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Birk Tina - - 2012
The pH of the human stomach is dynamic and changes over time, depending on the composition of the food ingested and a number of host-related factors such as age. To evaluate the number of bacteria surviving the gastric acid barrier, we have developed a simple gastric acid model, in which ...
Ktistakis Nicholas T - - 2012
The simple phosphoinositide PtdIns3P has been shown to control cell growth downstream of amino acid signalling and autophagy downstream of amino acid withdrawal. These opposing effects depend in part on the existence of distinct complexes of Vps34 (vacuolar protein sorting 34), the kinase responsible for the majority of PtdIns3P synthesis ...
Lefever Mark R MR Carl S. Marvel Laboratories, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, - - 2012
A simplified method for the preparation of Fmoc-serine and Fmoc-threonine glycosides for use in O-linked glycopeptide synthesis is described. Lewis acids promote glycoside formation, but also promote undesired reactions of the glycoside products. Use of 'minimally competent' Lewis acids such as InBr(3) promotes the desired activation catalytically, and with greatly ...
Nguyen Cuong Mai - - 2012
The freshwater microalga, Hydrodictyon reticulum, that contained 47.5% reducing sugars including 35% glucose was used as substrate for the production of l-lactic acid (LA) by LA-producing bacteria. Lactobacillus paracasei LA104 was selected for fermentation in a 5-l fermentor since it was able to grow at pH 3, 60g LA/l, 200g ...
Alonso Saúl - - 2012
The influence of dissolved oxygen availability on cell growth and lactobionic acid production from whey by Pseudomonas taetrolens has been investigated for the first time. Results from pH-shift bioreactor cultivations have shown that high agitation rate schemes stimulated cell growth, increased pH-shift values and the oxygen uptake rate by cells, ...
Ruhal Rohit - - 2012
Recently suitability of crude glycerol for trehalose and propionic acid productions was reported using Propionibacterium freudenreichii subspp. shermanii and it was concluded that presence of KCl in crude glycerol was the probable reason for higher trehalose accumulation with crude glycerol medium. To further improve trehalose production, an osmotic sensitive mutant ...
YemiƟ Oktay - - 2012
Optimization of acid-catalyzed conversion conditions of wheat straw into furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), glucose, and xylose was studied by response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the effects of independent variables, including reaction temperature (140-200°C), residence time (1-41min), pH (0.1-2.1), and liquid:solid ratio (15-195mL/g) on ...
Zheng Yubin - - 2012
Lipids produced from filamentous fungi show great promise for biofuel production, but a major limiting factor is the high production cost attributed to feedstock. Lignocellulosic biomass is a suitable feedstock for biofuel production due to its abundance and low value. However, very limited study has been performed on lipid production ...
Katane Masumi - - 2012
D: -Amino acids play important physiological roles in the mammalian body. Recent investigations revealed that, in mammals, D: -amino acids are synthesized from their corresponding L: -enantiomers via amino acid racemase. This article describes a method used to measure amino acid racemase activity by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The assay ...
Bajaj Vinit - - 2012
In present study, fermentative production of Sophorolipids (SLs) by Starmerella bombicola NRRL Y-17069 that have antibacterial activities was optimized. The media components like glucose, yeast extract and urea were critical components in the microbial growth and formation of SL moiety. The secondary carbon; oleic acid supports the formation of SLs. ...
Hino Nobumasa - - 2012
Expanding the repertoire of genetically encoded amino acids in cultured mammalian cells requires the expression of the bacterial or archaeal pair of a tRNA and an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase variant engineered to be specific to the amino acid, along with the supplementation of an unnatural amino acid in the growth medium. ...
Shi Shuobo - - 2012
Wax ester synthases (WSs) can synthesize wax esters from alcohols and fatty acyl coenzyme A thioesters. The knowledge of the preferred substrates for each WS allows the use of yeast cells for the production of wax esters that are high-value materials and can be used in a variety of industrial ...
