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Results 351 - 400 of 1658
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Di Gioia Maria Luisa - - 2007
We report here a convenient and simple solid-phase synthesis of N-nosyl-N-methyl-alpha-amino acids and N-Fmoc-N-methyl-alpha-amino acids, important building blocks for the synthesis of conformationally restricted and protease-resistant natural peptides and peptide analogues. The methodology involves the use of 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin to temporarily protect the carboxylic group of alpha-amino acids and ...
Iida Akira - - 2007
A pentafluorophenylammonium triflate (PFPAT) catalyst (5 mol %) successfully promoted C-acylation of enol silyl ethers with acid chloride to produce various beta-diketones (12 examples; 62-92% yield). Similarly, C-acylation of ketene silyl acetals or ketene silyl thioacetals (i.e., crossed Claisen condensation) proceeded smoothly to provide not only alpha-monoalkylated beta-keto (thio)esters but ...
Pazos Manuel - - 2007
Benzoic acid-derived phenolics (p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and gallic acid) and the polyphenols epicatechin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) were evaluated for their efficiency in regenerating alpha-tocopherol from alpha-tocopheroxyl radical in comparison with ascorbyl palmitate, which is known to regenerate alpha-tocopherol. Ethanolic solutions of phenolic compounds were ...
Sleebs Brad E - - 2007
1,3-oxazinan-6-ones have been utilized in a series of enolate reactions to produce 5-hydroxy and 5-alkyl-4-substituted-1,3-oxazinan-6-ones with excellent trans diastereoselectivity. Highlighting the versatility of the oxazinanone, a number of transformations were performed to produce a variety of protected N-H and N-methyl alpha-hydroxy- and alpha-methyl-beta-amino acids.
Preobrazhenskaya Maria N - - 2007
The acylation of unprotected vancomycin or eremomycin with activated esters of N(alpha)-protected amino acids or N(alpha)-alkyl-N(alpha)-Fmoc-amino acids is directed selectively to the amino group of the disaccharide branch (N') and after Fmoc-group removal leads to the corresponding N'-alpha-aminoacyl derivatives. A series of N'-alpha-aminoacyl and N'-alpha-(N(alpha)-alkylamino)acyl derivatives of eremomycin and vancomycin ...
Banilas Georgios - - 2007
The relative abundance of alpha-linolenic (alpha-LeA) compared with linoleic acid is associated with the developmental stage and the plant species and is proposed to have important physiological effects on both vegetative and reproductive plant development. The enzymes responsible for catalyzing the conversion of linoleic acid to alpha-LeA, the omega-3 fatty ...
Ishikawa Akiko - - 2007
Nerium indicum is an India-Pakistan-originated shrub belonging to the oleander family. The ingestion of leaves of N. indicum before a meal is known to effect the lowering of postprandial glucose levels in Type II diabetic patients and this plant is now used as a folk remedy for Type II diabetes ...
Jaleel Cheruth Abdul - - 2007
The ability of triadimefon (TDM), a triazolic fungicide, to alter the biochemical constituents and thereby minimizing the days required for sprouting in white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) tubers during storage under (30+/-2) degrees C in the dark, was studied. TDM at 20 mg/L was given to tubers by dipping the ...
Traber Maret G - - 2007
All of the naturally occurring vitamin E forms, as well as those of synthetic all-rac-alpha-tocopherol, have relatively similar antioxidant properties, so why does the body prefer alpha-tocopherol as its unique form of vitamin E? We propose the hypothesis that all of the observations concerning the in vivo mechanism of action ...
Mühling J - - 2008
We examined the effects of beta-alanine (taurine analogue and taurine transport antagonist), taurine (regarding its role in neutrophil (PMN) immunonutrition) and taurine combined either with L-NAME (inhibitor of *NO-synthase), SNAP (*NO donor), DON (glutamine-analogue and inhibitor of glutamine-requiring enzymes), DFMO (inhibitor of ornithine-decarboxylase) and beta-alanine on neutrophil amino- and alpha-keto ...
