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Results 551 - 600 of 1621
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Fonseca Bruno D BD Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, - - 2007
Signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is positively regulated by amino acids and insulin. PRAS40 associates with mTORC1 (which contains raptor) but not mTORC2. PRAS40 interacts with raptor, and this requires an intact TOR-signaling (TOS) motif in PRAS40. Like TOS motif-containing proteins such as eIF4E-binding protein ...
Esteban Inmaculada - - 2007
Intracellular protein degradation is a regulated process with several proteolytic pathways. Although regulation of macroautophagy has been investigated in some detail in hepatocytes and in few other cells, less is known on this regulation in other cells and proteolytic pathways. We show that in human fibroblasts insulin and amino acids ...
Moreau John W - - 2007
High-spatial-resolution secondary ion microprobe spectrometry, synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and polyacrylamide gel analysis demonstrated the intimate association of proteins with spheroidal aggregates of biogenic zinc sulfide nanocrystals, an example of extracellular biomineralization. Experiments involving synthetic zinc sulfide nanoparticles and representative amino acids indicated a driving role for cysteine in ...
Adeyeye E I - - 2007
The amino acid compositions of Cola acuminata, Garcinia kola and Anacardium occidentale were evaluated by ion-exchange chromatography. Glutamic acid was the most concentrated acid in the samples. In all the amino acids determined, A. occidentale had the most concentrated acid on a pairwise basis. The total amino acids were 356.24 ...
Fu Ya-Min - - 2007
Relative specific amino acid dependency is one of the metabolic abnormalities of melanoma cells and metabolic studies of this dependency are in their infancy. Herein, we review the current studies in this area and present new information that adds to the understanding of how tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) dependency ...
Gromov Evgeniy V - - 2007
We report on supermolecular ab initio calculations which clarify the role of the local amino acid environment in determining the unique electronic structure properties of the photoactive yellow protein (PYP) chromophore. The extensive ab initio calculations, at the level of the CC2 and EOM-CCSD methods, allow us to explicitly address ...
Bujko Jacek - - 2007
A [13CO2] breath test was applied as a non-invasive method to study the catabolism of ingested amino acids shortly after a meal. This test requires the ingestion of a [1-13C]-labelled amino acid and the analysis of expired air for [13C] enrichment and CO2. The recovery of label as [13CO2] reflects ...
Swire Jonathan - - 2007
Most investigations of the forces shaping protein evolution have focused on protein function. However, cells are typically 50%-75% protein by dry weight, with protein expression levels distributed over five orders of magnitude. Cells may, therefore, be under considerable selection pressure to incorporate amino acids that are cheap to synthesize into ...
Roe Mikel R - - 2007
The modification of proteins by the cytotoxic, reactive aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) is known to alter protein function and impair cellular mechanisms. In order to identify susceptible amino acid sites of HNE modification within complex biological mixtures by microcapillary liquid chromatography and linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry, we have developed ...
Saelensminde Gisle - - 2007
We studied the amino acid frequency and substitution patterns between homologues of prokaryotic species adapted to temperatures in the range 0-102 degrees C, and found a significant temperature-dependent difference in frequency for many of the amino acids. This was particularly clear when we analysed the surface and core residues separately. ...
Evans Kate - - 2007
Wasting of lean tissue as a consequence of metabolic acidosis is a serious problem in patients with chronic renal failure. A possible contributor is inhibition by low pH of the System A (SNAT2) transporter, which carries the amino acid L-glutamine (L-Gln) into muscle cells. The aim of this study was ...
Li Peng - - 2007
A deficiency of dietary protein or amino acids has long been known to impair immune function and increase the susceptibility of animals and humans to infectious disease. However, only in the past 15 years have the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms begun to unfold. Protein malnutrition reduces concentrations of most ...
