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Results 501 - 550 of 1636
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Biro Jan C - - 2008
The 3x redundancy of the Genetic Code is usually explained as a necessity to increase the mutation-resistance of the genetic information. However recent bioinformatical observations indicate that the redundant Genetic Code contains more biological information than previously known and which is additional to the 64/20 definition of amino acids. It ...
Walden Hannah R HR Liver Research Group, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, - - 2008
Lipoylated enzymes such as the E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2) are targets for autoreactive immune responses in primary biliary cirrhosis, with lipoic acid itself forming a component of the dominant auto-epitopes. A candidate mechanism for the initiation of tolerance breakdown in this disease is immune recognition of neo-antigens ...
Mozziconacci Olivier - - 2008
The selective oxidative modification of proteins can have significant consequences for structure and function. Here, we show that protein cysteine thiyl radicals (CysS(*)) can reversibly abstract hydrogen atoms from the (alpha)C-H bonds of selected amino acids in a protein (insulin). CysS(*) were generated photolytically through homolysis of cystine and through ...
Adeyeye E I - - 2008
The amino acid composition of the whole body (edible parts), flesh and exoskeleton of the female common West African fresh water crab Sudananautes africanus africanus was determined on a dry weight basis. The total essential amino acids ranged from 349.8 mg/g to 387.3 mg/g crude protein or from 48.5% to ...
Pencharz Paul B - - 2008
The existing data on the safe upper limits of amino acid intake in humans is essentially observational; how much do individuals ingest and what side effects do they have? There are numerous studies in humans comparing the effects of high doses of amino acids given as protein bound vs. as ...
Fu Ya-Min - - 2008
We previously found that selective restriction of amino acids inhibits invasion of two androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and PC3. Here we show that the restriction of tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe), methionine (Met) or glutamine (Gln) modulates the activity of G proteins and affects the balance between ...
Ross-Inta Catherine - - 2008
Mitochondria can synthesize a limited number of proteins encoded by mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) by using their own biosynthetic machinery, whereas most of the proteins in mitochondria are imported from the cytosol. It could be hypothesized that the mitochondrial pool of amino acids follows the frequency of amino acids in mtDNA-encoded ...
Raghavan Anuradha - - 2008
Chemical probes appended with reactive electrophiles afford powerful tools for profiling discrete protein families in living cells. Herein, we have synthesized cell-permeable chemical probes that target fatty acid-associated proteins. These fatty acid-based chemical probes contain acyloxymethylketone or fluorophosphonate functional groups and an alkyne click chemistry tag for visualization of covalently ...
Bolduc Olivier R - - 2008
Monolayers prepared with polar or ionic amino acids with short side chains have a reduced nonspecific adsorption of serum proteins compared to that of hydrophobic amino acids and organic monolayers immobilized on the gold surface of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors. Proteins contained in biological samples adsorb on most surfaces, ...
Misawa Kazuharu - - 2008
Understanding the cause of the changes in the amino acid composition of proteins is essential for understanding the evolution of protein functions. Since the early 1970s, it has been known that the frequency of some amino acids in protein sequences is increasing and that of others is decreasing. Recently, it ...
Pham Trong Khoa - - 2008
Ethanol yield by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in very high glucose (VHG) media with an amino acid supplement was investigated. Amino acid supplementation led to positive cell responses, including reduced lag time and increased cell viability in VHG media. A quantitative shotgun proteomic analysis was used to understand how amino acid supplemented ...
Takeuchi, Takeshi
Biominerals, especially molluscan shells, generally contain unusually acidic proteins. These proteins are believed to function in crystal nucleation and inhibition. We previously identified an unusually acidic protein Aspein from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Here we show that Aspein can control the CaCO3 polymorph (calcite/aragonite) in vitro. While aragonite is ...