Tanaka Masakazu - - 2007
alpha,alpha-Disubstituted amino acids are alpha-amino acids in which the hydrogen atom at the alpha-position of the L-alpha-amino acid is replaced with an alkyl substituent. The introduction of an alpha-alkyl substituent changes the properties of amino acids, with the conformational freedom of the side chain in the amino acids and the ...
Wajner André - - 2007
The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of the branched-chain alpha-keto acids accumulating in maple syrup urine disease, namely L-2-ketoisocaproic acid, L-2-keto-3-methylvaleric acid and L-2-ketoisovaleric acid on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in synaptic plasma membranes from cerebral cortex of 35-day-old rats. All keto acids significantly ...
Pershadsingh Harrihar A - - 2007
In animal experiments, the potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger alpha-lipoic acid has been shown to cause weight loss, ameliorate insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia, as well as to lower blood pressure, all of these being components of the metabolic syndrome. Recent investigations on its mechanisms of action indicate that ...
Herrera Antonio J - - 2007
The synthesis of a bicyclic analogue of the naturally occurring alpha-L-iduronic acid locked in a biologically active (2)S0 skewboat conformation is disclosed. The desired (2)S0 conformation has been obtained by tethering the C-2 and C-5 carbon atoms of the sugar ring with a dimethyloxy bridge and confirmed by NMR and ...
Bandyopadhyay Subhajit - - 2007
Isotactic polyethylenimines with (S)-benzyl side chains were synthesized from 4-(S)-4-benzyl-2-oxazolines. When alpha-keto acids were subjected to transamination in the presence of this polymer, and a pyridoxamine coenzyme modified with hydrophobic chains, enantioselectivity toward the natural isomer (l > d) was observed, followed by racemization of the amino acid products. However, ...
Hess Mark - - 2007
Indole-5-carboxylic acids and -carboxamides with 3-aryloxy-2-oxopropyl residues in position 1 were previously reported to be potent inhibitors of cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha) isolated from human platelets. In continuation of our attempts to develop novel cPLA(2)alpha inhibitors, a number of derivatives of these substances characterized by bioisosteric replacement of the carboxylic ...
Penndorf Ilka - - 2007
To obtain information about the extent of the early Maillard reaction between the N-termini of peptides and lactose, alpha-N-(2-furoylmethyl) amino acids (FMAAs) were quantified together with epsilon-N-(2-furoylmethyl)lysine (furosine) in acid hydrolyzates of hypoallergenic infant formulas, conventional infant formulas, and human milk samples using RP-HPLC with UV-detection. FMAAs are formed during ...
Reboul E - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: (R,R,R)-alpha-tocopherol is a fat-soluble antioxidant vitamin generally ingested with other dietary antioxidants. The objective of this study was to assess whether the main dietary antioxidant classes, that is carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamin C and gamma-tocopherol, affect the intestinal absorption of alpha-tocopherol. METHODS, DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: We evaluated first the effect ...
Schmidt Jürgen M - - 2007
A model is proposed for collating fundamental and incremental component couplings to account for substituent effects on (3)J arising from, for example, amino-acid type variation. The unique topology patterns encountered in each of the common amino acids were modeled by assigning substituents on a (3)J coupling path to four simple ...
Massicot Fabien - - 2007
A highly diastereoselective nucleophilic mono(trifluoromethylation) of a tartaric acid-based diketone, using trifluoromethyl(trimethyl)silane, afforded the corresponding gamma-keto trifluoromethylcarbinol. The scope and limitation of this reaction was studied. The acidic removal of the acetonide moiety protecting the two hydroxyl groups of the adducts was unsuccessful. Bis(O-methylation) of the aromatic derivatives under basic ...
Derbel Najoua - - 2007
Raman scattering and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) attenuated transmission reflectance (ATR) spectra of two alpha-amino acids (alpha-AAs), i.e., glycine and leucine, were measured in H2O and D2O (at neutral pH and pD). This series of observed vibrational data gave us the opportunity to analyze vibrational features of both AAs in hydrated ...
