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Zand Afshin - - 2012
Isozeaxanthin under acidic conditions forms an allylic cation which reacts readily with thiol nucleophiles. With N-acetylcysteine as a nucleophile the products obtained are carotenoid-cysteine conjugates in which the amino acid moiety binds carotenoid via sulphur in position 4. The water solubility of the products can be increased by deprotection of ...
Liu Junhan - - 2012
Scenedesmus spp. have been reported as potential microalgal species used for the lipid production. This study investigated the effects of light intensity (at three levels: 50, 250, and 400 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) on the growth and lipid production of Scenedesmus sp. 11-1 under N-limited condition. Carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio was higher when ...
Ghosh Saptarshi - - 2012
Shikimic acid is a key intermediate for the synthesis of the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu®). Shikimic acid can be produced via chemical synthesis, microbial fermentation and extraction from certain plants. An alternative production route is via biotransformation of the more readily available quinic acid. Much of the current supply of ...
Bondioli Paolo - - 2012
Nannochloropsis sp. F&M-M24 and Tetraselmis suecica F&M-M33 were cultivated outdoors in Green Wall Panels under nutrient deficiency to stimulate oil synthesis. Under nitrogen deprivation, Nannochloropsis attained average biomass and lipid productivities of 9.9 and 6.5gm(-2)day(-1), respectively. Starved Tetraselmis cultures achieved a biomass productivity of about 7.6gm(-2)day(-1) and a lipid productivity ...
Popovich Cecilia A - - 2012
The freshwater microalga Neochloris oleoabundans was used to study algal lipid production in enriched natural seawater, in order to assess its suitability as biodiesel feedstock. Optimal and nitrogen-stress (N-stress) conditions were analyzed. Under optimal conditions, the strain's growth rate was 0.73 div day(-1) and the biomass concentration was 1.5gL(-1), while ...
Kapu N U S - - 2012
Spent mushroom compost (SMC), a byproduct of commercial mushroom cultivation, poses serious environmental problems that have hampered the growth of this important agro-industry. In an effort to develop new applications for SMC, we explored its use as a feedstock for bioethanol production. SMC constitutes approximately 30%w/w polysaccharides, 66% of which ...
Liu Zhen - - 2012
Hemicellulose, which contains glucose, xylose, and arabinose as the 3 main sugars, is an important renewable source for biorefinery. In this study, propionic acid production from glucose, xylose, or arabinose using Propionibacterium acidipropionici ATCC 4875 was investigated. Using xylose, the predominant sugar in hemicellulose, a final propionic acid concentration of ...
Zhang Dan - - 2012
The production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 from cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL) was studied for the first time in this work. When batch fermentation was carried out with untreated molasses, 33.6±0.37gL(-1) PGA was obtained with a productivity of 0.46±0.006gL(-1)h(-1). In order to minimize the ...
Ramos-Morales Francisco - - 2012
The first stress that foodborne pathogens find upon ingestion is the very acidic pH of the stomach of the host. In addition, intracellular pathogens like Salmonella are submitted to low pH inside the host cells. Two general acid survival systems are found in these organisms: acid resistance mechanisms and acid ...
Zhu Junli - - 2012
Mayonnaise made from contaminated eggs has been linked to outbreaks of Salmonella infections. This study was undertaken to determine the fate of salmonellae in home-style mayonnaise and acid solutions with or without chemical preservatives. Egg yolks were inoculated with different levels of a three-serotype (Typhimurium, Heidelberg, and Enteritidis [untypeable phage ...
Hajjaj Hassan - - 2012
Amino acids were used as sole nitrogen sources to examine their effects on the production of water-soluble red pigments and citrinin by Monascus ruber ATCC 96218 cultivated on chemically defined media. In general, when glycine, tyrosine, arginine, serine, or histidine were used as sole nitrogen sources, they favored the production ...
Allam Uday Sankar - - 2012
During the course of infection, Salmonella has to face several potentially lethal environmental conditions, one such being acidic pH. The ability to sense and respond to the acidic pH is crucial for the survival and replication of Salmonella. The physiological role of one gene (STM1485) involved in this response, which ...