Marton János - - 2012
The route selection and development of a convenient synthesis of 4-carboxy-4-anilidopiperidines is described. Previous routes were hampered by the low yield of the target esters as well as the inability to convert the esters to the required free acids. Considerations for large-scale production led to a modified synthesis that utilised ...
Xie Qiao-Guang - - 2012
Treatment of waste glycerol, a by-product of the biodiesel production process, can reduce water pollution and bring significant economic benefits for biodiesel facilities. In the present study, hydrochloric acid (HCl) was used as acidification to convert soaps into salts and free fatty acids which were recovered after treatment. The pH ...
Khot Mahesh - - 2012
Single cell oils (SCOs) accumulated by oleaginous fungi have emerged as a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. Though fungi from mangrove ecosystem have been reported for production of several lignocellulolytic enzymes, they remain unexplored for their SCO producing ability. Thus, these oleaginous fungi from the mangrove ecosystem could be ...
Li Dan - - 2012
Optimization of the unsaturated fatty acid composition of ruminant milk and meat is desirable. Alteration of the milk and fatty acid profile was previously attempted by the management of ruminal microbial biohydrogenation. The aim of this study was to identify the group of ruminal trans-vaccenic acid (trans-11 C18:1, t-VA) hydrogenating ...
Liu Hui - - 2012
As an alternative for economic biodiesel production, the microbial production of extracellular fatty acid from renewable resources is receiving more concerns recently, since the separation of fatty acid from microorganism cells is normally involved in a series of energy-intensive steps. Many attempts have been made to construct fatty acid producing ...
Kuipers Maria T - - 2012
Uric acid released from injured tissue is considered a major endogenous danger signal and local instillation of uric acid crystals induces acute lung inflammation via activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is mediated by the NLRP3 inflammasome and increased uric acid levels in lung lavage fluid are ...
Le Meur Sylvaine - - 2012
Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is able to synthesize large amounts of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs). To reduce the substrate cost, which represents nearly 50% of the total PHA production cost, xylose, a hemicellulose derivate, was tested as the growth carbon source in an engineered P. putida KT2440 strain. The genes encoding xylose ...
Lim David K Y - - 2012
Microalgae have been widely reported as a promising source of biofuels, mainly based on their high areal productivity of biomass and lipids as triacylglycerides and the possibility for cultivation on non-arable land. The isolation and selection of suitable strains that are robust and display high growth and lipid accumulation rates ...
Takahashi Hiroshi - - 2011
Phosphatidylglucoside (PtdGlc) is a unique glyco-glycerophospholipid that is found in both bacterial and mammalian cells. The discovery of PtdGlc in mammalian cells is relatively recent (Nagatsuka et al., 2001). Chemical structural analysis of the PtdGlc found in mammalian organs and cultured cells showed that PtdGlc is composed exclusively of a ...
Imae Rieko - - 2012
Mammalian phosphatidylinositol (PI) has a unique fatty acid composition in that 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl species is predominant. This fatty acid composition is formed through fatty acid remodeling by sequential deacylation and reacylation. We recently identified three Caenorhabditis elegans acyltransferases (ACL-8, ACL-9, and ACL-10) that incorporate stearic acid into the sn-1 position of ...
Hoogeveen-Westerveld Marianne - - 2011
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. The TSC1 and TSC2 gene products, TSC1 and TSC2, form a complex that inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (TORC1). Previously, we demonstrated that pathogenic amino acid substitutions in ...
Farrell Emma K - - 2012
Primary fatty acid amides (PFAM) are important signaling molecules in the mammalian nervous system, binding to many drug receptors and demonstrating control over sleep, locomotion, angiogenesis, and many other processes. Oleamide is the best-studied of the primary fatty acid amides, whereas the other known PFAMs are significantly less studied. Herein, ...
Bao Xu-Dong - - 2011
Streptococcus (S.) oligofermentans is a newly identified bacteria with a yet to be defined mechanism of sucrose metabolism that results in acid production. This study aimed to investigate the biochemical mechanisms of S. oligoferm-entans glucose metaolism. The S. oligofermentans LMG21532, Lactobacillus (L.) fermentum 38 and the S. mutans UA140 were ...