Al-Huniti Mohammed H - - 2007
Model tetrahydropyrido[3',2':4,5]thieno[2,3-b][1,4]thiazines 9a-c were synthesized via reductive lactamization, using sodium dithionite, of the respective 2-[(carboxyalkyl)thio]-3-nitro-4,7-dihydrothieno[2,3-b]pyridine-5-carboxylic acids 7a-c. The latter derivatives were made via interaction of 2-chloro-7-cyclopropyl-3-nitro-4,7-dihydrothieno[2,3-b]pyridine-5-carboxylic acid (6) with each of alpha-mercaptoacetic, alpha-mercaptopropionic, and alpha-mercaptosuccinic acids and triethylamine in aqueous acetone at room temperature. The structures of 7a-7c and 9a-9c ...
Kumar T Santhosh - - 2007
A synthetic route towards a selected set of N-acylated and N-alkylated derivatives of 2'-amino-alpha-L-LNA phosphoramidite building blocks has been developed. Biophysical studies suggest that the 2-oxo-5-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane skeleton of 2'-amino-alpha-L-LNA allows precise positioning of intercalators in the core of nucleic acid duplexes.
Choi Taeyoung - - 2007
Bromination of 5,6-dimethoxyindan-1-one with Br(2) in acetic acid at room temperature produced exclusively the corresponding 2,4-dibromo compound in 95% yield. Reaction of 5,6-dimethoxyindan-1-one with Br(2) in the presence of KOH, K(2)CO(3) or Cs(2)CO(3 )at ~0 degrees C( )gave the monobrominated product 4-bromo-5,6-dimethoxyindan-3-one in 79%, 81% and 67% yield, respectively. 5,6-Dihydroxyindan-1-one ...
Dulundu Ender - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To evaluate the protective effect of alpha-lipoic acid in reducing oxidative damage after severe hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. METHODS: Wistar albino rats were subjected to 45 min of hepatic ischemia, followed by 60 min reperfusion period. Lipoic acid (100 mg/kg i.p.) was administered 15 min prior to ...
Scheler Marina - - 2007
Lichen nitidus is an uncommon dermatosis of unknown etiology. Here we present the case of a generalized lichen nitidus with involvement of the palms in a patient with hepatitis C after systemic treatment with interferon alpha and ribavirin. Furthermore in our patient we could show a strong lesional expression of ...
Chandra Tilak - - 2007
A series of 2 ',3 '-isopropylidene and 5 '-trityl-protected alpha-indole and alpha/beta-benzimidazole and imidazole ribonucleosides were deprotected with different acids. Selectivity was achieved for 5 '-versus 2 ',3 '- deprotection by using formic acid in the alpha-indole ribonucleoside series. Treatment of alpha-indole ribonucleosides with a mixture of formic acid and ...
Strachan Jon-Paul - - 2006
Novel bicyclic alpha-amino acids, exo and endo-1-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid, 1-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-7-carboxylic acid, and 1-azabicyclo[3.2.2]nonane-2-carboxylic acid have been readily synthesized for the generation of neuronal nicotinic receptor ligands. Alkylation of glycine-derived Schiff bases or nitroacetates with cyclic ether electrophiles, followed by acid-induced ring opening and cyclization in NH4OH, allowed for the preparation of ...
Wolfert Margreet A - - 2007
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) protein 1 (NOD1) and NOD2 are pathogen recognition receptors that sense breakdown products of peptidoglycan (PGN) (muropeptides). It is shown that a number of these muropeptides can induce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene expression without significant TNF-alpha translation. This translation block is lifted when the ...
Vogt Henning - - 2007
The class of alpha,alpha-disubstituted alpha-amino acids has gained considerable attention in the past decades and continues doing so. The ongoing interest in biological and chemical properties of the substance class has inspired the development of many new methodologies for their asymmetric construction, which have not found their way into the ...
