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Beauregard Marc - - 2006
The importance and urgency of providing humans and animals with quality proteins are reflected in the growing scientific and industrial interest in augmenting the nutritive value of the world's protein sources. Such nutritive value is determined by the protein content in 'essential amino acids', those that cannot be synthesized de ...
Jackson Jennifer C - - 2006
The ability to site-specifically incorporate a diverse set of unnatural amino acids (>30) into proteins and quickly add new structures of interest has recently changed our approach to protein use and study. One important question yet unaddressed with unnatural amino acids (UAAs) is whether they can improve the activity of ...
Hurst Laurence D LD Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK. - - 2006
Understanding how proteins evolve is important for determining the molecular basis of adaptation, for inferring phylogenies and for engineering novel proteins. It has been suggested that some amino acids were incorporated into the genetic code more recently than others and, after comparing pairs of closely related genomes, Jordan et al. ...
Tan Yen Hock - - 2006
Aligning distantly related protein sequences is a long-standing problem in bioinformatics, and a key for successful protein structure prediction. Its importance is increasing recently in the context of structural genomics projects because more and more experimentally solved structures are available as templates for protein structure modeling. Toward this end, recent ...
Lu Yi - - 2006
Although most proteins of most living organisms are constructed from the same set of 20 amino acids, all indications are that this standard alphabet represents a mere subset of what was available to life during early evolution. However, we currently lack an appropriate quantitative framework with which to test the ...
Balaji Boovaraghan - - 2006
Radioactive amino acids, when added to isolated pea chloroplasts or chloroplast extracts engaged in protein synthesis, are incorporated into Rubisco large subunits that co-migrate with native Rubisco during nondenaturing electrophoresis. We have added the transition state analog 2'-carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate (CABP) to chloroplast extracts after in organello or in vitro incorporation ...
Kovalenko Igor V - - 2006
Calibration equations for the estimation of amino acid composition in whole soybeans were developed using partial least squares (PLS), artificial neural networks (ANN), and support vector machines (SVM) regression methods for five models of near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. The effects of amino acid/protein correlation, calibration method, and type of spectrometer on ...
Zhao Hua - - 2006
This review systematically surveys the viscosity B-coefficients and standard partial molar volumes of amino acids at various temperatures as these data are quite important for interpreting the hydration and other properties of peptides and proteins. The effect of organic solutes and various ions on the viscometric and volumetric properties of ...
Satyaparameshwar K - - 2006
Effect of sub-lethal concentration of chromium was studied on the protein metabolism in adductor muscle, gill and mantle tissues of fresh water mussel, Lamellidens marginalis. Total proteins and RNA showed a decrease while free amino acids and protease activity showed an increase. Alanine and Aspartate aminotransferase activities showed an increase, ...
Bosch Lourdes - - 2006
The protein quality of three milk-cereal-based infant foods (paps) was evaluated by determining their amino acid contents and calculating the amino acid score. Proteins were subjected to acid hydrolysis, prior to which cysteine and methionine were oxidized with performic acid. Amino acids were determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ...
Mukherjee Arnab - - 2006
Hydropathy scale is widely used to obtain a measure of the effective interaction between any two amino acid residues in proteins and is based on the assumption that attraction between two hydrophobic groups and repulsion between hydrophilic groups (in water) can be translated straightforwardly to protein environment. Here we employ ...
LeParc Rozenn - - 2006
Protein interactions with surfaces are key to understanding the behavior of implantable medical devices. The optical technique of reflection anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) has considerable potential for the study of interactions between important biological molecules and surfaces. This study used RAS to investigate the adsorption of S amino acids onto Au(110) ...
Rubenstein Edward - - 2006
Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (L-Aze) is a toxic and teratogenic non-protein amino acid. In many species, including man, L-Aze is misincorporated into protein in place of proline, altering collagen, keratin, hemoglobin, and protein folding. In animal models of teratogenesis, it causes a wide range of malformations. The role of L-Aze in human ...