Takeuchi Koh - - 2007
Isotope labeling by residue type (LBRT) has long been an important tool for resonance assignments at the limit where other approaches, such as triple-resonance experiments or NOESY methods do not succeed in yielding complete assignments. While LBRT has become less important for small proteins it can be the method of ...
Morrison Christopher D CD Neurobehavior Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, - - 2007
Metabolic fuels act on hypothalamic neurons to regulate feeding behavior and energy homeostasis, but the signaling mechanisms mediating these effects are not fully clear. Rats placed on a low-protein diet (10% of calories) exhibited increased food intake (P < 0.05) and hypothalamic Agouti-related protein (Agrp) gene expression (P = 0.002). ...
Holm Eggert - - 2007
Autophagic (lysosomal) and proteasomic protein degradation are important regulatory mechanisms in the homeostasis of muscle mass, that may be profoundly disturbed in cancer and other wasting syndromes. Due to the inhibiting effect of amino acids and insulin, net proteolysis is restricted to the fasted state, and in autophagy certain amino ...
Sereewatthanawut Issara - - 2008
This study investigated the production of value-added protein and amino acids from deoiled rice bran by hydrolysis in subcritical water (SW) in the temperature range between 100 and 220 degrees C for 0-30 min. The results suggested that SW could effectively be used to hydrolyze deoiled rice bran to produce ...
Imai Yumi N - - 2007
The nonbonded contacts analysis of 14 polar and aromatic amino acid side chains was carried out for protein-ligand complexes derived from the crystal structures in the Protein Data Bank. Through the exhaustive analysis, several unusual contacts were observed as well as the well-known interactions. CH-S interactions were frequently found in ...
Kurochkina N - - 2007
Amino acids at helix-helix parallel interfaces influence arrangement of helices and interhelical angles. Parallel interfaces in 79 proteins were considered. Location of amino acids at the positions analogous to a and d in GCN4 leucine zipper nomenclature shows that certain combinations of amino acids characteristic for parallel packing occur more ...
Loots D T - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Previously, we detected 19 'new' amino-acid conjugates in the urine of patients with isovaleric acidemia. There is currently a poor understanding of the relationship between the clinical symptoms and the excreted metabolites occurring in these patients, owing to insufficient metabolite characterization and quantification. Consequently, controversial treatment protocols exist, particularly ...
Ji Hong-Fang - - 2007
Inferring the protein architecture chronology is one of central topics in origin of life study and has been given much attention. Based on an amino acid evolutionary model that late amino acids were bio-synthesized prior to early counterparts, we addressed the issue by examining the structures of amino acid synthases. ...
Raj Dominic S C - - 2007
Intradialytic protein catabolism is attributed to loss of amino acids in the dialysate. We investigated the effect of amino acid infusion during hemodialysis (HD) on muscle protein turnover and amino acid transport kinetics by using stable isotopes of phenylalanine, leucine, and lysine in eight patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). ...
Yin Jie - - 2007
Keratins are self-organized proteins that are abundantly available in wool, feather, human hair, etc., making them a potential cheap feedstock for the modification of amino acids. This paper explores the hydrolysis of keratin in water under specific pressure-temperature conditions where the hydrolysis through scission of the protein chain yields oligopeptides. ...
A.E. Hassan
The mature grains of two Egyptian and six imported<I> Triticum </I>species were analyzed for protein patterns, total protein and amino acids content to characterize the variations between them. The data showed twenty two bands of total proteins with an obvious variation in the number and position of bands from one ...
Bacher Jamie M - - 2007
The incorporation of amino acid analogs is becoming increasingly useful. Site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids allows the application of chemical biology to protein-specific investigations and applications. However, the global incorporation of unnatural amino acids allows for tests of proteomic and genetic code hypotheses. For example, the adaptation of organisms ...
Nassar Nagib M A - - 2007
Cassava roots have a low-protein content (0.7-2%). Amino acids such as lysine and methionine are also low, and some research reports have indicated the absence of methionine. The amino acid profiles of a common cassava cultivar and an interspecific hybrid, namely ICB 300, were determined using the computerized amino acid ...