Naydenova E - - 2007
Alpha-ethyl-N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine is synthesized and characterized by NMR and FAB spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity, clastogenic and antiproliferative effect of 3-ethyl-2-hydroxyl-2-oxo-1,4,2-oxazaphosphorinane, sodium salt of 3-ethyl-2-hydroxyl-2-oxo-1,4,2-oxazaphosphorinane, alpha-ethyl-alpha-N-(hydroxyethylamino) methylphosphonic acid, alpha-ethyl-N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, alpha-ethyl-N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine isopropylammonium salt, glyphosate isopropylammonium salt are tested.
Malak Muhammad H - - 2006
The title compound, C6H8O3, is the smallest keto acid yet found to aggregate in the solid as acid-to-ketone hydrogen-bonded catemers. Four translational chains pass through the cell in the a direction [O...O = 2.6915 (14) A and O-H...O = 166 degrees]. Two intermolecular C-H...O close contacts exist, involving both carbonyl ...
Khan Abu T - - 2006
Bromodimethylsulfonium bromide has been found to be an effective and regioselective reagent for alpha-monobromination of beta-keto esters and 1,3-diketones. A wide variety of beta-keto esters and 1,3-diketones undergo chemoselective alpha-monobromination with excellent yields at 0-5 degrees C or room temperature. The notable advantages of this protocol are no need of ...
Iida Akira - - 2006
[Structure: see text] A powerful Ti-crossed Claisen condensation between ketene silyl acetals (KSAs) and acid chlorides was successfully performed to give alpha-monoalkylated esters and thermodynamically unfavorable (less accessible) alpha,alpha-dialkylated beta-keto esters in good yield (46 examples; 41-98% yield). A closely related reaction between ketene silyl thioacetals (KSTAs) and acid chlorides ...
Manda K - - 2007
The development of nontoxic but effective radioprotectors is needed because of the increasing risk of human exposure to ionizing radiation. We have reported that alpha-lipoic acid confers considerable radio-protective effect in mouse tissues when given prior to x-irradiation. In the present study, alpha-lipoic acid supplementation prior to x-irradiation with 4 ...
Brown Marishka K - - 2006
Oxidative stress has been associated with both the aging process and the development of age-dependent tissue degenerative pathologies. Beneficial effects of antioxidant therapies to abrogate the deleterious consequences of elevated free radicals are implicated in disease prevention and cost-effective strategy. Previous data have shown protective effects of the polyphenol green ...
Ellis Trevor K - - 2006
A new generation of modular achiral glycine equivalents have been evaluated with respect to their synthetic utility for the production of tailor-made, sterically constrained alpha-amino acids, which proved to be the most efficient approach developed to date for the synthesis of symmetrical alpha,alpha-disubstituted-alpha-amino acids. Among the new series of achiral ...
Huber Claudia - - 2006
To test the theory of a chemoautotrophic origin of life in a volcanic, hydrothermal setting, we explored mechanisms for the buildup of bio-organic compounds by carbon fixation on catalytic transition metal precipitates. We report the carbon monoxide-dependent formation of carbon-fixation products, including an ordered series of alpha-hydroxy and alpha-amino acids ...
Caputo Francesco - - 2006
The synthesis of two new diastereomeric 6-amino-3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6-carboxylic acids exo- and endo-8,9 is reported using exo- and endo-norbornene amino acids as chiral building blocks. This method provides a fast access to optically pure amino acids 8 and 9 which can be considered both alpha,gamma- and alpha,delta-diamino acids containing sterical constraints and ...
Godfrey Jollie D JD - - 2006
Conversion of an alpha,alpha-dichloroester to the corresponding alpha-keto acid was unexpectedly complicated by a novel 1,4-homofragmentation. Investigation of the kinetics of this reaction revealed a mechanism involving an alpha-lactone intermediate, which can lead to both the desired alpha-keto acid and the 1,4-homofragmentation, with the product distribution being dependent upon reaction ...
