migrating position of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused polypeptide varied on an SDS/urea gel by a single amino acid change in the fused polypeptide segment. An easy detection method for a single amino acid change based on this observation was called "GFP-display." Using various target polypeptides, staphylococcal protein A (SpA), ...
Govindarajan Sridhar - - 2003
During protein evolution, amino acids change due to a combination of functional constraints and genetic drift. Proteins frequently contain pairs of amino acids that appear to change together (covariation). Analysis of covariation from naturally occurring sets of orthologs cannot distinguish between residue pairs retained by functional requirements of the protein ...
Bell E Arthur - - 2003
Those nonprotein amino acids found in food and fodder plants and known to be toxic to man and domestic animals are described. These include toxins from many legume genera including Lathyrus, from other higher plant families, from seaweeds, and from fungi. Some inhibit protein synthesis, while others are incorporated into ...
Nelsen Christopher J - - 2003
The mechanisms by which amino acids regulate the cell cycle are not well characterized. In this study, we examined the control of hepatocyte proliferation by amino acids and protein intake. In short-term culture, hepatocytes demonstrated normal entry into S phase and cell cycle protein expression in the absence of essential ...
Zhou Helen - - 2003
The M2-1 protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a transcription processivity factor that is essential for virus replication. The function of RSV M2-1 protein can be examined by using an RSVlacZ minigenome assay in vitro since the expression of the lacZ gene is dependent on M2-1. The M2-1 protein ...
Smith David K - - 2003
Protein molecules exhibit varying degrees of flexibility throughout their three-dimensional structures, with some segments showing little mobility while others may be so disordered as to be unresolvable by techniques such as X-ray crystallography. Atomic displacement parameters, or B-factors, from X-ray crystallographic studies give an experimentally determined indication of the degree ...
Torrallardona David - - 2003
The synthesis of essential amino acids by the gut microflora of pigs, and their absorption, were assessed from the incorporation of (15)N from dietary (15)NH(4)Cl and of (14)C from dietary (14)C-polyglucose into amino acids in the body tissues of four pigs. Both (15)N and (14)C were incorporated into essential amino ...
Brüggert Michael - - 2003
Whereas bacterial expression systems are widely used for production of uniformly or selectively (15)N-labeled proteins the usage of the baculovirus expression system for labeling is limited to very few examples in the literature. Here we present the complete formulations of the two insect media, IML406 and 455, for the high-yield ...
Meek Rick L - - 2003
High-protein diets exacerbate glomerular hyperfiltration and the progression of diabetic nephropathy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether amino acids also produce nonhemodynamic injury in the glomerulus. When rat mesangial cells were cultured with an amino acid mixture designed to replicate the composition in plasma after protein feeding, ...
Maier Thomas H P - - 2003
There is an increasing demand for peptide-mimicking molecules to modulate the interactions between proteins of pharmaceutical and agrochemical interest and their target polypeptides. Unnatural L-alpha-amino acids differing from the 20 naturally proteinogenic amino acids only in their side chain are ideal for this purpose, but their chemical synthesis is complex. ...
Kobayashi Hisamine - - 2003
We have examined the effect of a hemodialysis-induced 40% reduction in plasma amino acid concentrations on rates of muscle protein synthesis and breakdown in normal swine. Muscle protein kinetics were measured by tracer methodology using [(2)H(5)]phenylalanine and [1-(13)C]leucine and analysis of femoral arterial and venous samples and tissue biopsies. Net ...
Miller Sharon L - - 2003
PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the independent and combined effects of a dose of amino acids (approximately 6 g) and/or carbohydrate (approximately 35 g) consumed at 1 and 2 h after resistance exercise on muscle protein metabolism. METHODS: Following initiation of a primed constant infusion of H -phenylalanine ...
Pérez-Llamas F - - 2003
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the dialysed quantities of amino acids and minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and zinc) in two types of infant formulas, one with a basis of native cow milk proteins and the other highly hydrolysed, to evaluate the possible application of Miller's in ...
Wu Guang - - 2003
In this data-based theoretical analysis, we use the random approach to analyze the amino acid pairs in 5(IV) chain precursor (CA54) in order to determine which amino acid pairs are more sensitive to 151 variants from missense mutant human CA54 protein. The rationale of this study is based on our ...
Mehl Ryan A - - 2003
We have generated a completely autonomous bacterium with a 21 amino acid genetic code. This bacterium can biosynthesize a nonstandard amino acid from basic carbon sources and incorporate this amino acid into proteins in response to the amber nonsense codon. The biosynthetic pathway for the amino acid p-aminophenylalanine (pAF) as ...
Brandt, Gabriel Shaw
Synthetic amino acids may be introduced into functioning proteins by means of nonsense suppression, using tRNA aminoacylated with unnatural amino acids. This technique can be extended to living cells through micro-injection of mRNA and tRNA into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Introduction of synthetic amino acids into proteins has been used, broadly, ...
Labudde D - - 2003
The algorithm PLATON is able to assign sets of chemical shifts derived from a single residue to amino acid types with its secondary structure (amino acid species). A subsequent ranking procedure using optionally two different penalty functions yields predictions for possible amino acid species for the given set of chemical ...
Komarnisky Lioudmila A - - 2003
Although there is no known dietary requirement for inorganic sulfur, it is an essential element for all animal species in as much as they all require the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine. There are three predominate forms of organic sulfur in animals and humans: 1). the thiomethyl of methionine residues in ...
Wu Guang - - 2002
In this data-based theoretical analysis, we use a random approach to estimate amino acid pairs in human phenylalanine 4-hydroxylase (PAH) protein in order to determine which amino acid pairs are more sensitive to 187 variants in human PAH protein. The rationale of this study is based on our hypothesis and ...
Wu Guang - - 2002
It is no long a question whether the process of evolution is affected by chance, but is to what extent. The random analysis can throw light on the underlying reasoning for the primary structure of proteins. The study on the Bcl-2 family shows that the rank per amino acid increases ...
Stübner Markus - - 2002
We demonstrate hole burning on a protein by using an intrinsic aromatic amino acid as a probe. The protein is bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), the labeled amino acid is tyrosine. Only one of the four tyrosines could be burned. As an application we present pressure tuning experiments from which ...
Sarma B K - - 2002
Variability among 26 isolates of Sclerotium rolfsii collected from various hosts/soil samples and localities in India is reported. The isolates varied in colony morphology, mycelial growth rate, sclerotium formation, teleomorph production and sclerotial size and color. Out of 26 isolates, only 4 produced the teleomorph stage on Cyperus rotundus rhizome ...
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