Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1621
< 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 >
Wilson Fiona A FA United States Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, - - 2008
Chronic somatotropin (pST) treatment in pigs increases muscle protein synthesis and circulating insulin, a known promoter of protein synthesis. Previously, we showed that the pST-mediated rise in insulin could not account for the pST-induced increase in muscle protein synthesis when amino acids were maintained at fasting levels. This study aimed ...
Palenchar Peter M - - 2008
Analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mus musculus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Thermoplasma acidophilum, and Sulfolobus tokodaii genomes demonstrate that many amino acid biases occur at the N- and C-termini of proteins, a statistically significant number of these biases are evolutionarily conserved, and these biases occur in amino acids ...
Davies Matthew N - - 2008
There is much interest in reducing the complexity inherent in the representation of the 20 standard amino acids within bioinformatics algorithms by developing a so-called reduced alphabet. Although there is no universally applicable residue grouping, there are numerous physiochemical criteria upon which one can base groupings. Local descriptors are a ...
Sabatini, David
The multiprotein mTORC1 protein kinase complex is the central component of a pathway that promotes growth in response to insulin, energy levels, and amino acids and is deregulated in common cancers. In particular, the mTOR pathway is hyperactive in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), a mental retardation and cancer-prone syndrome affecting ...
Eylert Eva - - 2008
The intracellular metabolism of Listeria monocytogenes was studied by (13)C-isotopologue profiling using murine J774A.1 macrophages as host cells. Six hours after infection, bacteria were separated from the macrophages and hydrolyzed. Amino acids were converted into tert-butyl-dimethylsilyl derivatives and subjected to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. When the macrophages were supplied with [U-(13)C(6)]glucose ...
Taylor Meghan - - 2008
The contents of sulfur amino acids in seeds of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are suboptimal for nutrition. They accumulate large amounts of a gamma-glutamyl dipeptide of S-methyl-cysteine, a nonprotein amino acid that cannot substitute for methionine or cysteine in the diet. Protein accumulation and amino acid composition were ...
Noguchi Yasushi - - 2008
This study aims to characterize diet-dependent amino acid metabolism by linking profiles of amino acids concentrations ("aminograms") with transcript datasets through the analysis of correlation. We used a dietary model of protein restriction-to-excess, where rats were fed diets with different levels of casein (5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50, and ...
Gilbreth Ryan N - - 2008
Recent studies have shown that highly simplified interaction surfaces consisting of combinations of just two amino acids, Tyr and Ser, exhibit high affinity and specificity. The high functional levels of such minimalist interfaces might thus indicate small contributions of greater amino acid diversity seen in natural interfaces. Toward addressing this ...
Sancak Yasemin - - 2008
The multiprotein mTORC1 protein kinase complex is the central component of a pathway that promotes growth in response to insulin, energy levels, and amino acids and is deregulated in common cancers. We find that the Rag proteins--a family of four related small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases)--interact with mTORC1 in an amino ...
Dreisbach Annette - - 2008
Bacillus subtilis has been developed as a model system for physiological proteomics. However, thus far these studies have mainly been limited to cytoplasmic, extracellular, and cell-wall attached proteins. Although being certainly important for cell physiology, the membrane protein fraction has not been studied in comparable depth due to inaccessibility by ...
Wang Qian - - 2008
New chemical and physical properties can be selectively introduced into proteins directly in live cells by genetically incorporating unnatural amino acids. The incorporation efficiency determines how effective such properties can be exploited and was very low in yeast. We developed a new method for efficient expression of orthogonal bacterial tRNA ...
Boussac Alain - - 2008
This report describes a protocol to incorporate isotopically labelled aromatic amino acids into the proteins of the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechoccus elongatus. By using the EPR signal of the two redox active tyrosines of Photosystem II, Tyr(D)(*) and Tyr(Z)(*), as spectroscopic probes it is shown that labelled tyrosines can be incorporated ...