Abdo Mohannad - - 2012
Equimolar quantities of 2-(ethoxy)ethaneseleninic acid and p-thiocresol react rapidly in dichloromethane solution to give the selenosulfide along with disulfide, diselenide, and two products oxidized at sulfur, the thiosulfonate and the selenosulfonate. The latter two are new for this sort of coupling; their formation may be the result of an early ...
Park Hui Gyu - - 2012
This study was performed to characterize natural CLnA isomer production by Bifidobacterium breve LMC520 of human origin in comparison to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production. B. breve LMC520 was found to be highly active in terms of CLnA production, of which the major portion was identified as cis-9,trans-11,cis-15 CLnA isomer ...
Gorissen Lara - - 2012
There is great interest in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) isomers because of their supposed health-promoting properties. Therefore, the differences in production kinetics of CLA and CLNA isomers from linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (α-LNA), respectively, by bifidobacteria were investigated. Laboratory fermentations, supplemented with LA ...
Joerger Rolf D - - 2012
Abstract In the United States, serovar Kentucky has become one of the most frequently isolated Salmonella enterica serovars from chickens. The reasons for this prevalence are not well understood. Phenotypic comparisons of poultry Salmonella isolates belonging to various serovars demonstrated that serovar Kentucky isolates differed from those of most other ...
Mohan Anand - - 2012
This study evaluated the effects of peroxyacetic acid (PAA), malic acid (MA), octanoic acid (OA), and potassium lactate (KL) followed by mixing with trisodium phosphate (TSP) and an ultra-chilled CO₂ snow shower on microbial counts of Escherichia coli (EC), coliform (CF), aerobic plate count (APC), and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) on ...
Poupin Nathalie - - 2012
Net acid production, which is composed of volatile acids (15,000 mEq/day) and metabolic acids (70-100 mEq/day) is relatively small compared to whole-body H(+) turnover (150,000 mEq/day). Metabolic acids are ingested from the diet or produced as intermediary or end products of endogenous metabolism. The three commonly reported sources of net acid production are the ...
Chen Xue-Fang - - 2012
Corncob was treated by dilute H(2)SO(4). The hydrolysate contained 45.7 g sugar/l. Without concentration or adding other nutrients, the hydrolysate, after being detoxified by overliming and adsorption with activated charcoal, was used for oil production using Trichosporon cutaneum. After 8 days' growth in shake-flasks, the biomass was 22.1 g/l with a lipid content ...
Hughes Stephen R - - 2012
A gene encoding a synthetic truncated Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) was generated via automated PCR and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Western blot analysis detected five truncated CALB variants, suggesting multiple translation starts from the six in-frame ATG codons. The longest open reading frame, which corresponds to amino acids 35-317 ...
Nicol R W - - 2012
The production of synthetic glycerol from petrochemical feedstocks has been decreasing in recent years. This is largely due to increasing supplies of crude glycerol derived as a co-product from the oleochemical industry, especially biodiesel production. The price of glycerol is at historic lows, and the supply of crude glycerol is ...
Taskin Mesut - - 2012
Citric acid (CA) is the most important organic acid used in the food and other industries. Locusta migratoria is an insect species, which has rich nutritional composition (especially protein) and cultivated in some countries. Therefore, the present study investigated the usability of hydrolysate extract of L. migratoria biomass as substrate ...
Wan Norhana M N - - 2012
Nisin (500 IU ml(-1)), EDTA (0.02 M), potassium sorbate (PS) (3%, w/v), sodium benzoate (SB) (3%, w/v) or sodium diacetate (SD) (3%, w/v); alone or in combination were used to dip uninoculated shrimps and shrimps inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella (∼4.0-5.0 log CFU g(-1)). Shrimps were then drip-dried, vacuum packaged and stored at ...
Sun Cathy - - 2012
Eight commercial grape seed products (GSPs) were assessed for their inhibition of the formation of advanced glycation end-products in vitro. All 8 commercial GSPs included in this study were potent inhibitors of advanced glycation end-product formation with IC(50) values ranging from 2.93 to 20.0 µg/mL. Total procyanidin content ranged from 60% ...