Alonso Cecilia - - 2006
Coastal pelagic environments are believed to feature concentration gradients of dissolved organic carbon at a microscale, and they are characterized by pronounced seasonal differences in substrate availability for the heterotrophic picoplankton. Microbial taxa that coexist in such habitats might thus differ in their ability to incorporate substrates at various concentrations. ...
Kirmizi Serap - - 2006
The protein mobilization from attached and detached seeds of Vicia faba L. cv. Eresen 87 (Fabaceae) was investigated. While the total soluble protein content decreased, the free amino acid content increased during the 7 days germination period. Among the three proteolytic enzymes, only endopeptidase activity was found to be affected ...
Kalinova Jana - - 2006
Proso millet belongs to the oldest cereals that human is using. Eight varieties of proso millet were cultivated in Ceske Budejovice from 1998 to 2000 and Cerveny Dvur from 1999 to 2000. The crude protein content was determined according to Kjehladl method and amino acid content was determined chromatographically after ...
Banack Sandra Anne - - 2006
Fanihi -- flying foxes (Pteropus mariannus mariannus, Pteropodidae) -- are a highly salient component of the traditional Chamorro diet. A neurotoxic, non-protein amino acid, beta-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) accumulates in flying foxes, which forage on the seeds of Cycas micronesica (Cycadaceae) in Guam's forests. BMAA occurs throughout flying fox tissues both as ...
Kuroda Akio - - 2006
Cells must balance energy-efficient growth with the ability to adapt rapidly to sudden changes in their environment. For example, in an environment rich in amino acids, cells do not expend energy for making amino acid biosynthetic enzymes. However, if the environment becomes depleted of amino acids (nutritional downshift), cells will ...
Sindayikengera Séverin - - 2006
Whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and sodium caseinate were hydrolyzed by Protamex to 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% degree of hydrolysis (DH). WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were then analyzed, compared and evaluated for their nutritional qualities. Their chemical composition, protein solubility, amino acid composition, essential amino acid ...
Gilbert Leona - - 2006
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) monitors random movements of fluorescent molecules in solution, giving information about the number and the size of for example nano-particles. The canine parvovirus VP2 structural protein as well as N-terminal deletion mutants of VP2 (-14, -23, and -40 amino acids) were fused to the C-terminus of ...
Tokuda Yasunori - - 2006
Recently, we have succeeded in incorporating various nonnatural amino acids into proteins by using four-base codon-anticodon pairs in Spodoptera frugiperda 21 (Sf21) insect cell-free protein synthesizing system. Here, the reaction was conducted under various conditions in order to optimize the incorporation efficiency. The optimal concentration of aminoacyl-tRNA, reaction temperature, and ...
Heuser Philipp - - 2006
BACKGROUND: One of the most challenging aspects of protein-protein docking is the inclusion of flexibility into the docking procedure. We developed a postfilter where the grid-representation of proteins for docking is extended by an optimised weighting factor for each amino acid. RESULTS: For up to 86% of the evaluated complexes ...
Baracos Vickie E - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on research from the author's laboratory and that of N.L. Trottier concerning protein and amino acid metabolism during intense lactation, a physiological state characterized by high rates of the net transfer of amino acids from physiological reserves in skeletal muscle to the mammary gland. ...
van Goudoever Johannes B - - 2006
The portal-drained viscera (stomach, intestine, pancreas and spleen) have a much higher rate of both energy expenditure and protein synthesis than can be estimated on the basis of their weight. A high utilization rate of dietary nutrients by the portal-drained viscera might result in a low systemic availability which determines ...
Ong Shao-En - - 2006
Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is a simple, robust, yet powerful approach in mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative proteomics. SILAC labels cellular proteomes through normal metabolic processes, incorporating non-radioactive, stable isotope-containing amino acids in newly synthesized proteins. Growth medium is prepared where natural ("light") amino acids ...