Ito Len - - 2008
Determination of the appropriate conditions for protein crystallization remains a highly empirical process. Preventing protein aggregation is necessary for the formation of single crystals under aggregation-prone solution conditions. Because many amino acids and amino acid derivatives offer a unique combination of solubility and stabilizing properties, they open new avenues into ...
Chérasse Yoan - - 2008
The transcriptional activation of CHOP (C/EBP-homologous protein) by amino acid deprivation involves ATF2 and ATF4 binding at the amino acid response element within the promoter. In this report, we investigate the role of JDP2 (Jun Dimerization Protein 2) in the amino acid control of CHOP transcription following amino acid starvation. ...
Penndorf Ilka - - 2008
Specific determination of N-(2-furoylmethyl)valine (FM-Val) together with furosine in acid hydrolyzates of human hemoglobin of healthy volunteers (n = 6) and diabetic patients (n = 14) by means of reversed-phase HPLC with electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectroscopy is reported. Whereas FM-Val is formed during acid hydrolysis of the N-terminal hemoglobin adduct ...
Martins Juliana Ramos - - 2008
In preparing for metamorphosis, insect larvae store a huge amount of proteins in hemolymph, mainly hexamerins. Out of the four hexamerins present in the honeybee larvae, one, HEX 70a, exhibited a distinct developmental pattern, especially since it is also present in adults. Here, we report sequence data and experimental evidence ...
Reddie Khalilah G - - 2008
Oxidation of the thiol functional group in cysteine (Cys-SH) to sulfenic (Cys-SOH), sulfinic (Cys-SO2H) and sulfonic acids (Cys-SO3H) is emerging as an important post-translational modification that can activate or deactivate the function of many proteins. Changes in thiol oxidation state have been implicated in a wide variety of cellular processes ...
Nyakuni Geoffrey A - - 2008
Four common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties, Kawanda (K)131, K132, NABE4 and NABE11, were evaluated for the relationship between development of the hard-to-cook (HTC) defect and changes in nutritional quality during 6-month storage under ambient conditions. All varieties developed the HTC defect, but the extent was found to vary with ...
Raj D S C - - 2008
Increased demand for amino acids to sustain acute-phase protein synthesis could be the stimulus for the increased muscle protein catabolism during hemodialysis (HD). This could be attenuated by intradialytic amino-acid infusion. To test this, we measured the fractional synthesis rates of albumin, fibrinogen, and muscle protein in eight patients with ...
Elango Rajavel - - 2008
The indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method is based on the concept that when 1 indispensable amino acid (IDAA) is deficient for protein synthesis, then all other IDAA, including the indicator amino acid, will be oxidized. With increasing intakes of the limiting amino acid, IAAO will decrease, reflecting increasing incorporation ...
Saito Seiji - - 2008
Bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP-15) is an oocyte-secreted factor critical for the regulation of ovarian physiology. When recombinant human BMP-15 (rhBMP-15) produced in human embryonic kidney 293 cells was subjected to SDS-PAGE analysis, two mature protein forms corresponding to 16 kDa (P16) and 17 kDa (P17) were observed. Despite the physiological ...
Santana-Santos L - - 2008
Nutrigenomics studies the effects of nutrients on the genome, transcriptome and proteome of organisms, and here an evolutionary standpoint on this new discipline is presented. It is well known that metazoan organisms are unable to synthesize all amino acids necessary to produce their proteins and that these essential amino acids ...
Meijer Alfred J - - 2008
Amino acids are not only substrates for various metabolic pathways, but can also serve as signaling molecules controlling signal transduction pathways. One of these signaling pathways is mTOR-dependent and is activated by amino acids (leucine in particular) in synergy with insulin. Activation of this pathway inhibits autophagy. Because activation of ...
Kalhan Satish C - - 2008
Birth and adaptation to extrauterine life involve major shifts in the protein and energy metabolism of the human newborn. These include a shift from a state of continuous supply of nutrients including amino acids from the mother to cyclic periodic oral intake, a change in the redox state of organs, ...