Ong Shao-En - - 2007
Mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative proteomics is an increasingly popular approach to study changes in protein abundances in biological samples. Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), one of the more widely used methods for quantitative proteomics, is a metabolic-labeling strategy that encodes whole cellular proteomes. Cells are ...
Oyetayo F L - - 2007
Two varieties of Pleurotus sajor-caju, obtained from the wild and cultivated (on shredded corncobs) were separated into cap and stalk and analysed on dry weight basis. The proximate composition (g/100 g) showed that both varieties were highly concentrated in crude protein. The cultivated cap (Cc) was found to accumulate higher ...
Taguchi Y-h - - 2007
Predicting the three-dimensional structure of a protein from its amino acid sequence is a long-standing goal in computational/molecular biology. The discrimination of different structural classes and folding types are intermediate steps in protein structure prediction. In this work, we have proposed a method based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for ...
Kalhan Satish C - - 2007
To summarize recent findings of the effects of intravenous amino acids on protein kinetics in low-birth-weight infants and to describe the potential cellular mechanism for these observations. Amino acids administered intravenously for 3-5 h in infants have been shown to suppress whole-body proteolysis. Recent data in low-birth-weight infants show that ...
Stack Colin M - - 2007
Amino acids generated from the catabolism of hemoglobin by intra-erythrocytic malaria parasites are not only essential for protein synthesis but also function in maintaining an osmotically stable environment, and creating a gradient by which amino acids that are rare or not present in hemoglobin are drawn into the parasite from ...
Tang Chuan-He - - 2006
The amino acid composition and physicochemical and functional properties of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein isolate (HPI) were evaluated and compared with those of soy protein isolate (SPI). Edestin, a kind of hexameric legumin, was the major protein component. HPI had similar or higher levels of essential amino acids (except ...
Conigrave Arthur D - - 2006
The sensing of nutrients is essential to the control of growth and metabolism. Although the sensing mechanisms responsible for the detection and coordination of metabolic responses to some nutrients, most notably glucose, are well understood, the molecular basis of amino acid sensing by cells and tissues is only now emerging. ...
Kajihara Daisuke - - 2006
We designed and synthesized new, fluorescent, non-natural amino acids that emit fluorescence of wavelengths longer than 500 nm and are accepted by an Escherichia coli cell-free translation system. We synthesized p-aminophenylalanine derivatives linked with BODIPY fluorophores at the p-amino group and introduced them into streptavidin using the four-base codon CGGG ...
Gaye-Siessegger J - - 2007
The quality of dietary protein is an important factor influencing the growth performance of fish. To evaluate the quality of protein, the variables commonly studied are the composition of the essential amino acids, the digestibility and the protein use efficiency. The goal of the present experiment was to test the ...
Trevino Saul R - - 2007
Poor protein solubility is a common problem in high-resolution structural studies, formulation of protein pharmaceuticals, and biochemical characterization of proteins. One popular strategy to improve protein solubility is to use site-directed mutagenesis to make hydrophobic to hydrophilic mutations on the protein surface. However, a systematic investigation of the relative contributions ...
De la Haba Maria José - - 2006
Near-infrared calibrations were developed for the instantaneous prediction of amino acids composition of processed animal proteins (PAPs). Two sample presentation modes were compared (ground vs intact) for demonstrating the viability of the analysis in the intact form, avoiding the need for milling. Modified partial least-squares (MPLS) equations for the prediction ...
Beauregard Marc - - 2006
The importance and urgency of providing humans and animals with quality proteins are reflected in the growing scientific and industrial interest in augmenting the nutritive value of the world's protein sources. Such nutritive value is determined by the protein content in 'essential amino acids', those that cannot be synthesized de ...