Jiang Rui - - 2006
Understanding how amino acid substitutions affect protein functions is critical for the study of proteins and their implications in diseases. Although methods have been developed for predicting potential effects of amino acid substitutions using sequence, three-dimensional structural, and evolutionary properties of proteins, the applications are limited by the complication of ...
Vabulas Ramunas M - - 2005
The mechanisms that protect mammalian cells against amino acid deprivation are only partially understood. We found that during an acute decrease in external amino acid supply, before up-regulation of the autophagosomal-lysosomal pathway, efficient translation was ensured by proteasomal protein degradation. Amino acids for the synthesis of new proteins were supplied ...
Poole Leslie B - - 2005
Cysteine sulfenic acids in proteins can be identified by their ability to form adducts with dimedone, but this reagent imparts no spectral or affinity tag for subsequent analyses of such tagged proteins. Given its similar reactivity toward cysteine sulfenic acids, 1,3-cyclohexadione was synthetically modified to an alcohol derivative and linked ...
Chen Chin - - 2005
For animals, dietary protein is critical for the nutrition of the organism and, at the cellular level, protein nutrition translates into amino acid availability. Amino acid deprivation triggers the AAR (amino acid response) pathway, which causes enhanced transcription from specific target genes. The present results show that C/EBPbeta (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ...
Liu Fang - - 2005
The actions of pepsin and the admixture of pepsin and Monascus pilosus carboxypeptidase 1 (MpiCP-1) on the hydrolysis of soybean protein were studied. The results showed that the pepsin hydrolyzate of soybean protein was much more bitter and contained relatively smaller amounts of total free amino acids than the hydrolyzate ...
Bi J L - - 2005
The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) is a xylem feeder that develops conspicuous, year-round populations in many citrus-producing regions of California. Field studies were conducted in a combined lemon and orange orchard to determine the influence of changing amino acid concentrations on relative densities of GWSS. Nineteen protein amino acids were detected ...
Jakeman David L - - 2005
Jadomycin B is a secondary metabolite produced, in response to stress, by Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 grown in nutrient-deprived media. We present definitive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry data identifying a series of novel jadomycins with non-proteogenic amino acids incorporated into the oxazolone ring of the secondary metabolite, and strengthening evidence for ...
Smock Robert G - - 2005
For many years, the holy grail of protein engineering has been the design of artificial amino acid sequences that fold into stable proteins with desired functions. In the current issue of Nature, two papers from the Ranganathan group (Russ et al., 2005; Socolich et al., 2005) report remarkable success in ...
Yampolsky Lev Y - - 2005
The impact of an amino acid replacement on the organism's fitness can vary from lethal to selectively neutral and even, in rare cases, beneficial. Substantial data are available on either pathogenic or acceptable replacements. However, the whole distribution of coefficients of selection against individual replacements is not known for any ...
Naya Hugo - - 2006
Molar content of guanine plus cytosine (G + C) and optimal growth temperature (OGT) are main factors characterizing the frequency distribution of amino acids in prokaryotes. Previous work, using multivariate exploratory methods, has emphasized ascertainment of biological factors underlying variability between genomes, but the strength of each identified factor on ...
Hu Decong - - 2005
Selenium (Se) plays an important role in cancer-prevention. Silkworm pupas have been used as a Chinese traditional medicine since ancient time. In order to find effective carcinostatic agents, Se-rich amino acids were extracted from Ziyang silkworm pupas. The Se content of Ziyang pupas was measured to be 215 times higher ...
Walter Kai U - - 2005
Nature employs a set of 20 amino acids to produce a repertoire of protein structures endowed with sophisticated functions. Here, we combined design and selection to create an enzyme composed entirely from a set of only 9 amino acids that can rescue auxotrophic cells lacking chorismate mutase. The simplified protein ...
Sau K - - 2005
To reveal how the AT-rich genome of bacteriophage PhiKZ has been shaped in order to carry out its growth in the GC-rich host Pseudomonas aeruginosa, synonymous codon and amino acid usage bias of PhiKZ was investigated and the data were compared with that of P. aeruginosa. It was found that ...