Monaghan, Erin Kelly
Almond and macadamia nut cultivars were analyzed for physical seed characteristics, chemical composition, and protein antigenicity. The effect of environmental conditions (geographic location and harvest year) on almond seed composition was also investigated. Almond samples ranged from 0.78-1.44 g in individual seed weight, 18.3-27.8 mm in length, 9.8-13.8 mm in ...
Kim Sun Tae - - 2008
The phytohormones gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) play essential and often antagonistic roles in regulating plant growth, development, and stress responses. Using a proteomics-based approach, we examined the role of GA and ABA in the modulation of protein expression levels during seed germination. Rice seeds were treated with ...
Suryawan Agus - - 2009
The high efficiency of protein deposition during the neonatal period is driven by high rates of protein synthesis, which are maximally stimulated after feeding. In the current study, we examined the individual roles of amino acids and insulin in the regulation of protein synthesis in peripheral and visceral tissues of ...
Wilson Fiona A FA United States Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, - - 2008
Chronic somatotropin (pST) treatment in pigs increases muscle protein synthesis and circulating insulin, a known promoter of protein synthesis. Previously, we showed that the pST-mediated rise in insulin could not account for the pST-induced increase in muscle protein synthesis when amino acids were maintained at fasting levels. This study aimed ...
Palenchar Peter M - - 2008
Analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mus musculus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Thermoplasma acidophilum, and Sulfolobus tokodaii genomes demonstrate that many amino acid biases occur at the N- and C-termini of proteins, a statistically significant number of these biases are evolutionarily conserved, and these biases occur in amino acids ...
Davies Matthew N - - 2008
There is much interest in reducing the complexity inherent in the representation of the 20 standard amino acids within bioinformatics algorithms by developing a so-called reduced alphabet. Although there is no universally applicable residue grouping, there are numerous physiochemical criteria upon which one can base groupings. Local descriptors are a ...
Sabatini, David
The multiprotein mTORC1 protein kinase complex is the central component of a pathway that promotes growth in response to insulin, energy levels, and amino acids and is deregulated in common cancers. In particular, the mTOR pathway is hyperactive in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), a mental retardation and cancer-prone syndrome affecting ...
Eylert Eva - - 2008
The intracellular metabolism of Listeria monocytogenes was studied by (13)C-isotopologue profiling using murine J774A.1 macrophages as host cells. Six hours after infection, bacteria were separated from the macrophages and hydrolyzed. Amino acids were converted into tert-butyl-dimethylsilyl derivatives and subjected to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. When the macrophages were supplied with [U-(13)C(6)]glucose ...
Taylor Meghan - - 2008
The contents of sulfur amino acids in seeds of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are suboptimal for nutrition. They accumulate large amounts of a gamma-glutamyl dipeptide of S-methyl-cysteine, a nonprotein amino acid that cannot substitute for methionine or cysteine in the diet. Protein accumulation and amino acid composition were ...
Noguchi Yasushi - - 2008
This study aims to characterize diet-dependent amino acid metabolism by linking profiles of amino acids concentrations ("aminograms") with transcript datasets through the analysis of correlation. We used a dietary model of protein restriction-to-excess, where rats were fed diets with different levels of casein (5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50, and ...
Gilbreth Ryan N - - 2008
Recent studies have shown that highly simplified interaction surfaces consisting of combinations of just two amino acids, Tyr and Ser, exhibit high affinity and specificity. The high functional levels of such minimalist interfaces might thus indicate small contributions of greater amino acid diversity seen in natural interfaces. Toward addressing this ...
Sancak Yasemin - - 2008
The multiprotein mTORC1 protein kinase complex is the central component of a pathway that promotes growth in response to insulin, energy levels, and amino acids and is deregulated in common cancers. We find that the Rag proteins--a family of four related small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases)--interact with mTORC1 in an amino ...
Dreisbach Annette - - 2008
Bacillus subtilis has been developed as a model system for physiological proteomics. However, thus far these studies have mainly been limited to cytoplasmic, extracellular, and cell-wall attached proteins. Although being certainly important for cell physiology, the membrane protein fraction has not been studied in comparable depth due to inaccessibility by ...