Kim Taek-Soo - - 2006
We reported efficient enantioselective synthetic methodologies for (R)-alpha-alkylcysteines and (S)-alpha-alkylcysteines. The phase-transfer catalytic alkylation of 2-phenyl-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester and 2-o-biphenyl-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester, in the presence of chiral catalysts (1 or 2), gave the corresponding alkylated products, which could be hydrolyzed to provide (R)-alpha-alkylcysteines (67->99% ee) and (S)-alpha-alkylcysteines (66-88% ...
Palacios Francisco - - 2006
An efficient synthesis of 1-azadienes derived from alpha-aminoesters is achieved through an aza-Wittig reaction of phosphazenes with beta,gamma-unsaturated alpha-ketoesters. Regioselective 1,2-reduction of these functionalized 1-azadienes affords vinylglycine derivatives, while conjugative 1,4-reduction gives alpha-dehydroamino acid compounds. Reduction of both the carbon-carbon and the imine-carbon-nitrogen double bonds leads to the formation of ...
Burrell Mm - - 2007
Imaging Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry provides a new and powerful tool to analyse the distribution of metabolites within plant tissues. The two matrices alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (alpha-CHCA) and 9-aminoacridine provide a useful combination that allows the measurement of amino acids, sugars, and phosphorylated metabolites. Results are presented showing ...
Tamamizu-Kato Shiori - - 2006
Alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) is a 140-residue protein that aggregates in intraneuronal inclusions called Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease (PD). It is composed of an N-terminal domain with a propensity to bind lipids and a C-terminal domain rich in acidic residues (the acidic tail). The objective of this study was to examine ...
Morino Kazuhide - - 2006
A stereoregular poly(phenylacetylene) bearing the aza-18-crown-6 ether pendants (poly-1) was found to form a predominantly one-handed helix upon complexation with optically active C(alpha)-methylated alpha-amino acids and their amide derivatives including typical meteoritic C(alpha)-methylated alpha-amino acids such as C(alpha)-methyl norvaline and C(alpha)-methyl valine. The complexes exhibited an induced circular dichroism (ICD) ...
Pengo Paolo - - 2006
Microwave dielectric heating proved to be an efficient method for the one-pot and stepwise syntheses of symmetrical and unsymmetrical naphthalenediimide derivatives of alpha-amino acids. Acid-labile side chain protecting groups are stable under the reaction conditions; protection of the alpha-carboxylic group is not required. The stepwise condensation of different amino acids ...
Wang Su-Jane - - 2007
The antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid has been reported to prevent and reverse age-related impairments in learning and memory. However, it is unclear how alpha-lipoic acid improves cognitive function. In this study, the effect of alpha-lipoic acid on the release of endogenous glutamate from rat cerebrocortical nerve terminals (synaptosomes) was examined. We ...
Schobert Rainer - - 2007
Natural products containing tetronic acid or tetramic acid moieties continue to attract the interest of chemists, biologists, and physicians due to their challenging structures and to the wide range of biological activities they display. This review portrays the structural varieties of tetronic and tetramic acids and the spectrum of possible ...
Magarvey Nathan A - - 2006
Several nonribosomal peptide natural products are composites of alpha-hydroxy acid and alpha-amino acid monomers. Cereulide, the emetic toxin from the human pathogen Bacillus cereus, and valinomycin, from Streptomyces spp., are closely related macrocyclic K+ ionophores. The macrocyclic core of each natural product contains alternating peptide (six) and ester (six) bonds, ...
Kaboudin Babak - - 2006
The reaction of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes with hypophosphorus acid under microwave irradiation was examined. The reaction gave a mixture of a racemic pair of bis(alpha-hydroxyalkyl)phosphinic acids and acetal derivatives from the corresponding bis(alpha-hydroxyalkyl)phosphinic acids of meso-stereochemistry in good yield. The difference in solubility in organic solvents due to polarity ...
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