Fujii Noriko - - 2005
All living organisms on earth are composed of L-amino acids and D-sugars. Therefore the presence and function of D-amino acids in living organisms have not been studied. Recently, however, D-aspartic acid (D-Asp) which is a D-amino acid, has been detected in various proteins from human tissue samples such as eye ...
Sanchez Robersy - - 2005
A Boolean structure of the genetic code where Boolean deductions have biological and physicochemical meanings was discussed in a previous paper. Now, from these Boolean deductions we propose to define the value of amino acid information in order to consider the genetic information system as a communication system and to ...
Ahrens Susan - - 2005
Three marketing varieties of almonds; Carmel, Mission, and Nonpareil; were analyzed for proximate composition and protein nutritive quality. Moisture, lipids, protein, ash, sugars, and tannins ranges were 3.05-4.33%, 43.37-47.50%, 20.68-23.30%, 3.74-4.56%, 5.35-7.45%, and 0.12-0.18%, respectively. No detectable hemagglutinating and trypsin inhibitory activities were present in Carmel, Mission, and Nonpareil almonds. ...
Coward-Kelly Guillermo - - 2006
In addition to approximately 20% ash, shrimp processing by-products contain 64% protein and chitin, both of which can be used to generate several valuable products. Chitin and chitosan production is currently based on several crustacean wastes, and at the present time the protein fraction is not being used. This paper ...
Coward-Kelly Guillermo - - 2006
Air-dried cow hair was treated using Ca(OH)(2) (insoluble in water but dissolved during reaction) at 100 degrees C. To obtain a liquid product rich in amino acids, a well-insulated, stirred reactor was used to perform the hydrolysis process for different time periods. High lime loadings and a long treatment period ...
Kluth Holger - - 2005
Measurements of precaecal amino acid digestibility with digesta sampled from slaughtered animals may be affected by the chosen length of the sampled section. The length needs standardization, therefore, when digestibility is understood to be a measure of feedstuff potential. It was our objective to study the change in the net ...
Chelliah V - - 2005
One of Oleg Ptitsyn's most important papers (Shakhnovich, E., Abkevich, V., and Ptitsyn, O. (1996) Nature, 379, 96-98) describes how knowledge of structure and function can be used to understand better the nature of amino acid substitutions in families and superfamilies of proteins. The selective advantages of retaining structure and ...
Braun Phyllis C - - 2005
Farnesol, a quorum sensing (QS) signal, is produced by Candida albicans during high density growth and has been found to inhibit morphogenesis. This QS auto-inducing signal was discovered to increase amino acid incorporation by C. albicans when concentrations of farnesol increased to 10 microg/mL in yeast nitrogen broth. Farnesol concentrations ...
Lian P Z - - 2005
The squid (Loligo pealei) byproduct composed of heads, viscera, skin, fins, and small tubes was subjected to hydrolysis at 55 degrees C and natural pH (6.8) using endogenous proteases. Squid hydrolysate was characterized during the course of hydrolysis for changes in the degree of hydrolysis, viscosity, electrophoretic pattern of proteins ...
Rittler Peter - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Amino acids are an integral part of parenteral nutrition because of their anabolic action helping to conserve body protein after surgical stress. At the gastrointestinal tract, an adequate supply of amino acids may be particularly important because of the gut's high rate of protein turnover, cell division, and proliferation. ...
Banerjee T - - 2005
Correlations between genomic GC contents and amino acid frequencies were studied in the homologous sequences of 12 eubacterial genomes. Results show that amino acids encoded by GC-rich codons increases significantly with genomic GC contents, whereas opposite trend was observed in case of amino acids encoded by GC-poor codons. Further studies ...
Wu Guang - - 2005
In this study, we analyze the amino acid pairs in human protein C precursor to determine which amino acid pairs are more susceptible to 71 variants from missense mutant human protein C precursor. The results show 85.92% of 71 variants occur at randomly unpredictable amino acid pairs accounting for 61.96% ...
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