Wang Qian - - 2008
New chemical and physical properties can be selectively introduced into proteins directly in live cells by genetically incorporating unnatural amino acids. The incorporation efficiency determines how effective such properties can be exploited and was very low in yeast. We developed a new method for efficient expression of orthogonal bacterial tRNA ...
Boussac Alain - - 2008
This report describes a protocol to incorporate isotopically labelled aromatic amino acids into the proteins of the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechoccus elongatus. By using the EPR signal of the two redox active tyrosines of Photosystem II, Tyr(D)(*) and Tyr(Z)(*), as spectroscopic probes it is shown that labelled tyrosines can be incorporated ...
Ito Len - - 2008
Determination of the appropriate conditions for protein crystallization remains a highly empirical process. Preventing protein aggregation is necessary for the formation of single crystals under aggregation-prone solution conditions. Because many amino acids and amino acid derivatives offer a unique combination of solubility and stabilizing properties, they open new avenues into ...
Chérasse Yoan - - 2008
The transcriptional activation of CHOP (C/EBP-homologous protein) by amino acid deprivation involves ATF2 and ATF4 binding at the amino acid response element within the promoter. In this report, we investigate the role of JDP2 (Jun Dimerization Protein 2) in the amino acid control of CHOP transcription following amino acid starvation. ...
Penndorf Ilka - - 2008
Specific determination of N-(2-furoylmethyl)valine (FM-Val) together with furosine in acid hydrolyzates of human hemoglobin of healthy volunteers (n = 6) and diabetic patients (n = 14) by means of reversed-phase HPLC with electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectroscopy is reported. Whereas FM-Val is formed during acid hydrolysis of the N-terminal hemoglobin adduct ...
Martins Juliana Ramos - - 2008
In preparing for metamorphosis, insect larvae store a huge amount of proteins in hemolymph, mainly hexamerins. Out of the four hexamerins present in the honeybee larvae, one, HEX 70a, exhibited a distinct developmental pattern, especially since it is also present in adults. Here, we report sequence data and experimental evidence ...
Reddie Khalilah G - - 2008
Oxidation of the thiol functional group in cysteine (Cys-SH) to sulfenic (Cys-SOH), sulfinic (Cys-SO2H) and sulfonic acids (Cys-SO3H) is emerging as an important post-translational modification that can activate or deactivate the function of many proteins. Changes in thiol oxidation state have been implicated in a wide variety of cellular processes ...
Nyakuni Geoffrey A - - 2008
Four common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties, Kawanda (K)131, K132, NABE4 and NABE11, were evaluated for the relationship between development of the hard-to-cook (HTC) defect and changes in nutritional quality during 6-month storage under ambient conditions. All varieties developed the HTC defect, but the extent was found to vary with ...
Raj D S C - - 2008
Increased demand for amino acids to sustain acute-phase protein synthesis could be the stimulus for the increased muscle protein catabolism during hemodialysis (HD). This could be attenuated by intradialytic amino-acid infusion. To test this, we measured the fractional synthesis rates of albumin, fibrinogen, and muscle protein in eight patients with ...
Elango Rajavel - - 2008
The indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method is based on the concept that when 1 indispensable amino acid (IDAA) is deficient for protein synthesis, then all other IDAA, including the indicator amino acid, will be oxidized. With increasing intakes of the limiting amino acid, IAAO will decrease, reflecting increasing incorporation ...
Saito Seiji - - 2008
Bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP-15) is an oocyte-secreted factor critical for the regulation of ovarian physiology. When recombinant human BMP-15 (rhBMP-15) produced in human embryonic kidney 293 cells was subjected to SDS-PAGE analysis, two mature protein forms corresponding to 16 kDa (P16) and 17 kDa (P17) were observed. Despite the physiological ...