Jackson Jennifer C - - 2006
The ability to site-specifically incorporate a diverse set of unnatural amino acids (>30) into proteins and quickly add new structures of interest has recently changed our approach to protein use and study. One important question yet unaddressed with unnatural amino acids (UAAs) is whether they can improve the activity of ...
Hurst Laurence D LD Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK. - - 2006
Understanding how proteins evolve is important for determining the molecular basis of adaptation, for inferring phylogenies and for engineering novel proteins. It has been suggested that some amino acids were incorporated into the genetic code more recently than others and, after comparing pairs of closely related genomes, Jordan et al. ...
Tan Yen Hock - - 2006
Aligning distantly related protein sequences is a long-standing problem in bioinformatics, and a key for successful protein structure prediction. Its importance is increasing recently in the context of structural genomics projects because more and more experimentally solved structures are available as templates for protein structure modeling. Toward this end, recent ...
Lu Yi - - 2006
Although most proteins of most living organisms are constructed from the same set of 20 amino acids, all indications are that this standard alphabet represents a mere subset of what was available to life during early evolution. However, we currently lack an appropriate quantitative framework with which to test the ...
Balaji Boovaraghan - - 2006
Radioactive amino acids, when added to isolated pea chloroplasts or chloroplast extracts engaged in protein synthesis, are incorporated into Rubisco large subunits that co-migrate with native Rubisco during nondenaturing electrophoresis. We have added the transition state analog 2'-carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate (CABP) to chloroplast extracts after in organello or in vitro incorporation ...
Kovalenko Igor V - - 2006
Calibration equations for the estimation of amino acid composition in whole soybeans were developed using partial least squares (PLS), artificial neural networks (ANN), and support vector machines (SVM) regression methods for five models of near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. The effects of amino acid/protein correlation, calibration method, and type of spectrometer on ...
Zhao Hua - - 2006
This review systematically surveys the viscosity B-coefficients and standard partial molar volumes of amino acids at various temperatures as these data are quite important for interpreting the hydration and other properties of peptides and proteins. The effect of organic solutes and various ions on the viscometric and volumetric properties of ...
Satyaparameshwar K - - 2006
Effect of sub-lethal concentration of chromium was studied on the protein metabolism in adductor muscle, gill and mantle tissues of fresh water mussel, Lamellidens marginalis. Total proteins and RNA showed a decrease while free amino acids and protease activity showed an increase. Alanine and Aspartate aminotransferase activities showed an increase, ...
Bosch Lourdes - - 2006
The protein quality of three milk-cereal-based infant foods (paps) was evaluated by determining their amino acid contents and calculating the amino acid score. Proteins were subjected to acid hydrolysis, prior to which cysteine and methionine were oxidized with performic acid. Amino acids were determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ...
Mukherjee Arnab - - 2006
Hydropathy scale is widely used to obtain a measure of the effective interaction between any two amino acid residues in proteins and is based on the assumption that attraction between two hydrophobic groups and repulsion between hydrophilic groups (in water) can be translated straightforwardly to protein environment. Here we employ ...
LeParc Rozenn - - 2006
Protein interactions with surfaces are key to understanding the behavior of implantable medical devices. The optical technique of reflection anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) has considerable potential for the study of interactions between important biological molecules and surfaces. This study used RAS to investigate the adsorption of S amino acids onto Au(110) ...
Rubenstein Edward - - 2006
Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (L-Aze) is a toxic and teratogenic non-protein amino acid. In many species, including man, L-Aze is misincorporated into protein in place of proline, altering collagen, keratin, hemoglobin, and protein folding. In animal models of teratogenesis, it causes a wide range of malformations. The role of L-Aze in human ...
Alonso Cecilia - - 2006
Coastal pelagic environments are believed to feature concentration gradients of dissolved organic carbon at a microscale, and they are characterized by pronounced seasonal differences in substrate availability for the heterotrophic picoplankton. Microbial taxa that coexist in such habitats might thus differ in their ability to incorporate substrates at various concentrations. ...
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