Elango Rajavel - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent amino acid requirement studies in adult humans and school-age children, primarily determined using the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. RECENT FINDINGS: Using the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation model, requirements for most indispensable amino acids have been defined in adult humans. The estimates ...
Nonaka Kazuhiro - - 2008
Twenty seven soil bacterial isolates able to grow on cinnamic acid or ferulic acid as a sole carbon and energy source were examined for the ability to utilize other phenylpropanoids and phylogenetic interrelationships. A 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that 26 of the isolates were closely related to Pseudomonas ...
Harsha H C - - 2008
Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is a simple in vivo labeling strategy for mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics. It relies on the metabolic incorporation of nonradioactive heavy isotopic forms of amino acids into cellular proteins, which can be readily distinguished in a mass spectrometer. As the ...
Vigne Paul - - 2008
Chronic hypoxia is a major component of ischemic diseases such as stroke or myocardial infarction. Drosophila is more tolerant to hypoxia than most mammalian species. It is considered as a useful model organism to identify new mechanisms of hypoxic tolerance. The hypoxic tolerance of flies has previously been reported to ...
Timmerman Kyle L KL Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555-0460, - - 2008
To examine recent discoveries related to the amino acid metabolism and regulatory effects in aging, focusing on the development and treatment of age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia). While basal amino acid metabolism may be unaffected by age, elderly subjects appear to have a decreased ability to respond to anabolic stimuli such ...
Wang Xuemin - - 2008
Eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) plays a key role in controlling the initiation of mRNA translation. eIF2B is heteropentamer whose catalytic (epsilon) subunit promotes GDP/GTP exchange on eIF2. We show here that depriving human cells of amino acids rapidly results in the inhibition of eIF2B, independently of changes in eIF2 ...
Barthet Michelle M - - 2008
The rapidly evolving chloroplast matK gene has nucleotide and amino acid substitution rates suggestive of progression toward a pseudogene state. However, molecular evidence has demonstrated that matK is expressed and functional. We explore in this paper the underlying factors behind the mode and tempo of matK evolution that allow this ...
Madhavi, D L
Amino acid availability and functional properties of vegetables proteins
Stumpe Martin C - - 2007
The molecular mechanism of urea-induced protein denaturation is not yet fully understood. Mainly two opposing mechanisms are controversially discussed, according to which either hydrophobic, or polar interactions are the dominant driving force. To resolve this question, we have investigated the interactions between urea and all 20 amino acids by comprehensive ...
Shamim Mohammad Tabrez Anwar - - 2007
MOTIVATION: Fold recognition is a key step in the protein structure discovery process, especially when traditional sequence comparison methods fail to yield convincing structural homologies. Although many methods have been developed for protein fold recognition, their accuracies remain low. This can be attributed to insufficient exploitation of fold discriminatory features. ...
Castro-Puyana María - - 2007
In addition to the 20 amino acids universally distributed as protein constituents in living organisms, there are other amino acids of non-protein origin that can be found in foods. The determination of these non-protein amino acids is interesting since they can be indicative of the quality and safety of foods. ...
Deamer David W - - 2007
L-amino acids and D-carbohydrates were incorporated into the first forms of life over 3.5 billion years ago, presumably from racemic mixtures of organic solutes produced by abiotic synthetic pathways. The process by which this choice occurred has not been established, but a consensus view is that it was a chance ...
Bertin Cécile - - 2007
Fine fescue grasses displace neighboring plants by depositing large quantities of an aqueous phytotoxic root exudate in the soil rhizosphere. Via activity-guided fractionation, we have isolated and identified the nonprotein amino acid m-tyrosine as the major active component. m-Tyrosine is significantly more phytotoxic than its structural isomers o- and p-tyrosine. ...