Yan Lei - - 2012
A mesophilic lignocellulolytic microbial consortium BYND-5, established by successive subcultivation, was applied to enhance the biogas production. The degradation efficiency of BYND-5 for rice straw was more than 49.0±1.8% after 7days of cultivation at 30°C. Various organic compounds, including acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and glycerin were detected during ...
Douša Michal - - 2012
The acid hydrolysis of various selected saccharide- and polysaccharide-based pharmaceutical excipients under acid hydrolysis and the formation of degradation compounds were studied. New degradation products formed from these excipients were discovered. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques were employed to identify and fully characterize these unknown compounds. The ...
Posada John A - - 2012
Glycerol as a low-cost by-product of the biodiesel industry can be considered a renewable building block for biorefineries. In this work, the conversion of raw glycerol to nine added-value products obtained by chemical (syn-gas, acrolein, and 1,2-propanediol) or bio-chemical (ethanol, 1,3-propanediol, d-lactic acid, succinic acid, propionic acid, and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) routes ...
Henard Calvin A - - 2012
In coordination with the ppGpp alarmone, the RNA polymerase regulatory protein DksA controls the stringent response of eubacteria, negatively regulating transcription of translational machinery and directly activating amino acid promoters and de novo amino acid biosynthesis. Given the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on amino acid biosynthetic pathways and the ...
Liu Long - - 2012
Propionic acid (PA) is an important building block chemical and finds a variety of applications in organic synthesis, food, feeding stuffs, perfume, paint and pharmaceutical industries. Presently, PA is mainly produced by petrochemical route. With the continuous increase in oil prices, public concern about environmental pollution, and the consumers' desire ...
Zhu Linqi - - 2012
Propionic acid is an important short-chain fatty acid with many applications, but its large-scale bioproduction was hindered by the low productivity. An adapted acid-tolerant Propionibacterium acidipropionici CGMCC 1.2230 strain was selected to produce propionic acid with a relatively high productivity (0.29g/(Lh)) in the free-cell fermentation. Further immobilized-cell fermentation in fibrous-bed ...
Cao Zhang-Jun - - 2012
PURPOSE: Feathers are one of the most abundant bioresources. They are discarded as waste in most cases and could cause environmental pollution. On the other hand, keratin constituted by amino acids is the main component of feathers. In this article, we reported on biorefined feathers and integrants and application of ...
Birk Tina - - 2012
The pH of the human stomach is dynamic and changes over time, depending on the composition of the food ingested and a number of host-related factors such as age. To evaluate the number of bacteria surviving the gastric acid barrier, we have developed a simple gastric acid model, in which ...
Ktistakis Nicholas T - - 2012
The simple phosphoinositide PtdIns3P has been shown to control cell growth downstream of amino acid signalling and autophagy downstream of amino acid withdrawal. These opposing effects depend in part on the existence of distinct complexes of Vps34 (vacuolar protein sorting 34), the kinase responsible for the majority of PtdIns3P synthesis ...
Lefever Mark R - - 2012
A simplified method for the preparation of Fmoc-serine and Fmoc-threonine glycosides for use in O-linked glycopeptide synthesis is described. Lewis acids promote glycoside formation, but also promote undesired reactions of the glycoside products. Use of 'minimally competent' Lewis acids such as InBr(3) promotes the desired activation catalytically, and with greatly ...
Nguyen Cuong Mai - - 2012
The freshwater microalga, Hydrodictyon reticulum, that contained 47.5% reducing sugars including 35% glucose was used as substrate for the production of l-lactic acid (LA) by LA-producing bacteria. Lactobacillus paracasei LA104 was selected for fermentation in a 5-l fermentor since it was able to grow at pH 3, 60g LA/l, 200g ...
Alonso Saúl - - 2012
The influence of dissolved oxygen availability on cell growth and lactobionic acid production from whey by Pseudomonas taetrolens has been investigated for the first time. Results from pH-shift bioreactor cultivations have shown that high agitation rate schemes stimulated cell growth, increased pH-shift values and the oxygen uptake rate by cells, ...