Santana-Santos L - - 2008
Nutrigenomics studies the effects of nutrients on the genome, transcriptome and proteome of organisms, and here an evolutionary standpoint on this new discipline is presented. It is well known that metazoan organisms are unable to synthesize all amino acids necessary to produce their proteins and that these essential amino acids ...
Meijer Alfred J - - 2008
Amino acids are not only substrates for various metabolic pathways, but can also serve as signaling molecules controlling signal transduction pathways. One of these signaling pathways is mTOR-dependent and is activated by amino acids (leucine in particular) in synergy with insulin. Activation of this pathway inhibits autophagy. Because activation of ...
Kalhan Satish C - - 2008
Birth and adaptation to extrauterine life involve major shifts in the protein and energy metabolism of the human newborn. These include a shift from a state of continuous supply of nutrients including amino acids from the mother to cyclic periodic oral intake, a change in the redox state of organs, ...
Elango Rajavel - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent amino acid requirement studies in adult humans and school-age children, primarily determined using the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. RECENT FINDINGS: Using the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation model, requirements for most indispensable amino acids have been defined in adult humans. The estimates ...
Nonaka Kazuhiro - - 2008
Twenty seven soil bacterial isolates able to grow on cinnamic acid or ferulic acid as a sole carbon and energy source were examined for the ability to utilize other phenylpropanoids and phylogenetic interrelationships. A 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that 26 of the isolates were closely related to Pseudomonas ...
Harsha H C - - 2008
Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is a simple in vivo labeling strategy for mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics. It relies on the metabolic incorporation of nonradioactive heavy isotopic forms of amino acids into cellular proteins, which can be readily distinguished in a mass spectrometer. As the ...
Vigne Paul - - 2008
Chronic hypoxia is a major component of ischemic diseases such as stroke or myocardial infarction. Drosophila is more tolerant to hypoxia than most mammalian species. It is considered as a useful model organism to identify new mechanisms of hypoxic tolerance. The hypoxic tolerance of flies has previously been reported to ...
Timmerman Kyle L KL Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555-0460, - - 2008
To examine recent discoveries related to the amino acid metabolism and regulatory effects in aging, focusing on the development and treatment of age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia). While basal amino acid metabolism may be unaffected by age, elderly subjects appear to have a decreased ability to respond to anabolic stimuli such ...
Wang Xuemin - - 2008
Eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) plays a key role in controlling the initiation of mRNA translation. eIF2B is heteropentamer whose catalytic (epsilon) subunit promotes GDP/GTP exchange on eIF2. We show here that depriving human cells of amino acids rapidly results in the inhibition of eIF2B, independently of changes in eIF2 ...
Barthet Michelle M - - 2008
The rapidly evolving chloroplast matK gene has nucleotide and amino acid substitution rates suggestive of progression toward a pseudogene state. However, molecular evidence has demonstrated that matK is expressed and functional. We explore in this paper the underlying factors behind the mode and tempo of matK evolution that allow this ...
Madhavi, D L
Amino acid availability and functional properties of vegetables proteins
Stumpe Martin C - - 2007
The molecular mechanism of urea-induced protein denaturation is not yet fully understood. Mainly two opposing mechanisms are controversially discussed, according to which either hydrophobic, or polar interactions are the dominant driving force. To resolve this question, we have investigated the interactions between urea and all 20 amino acids by comprehensive ...
Shamim Mohammad Tabrez Anwar - - 2007
MOTIVATION: Fold recognition is a key step in the protein structure discovery process, especially when traditional sequence comparison methods fail to yield convincing structural homologies. Although many methods have been developed for protein fold recognition, their accuracies remain low. This can be attributed to insufficient exploitation of fold discriminatory features. ...
Castro-Puyana María - - 2007
In addition to the 20 amino acids universally distributed as protein constituents in living organisms, there are other amino acids of non-protein origin that can be found in foods. The determination of these non-protein amino acids is interesting since they can be indicative of the quality and safety of foods. ...
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