Fernández-Navarro Mónica - - 2008
Maslinic acid (2-alpha, 3-beta-dihydroxiolean-12-en-28-oic acid) is a triterpenoid compound present in fruit and leaves of Olea europaea that can be used as an additive in the diet of trout. The present work investigates the effects of maslinic acid on growth, protein-turnover rates and nucleic acid concentration in trout white muscle. ...
Verslues Paul E - - 2007
Abscisic acid is a powerful signaling molecule that accumulates in response to abiotic stress. However, no potential receptors that could perceive this increase in abscisic acid had been identified until recent reports of three abscisic acid binding proteins: the nuclear protein Flowering Time Control Locus A, the chloroplast protein Magnesium ...
Adedokun S A - - 2007
Ileal endogenous amino acid (IEAA) flow in turkey poults was determined at 2 experimental locations on d 5, 15, and 21 posthatch using 3 methods, namely a N-free diet (NFD), a highly digestible protein (casein), and the regression method, obtained by regressing IEAA flow against dietary casein levels. The diets ...
Suwat Saengkerdsub, 1975-
Thesis (M.Sc.)--Chulalongkorn University, 1999
Zhou X-X - - 2008
Thermophilic proteins show substantially higher intrinsic thermal stability than their mesophilic counterparts. Amino acid composition is believed to alter the intrinsic stability of proteins. Several investigations and mutagenesis experiment have been carried out to understand the amino acid composition for the thermostability of proteins. This review presents some generalized features ...
Lerch T Z - - 2007
The use of stable isotope probing of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME-SIP) is a powerful tool to study the microorganisms involved in xenobiotic biodegradation in soil. Nevertheless, it is important to determine how representative these molecules are of microorganisms both qualitatively and quantitatively. Using Cupriavidus necator JMP134 as a simple ...
Métayer Sonia - - 2008
Amino acids regulate protein synthesis and breakdown (i.e., protein turnover) and consequently protein deposition, which corresponds to the balance between the two processes. Elucidating the mechanisms involved in such regulation is important from fundamental and applied points of view since it can provide a basis to optimize amino acid requirements ...
Sriram Ganesh - - 2007
Biosynthetically directed fractional (13)C labeling, a popular methodology of metabolic flux analysis, involves culture on a mixture of (13)C and (12)C substrates and preparation a 'metabolic flux analyte' (typically protein hydrolysate) from the biomass. Metabolic flux analytes prepared from complex eukaryotes may contain additional compounds than those prepared from microorganisms. ...
Pattison David I - - 2007
Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a powerful oxidant generated from H2O2 and Cl- by the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase, which is released from activated leukocytes. HOCl possesses potent antibacterial properties, but excessive production can lead to host tissue damage that occurs in numerous human pathologies. As proteins and amino acids are highly ...
Bergeron Karen - - 2007
This study investigated the role of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFAs) of muscle phospholipids in the regulation of neonatal metabolism. Twenty-eight piglets were weaned at 2 days of age and raised on one of two milk formulas that consisted of either a control formula supplying 0% or a formula ...
Humayun Mohammad A - - 2007
Our objective was to determine the metabolic availability (MA) of sulfur amino acids in dietary proteins using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique. Five to seven men received graded levels (20, 40, 60, and 70%) of the mean total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) requirement of 13 mg x kg(-1) ...
Parker Nicole R - - 2007
PURPOSE: Human ultraviolet light (UV) filters, such as kynurenine (Kyn), readily deaminate to reactive unsaturated ketones that covalently modify proteins in older human lenses. The aim of this study was to examine in vitro rates of formation and decomposition of the three major Kyn-amino acid adducts and possible consequences for ...
Huang Yu-Ju - - 2007
Escherichia coli O157:H7 has an unusually high resistance to acidic environments. Some research has revealed that acid-adapted cells, by exposure to moderately acidic conditions, are more resistant to a subsequent strong acidic challenge or other stress. This study was conducted to understand the protein expression regulation of acid tolerance response ...
< 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 >