Ruhal Rohit - - 2012
Recently suitability of crude glycerol for trehalose and propionic acid productions was reported using Propionibacterium freudenreichii subspp. shermanii and it was concluded that presence of KCl in crude glycerol was the probable reason for higher trehalose accumulation with crude glycerol medium. To further improve trehalose production, an osmotic sensitive mutant ...
Yemiş Oktay - - 2012
Optimization of acid-catalyzed conversion conditions of wheat straw into furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), glucose, and xylose was studied by response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the effects of independent variables, including reaction temperature (140-200°C), residence time (1-41min), pH (0.1-2.1), and liquid:solid ratio (15-195mL/g) on ...
Zheng Yubin - - 2012
Lipids produced from filamentous fungi show great promise for biofuel production, but a major limiting factor is the high production cost attributed to feedstock. Lignocellulosic biomass is a suitable feedstock for biofuel production due to its abundance and low value. However, very limited study has been performed on lipid production ...
Katane Masumi - - 2012
D: -Amino acids play important physiological roles in the mammalian body. Recent investigations revealed that, in mammals, D: -amino acids are synthesized from their corresponding L: -enantiomers via amino acid racemase. This article describes a method used to measure amino acid racemase activity by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The assay ...
Bajaj Vinit - - 2012
In present study, fermentative production of Sophorolipids (SLs) by Starmerella bombicola NRRL Y-17069 that have antibacterial activities was optimized. The media components like glucose, yeast extract and urea were critical components in the microbial growth and formation of SL moiety. The secondary carbon; oleic acid supports the formation of SLs. ...
Hino Nobumasa - - 2012
Expanding the repertoire of genetically encoded amino acids in cultured mammalian cells requires the expression of the bacterial or archaeal pair of a tRNA and an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase variant engineered to be specific to the amino acid, along with the supplementation of an unnatural amino acid in the growth medium. ...
Shi Shuobo - - 2012
Wax ester synthases (WSs) can synthesize wax esters from alcohols and fatty acyl coenzyme A thioesters. The knowledge of the preferred substrates for each WS allows the use of yeast cells for the production of wax esters that are high-value materials and can be used in a variety of industrial ...
Marton János - - 2012
The route selection and development of a convenient synthesis of 4-carboxy-4-anilidopiperidines is described. Previous routes were hampered by the low yield of the target esters as well as the inability to convert the esters to the required free acids. Considerations for large-scale production led to a modified synthesis that utilised ...
Xie Qiao-Guang - - 2012
Treatment of waste glycerol, a by-product of the biodiesel production process, can reduce water pollution and bring significant economic benefits for biodiesel facilities. In the present study, hydrochloric acid (HCl) was used as acidification to convert soaps into salts and free fatty acids which were recovered after treatment. The pH ...
Khot Mahesh - - 2012
Single cell oils (SCOs) accumulated by oleaginous fungi have emerged as a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. Though fungi from mangrove ecosystem have been reported for production of several lignocellulolytic enzymes, they remain unexplored for their SCO producing ability. Thus, these oleaginous fungi from the mangrove ecosystem could be ...
Li Dan - - 2012
Optimization of the unsaturated fatty acid composition of ruminant milk and meat is desirable. Alteration of the milk and fatty acid profile was previously attempted by the management of ruminal microbial biohydrogenation. The aim of this study was to identify the group of ruminal trans-vaccenic acid (trans-11 C18:1, t-VA) hydrogenating ...
Liu Hui - - 2012
As an alternative for economic biodiesel production, the microbial production of extracellular fatty acid from renewable resources is receiving more concerns recently, since the separation of fatty acid from microorganism cells is normally involved in a series of energy-intensive steps. Many attempts have been made to construct fatty acid producing ...
Kuipers Maria T - - 2012
Uric acid released from injured tissue is considered a major endogenous danger signal and local instillation of uric acid crystals induces acute lung inflammation via activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is mediated by the NLRP3 inflammasome and increased uric acid levels in lung lavage fluid are ...
Le Meur Sylvaine - - 2012
Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is able to synthesize large amounts of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs). To reduce the substrate cost, which represents nearly 50% of the total PHA production cost, xylose, a hemicellulose derivate, was tested as the growth carbon source in an engineered P. putida KT2440 strain. The genes encoding xylose ...
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