Yoon Mee-Sup - - 2011
The rapamycin-sensitive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex, mTORC1, regulates cell growth in response to mitogenic signals and amino acid availability. Phospholipase D (PLD) and its product, phosphatidic acid, have been established as mediators of mitogenic activation of mTORC1. In this study, we identify a novel role for PLD1 in ...
Proud Chris G - - 2011
A recent study reveals that the scaffold protein p62 plays a role in linking nutritional cues (amino acids) to the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a protein kinase that controls cell size and proliferation.
Giannoutsou E P - - 2012
Two-phase olive-mill waste, the so-called "ecological", has been treated with a Paecilomyces variotii isolate in solid state fermentation experiments. The growth of the microorganism was estimated by measuring the production of carbon dioxide, using gas chromatography. A 46% increase of the protein content was achieved at the fermented product, after ...
Chen Qing - - 2011
Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3 n6) is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid of the omega-6 family and is found to be effective in prevention and/or treatment of various health problems. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of increasing γ-linolenic acid contents in mammalian cells using the delta-6 gene from Borago ...
Tsuji Makiko - - 2011
We examined the acid resistance and verocytotoxin (VT) productivity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 irradiated by microwave with a domestic microwave oven and a commercial microwave radiator equipped with a thermo-regulator. When the cell suspension (5 mL) chilled at 0 °C was treated with a domestic microwave oven at weak power (2.45 ...
Kaur Amandeep - - 2011
Sustained colonic fermentation supplies beneficial fermentative by-products to the distal colon, which is particularly prone to intestinal ailments. Blunted/delayed initial fermentation may also lead to less bloating. Previously, we reported that starch-entrapped alginate-based microspheres act as a slowly fermenting dietary fiber. This material was used in the present study to ...
Shi Yu-Dong YD R&D Center, Inner Mongolia Mengniu Dairy (Group) Co. Ltd., Huhhot 011500, - - 2011
In Inner Mongolia, China, the chemical composition of 66 breast milk samples at three lactation stages was analysed. Except for total nitrogen content, the contents of total solid, fat, NPN, lactose and ash were not significantly different between colostral, transitional and mature milk. Fatty acids did not vary over the ...
Güler Zehra Z Department of Food Engineering, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034-Antakya-Hatay, Turkey. Electronic address: - - 2011
Six different types of yogurt were manufactured from Damascus goat milk, Awassi ewe milk and a mixture of equal portions of the 2 species of milk using 2 types of commercial yogurt cultures (CH-1 and YF-3331). Yogurts were chemically analysed at 1, 7, 14 and 21days of storage. Results showed ...
Lazzarino Giuseppe - - 2011
The determination of purines and pyrimidines in biofluids is useful for the clinical-biochemical characterization of acute and chronic pathological states that induce transient or permanent alterations of metabolism. In particular, the diagnosis of several inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) is accomplished by the analysis of circulating and excreted purines and ...
Zhang Kun - - 2011
Five individual pretreatment methods, including three widely-used protocols (heat, acid and base) and two novel attempts (ultrasonic and ultraviolet), were conducted in batch tests to compare their effects on mixed microflora to enhance hydrogen (H2) production from corn stover hydrolysate. Experimental results indicated that heat and base pretreatments significantly increased ...
Janin Amélie - - 2010
Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood was widely used until 2004 for residential and industrial applications. Since 2004, CCA was replaced by alternative copper preservatives such as alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), copper azole (CA) and micronized copper quaternary (MCQ), for residential applications due to health concerns. Treated wood waste disposal is ...
Sengupta Avery - - 2011
To assess the effect of medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)-rich mustard oil and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich mustard oil on erythrocyte membrane composition and osmotic fragility in normal and hypercholesterolemic rats. Membrane composition was analyzed using standard kits. Osmotic fragility was determined using method described by Dacie and Lewis. Fatty acid ...
Santos Pauline Sousa Dos - - 2011
Alpha-lipoic acid has some neuroprotective properties, but this action has not been investigated in models of epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective efficacy of α-lipoic acid (lipoic acid) against pilocarpine-induced cell death through the caspase-dependent or -independent mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. Wistar rats were injected ...
Kim Malgeunsinae - - 2010
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) play an important role in brain development and function, but there is conflicting evidence between the relationship of n-3 PUFA and dementia in the elderly. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that n-3 PUFA content of erythrocytes is associated with ...
Holz Martina - - 2011
The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is one of the most intensively studied "non-conventional" yeast species. Its ability to secrete various organic acids, like pyruvic (PA), citric, isocitric, and alpha-ketoglutaric (KGA) acid, in large amounts is of interest for biotechnological applications. We have studied the effect of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH) complex ...
Luo Yong-Chun - - 2010
Amino acids are one of the most important classes of the building blocks of life: they are the structural subunits of proteins, peptides, and many secondary metabolites. In addition to the 20 α-amino acids that constitute the backbone of proteins, hundreds of other natural α-amino acids have been discovered either ...
Tas Nilufer - - 2010
Many of the hypotheses have been suggested to explain the mechanism of the secondary effects of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) as follows: ischaemia/reperfusion disability theory, free radicals theory, exit otoxicity theory, immunological destruction theory, apoptosis theory. Recently, free radicals,lipid peroxidation reactions and apoptosis theories have been much more accepted ...
Ramaswamy Aishwarya V - - 2010
Lipoic acid is an essential protein bound cofactor that is vital for the functioning of several important enzymes involved in central metabolism. Genomes of all sequenced chlamydiae show the presence of two genes encoding lipoic acid ligases and one gene encoding a lipoate synthase. However, the roles of these proteins ...
Feng Yakai - - 2010
Polydepsipeptides - alternating copolymers of an alpha-amino acid and an alpha-hydroxy acid - are a group of biodegradable polymers. Versatile polydepsipeptides with or without pendant functional groups, as well as various polymer architectures, for example, providing alternative, random, diblock, triblock, multiblock or graft sequence structures, can be synthesized via ring-opening ...
Zhang Jianmin - - 2010
Aluminum-based Lewis acids are effective promoters of the condensation of alpha-chloroglycinates with isonitriles or with cyanide ion, leading to the formation of 5-amino-oxazoles.
Fan Xiang X Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, - - 2010
The regulation and function of lysosomal hydrolases during yolk consumption and embryogenesis in zebrafish are poorly understood. In an effort to better define the lysosomal biochemistry of this organism, we analyzed the developmental expression, biochemical properties, and function of several glycosidases in zebrafish eggs, embryos, and adult tissues. Our results ...
Kim Chi Hyun - - 2010
Fibrates and WY-14643 are widely used as lipid-lowering drugs via modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) for the treatment of a wide range of metabolic disorders. Here, to address the question whether PPAR α agonists can affect the enzymatic activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase1 (11β-HSD1), we tested fibrates and ...
Emmez Hakan - - 2010
Radical oxygen species produced after injury counteracts antioxidant activity and frequently causes severe oxidative stress for the tissues. Alpha-lipoic acid is a powerful metabolic antioxidant with immunomodulatory effects which provides neuroprotection. The aim of this study is to investigate the neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic effects of alpha-lipoic acid on spinal cord ...
Muzael Maged - - 2010
The synthesis of (2R,3R,Z)-2-docosyl-3-hydroxytetracont-21-enoic acid, a significant alpha'-mycolic acid of Mycobacterium smegmatis and other mycobacteria is reported.
Mammone T - - 2010
J. Cosmet. Sci., 60, 423-428 (July/August 2009) Synopsis Alpha-hydroxy acids have been used topically to treat skin for both dermatological and cosmetic problems for many years. Though there are many known benefits of the use of alpha-hydroxy acids on skin, there have been recent reports that topical treatments with alpha-hydroxy ...
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