Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1654
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Hederos Markus - - 2005
[structure: see text] Synthesis of the core tetrasaccharide Manp(alpha1-->6)-Manp(alpha1-->4)-6-(2-aminoethylphosphonic acid)-GlcNp(alpha1-->6)-myo-Ins-1-PO4, found in glycoinositolphospholipids of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites, is described. The key building block, 6-O-(2-azido-3-O-benzyl-6-O-((2-benzyloxycarbonylaminoethyl)phosphonic acid benzyl ester)-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-di-O-benzylphosphoryl-4,5-O-isopropylidene-2,3-O-(D-1,7,7-trimethyl[2,2,1]bicyclohept-6-ylidene)-D-myo-inositol, was synthesized using a partially protected glucosyl D-camphorinositolphosphate and a (2-benzyloxycarbonylaminoethyl)phosphonic acid derivative in a regioselective phosphonate esterfication. Elongation with ethyl 2-O-benzoyl-3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-(1-->6)-2,3,4-tri-O-benzyl-1-alpha-D-thiomannopyranoside using ...
Mellon Christophe - - 2005
Caspase 3 is a cysteinyl protease that mediates apoptotic cell death. Its inhibition may have an important impact in the treatment of several degenerative diseases. The P1 aspartic acid residue is a required element of recognition for this enzyme that was maintained constant along with the adjacent natural valine as ...
Funchal Cláudia - - 2005
In this study we investigate the effects of the branched-chain keto acids (BCKA) alpha-ketoisocaproic (KIC), alpha-ketoisovaleric (KIV), and alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric (KMV) acids, metabolites accumulating in maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), on the in vitro phosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cytoskeletal reorganization in C6-glioma cells. We observed that after ...
Souto E B - - 2005
This study describes the development, preparation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing the novel anti-ageing substance alpha-lipoic acid. Lipoic acid is chemically labile, i.e. the degradation products possess an unpleasant odour. Therefore, the active was encapsulated in SLN. A lipid with low melting point (Softisan 601) was selected ...
Cherry Khalil - - 2005
A general route to alpha-pyrones and 3-substituted isocoumarins from (Z)-iodovinylic acids 1a-f or 2-iodobenzoic acids 4a-c is described, including compounds bearing a substituent on the aromatic ring. Treatment of (Z)-beta-iodovinylic acids 1a-f or 2-iodobenzoic acids 4a-c with various allenyltributyltin reagents in the presence of palladium acetate, triphenylphosphine, and tetrabutylammonium bromide ...
Hanessian Stephen - - 2005
The synthesis of three vicinally substituted azacyclic carboxylic acids in enantiopure form was achieved from a common alpha-amino aldehyde originating from l-leucine. Pyrrolidines and pyrrolidinones were elaborated from alpha,beta-unsaturated gamma-hydroxy-delta-amino acids via azomethine ylide 1,3-dipolar addition and conjugate addition/cyclization strategies, respectively. The azacyclic amino acids were incorporated in a pseudopeptide ...
Jisaka Mitsuo - - 2005
Mouse 8S-lipoxygenase (8-LOX) metabolizes arachidonic acid (AA) specifically to 8S-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (8S-HPETE), which will be readily reduced under physiological circumstances to 8S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (8S-HETE), a natural agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha). Here, we investigated whether 8-LOX could further oxygenate AA and whether the products could activate PPARs. ...
Selvakumar Elangovan - - 2006
The present study investigated the protective efficacy of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on the cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced clastogenicity using the in vivo micronucleus assay. Male Wistar rats of 140 +/- 20 g were categorized into eight groups. Five groups were administered CP (40 mg/kg body weight, intraperitonealy) to induce genotoxicity; four of these ...
Loï Cécile - - 2005
To gain further insight into the ability of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) to generate key metabolites, the aim of this work was to study the short-term metabolism, that is, 1 hour after administration, of OKG in plasma and tissues. Particular attention was paid to keto acids (alpha-ketoglutarate and branched-chain keto acids). ...
Hida Hiroyuki - - 2005
Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a major acid component of the tropical plants Garcinia cambogia and Hibiscus subdariffa. (2S,3S)-HCA from G. cambogia was shown to be a potent inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase (EC4.1.3.8), which catalyzes the extramitochondrial cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. (2S,3R)-HCA from H. subdariffa inhibits alpha-amylase ...
Ji Jian-Xin - - 2005
The catalytic asymmetric introduction of alkynyl functionality to alpha-amino acid derivatives was realized by the direct addition of terminal alkynes to alpha-imino ester in the presence of chiral Cu(I) complex under mild reaction conditions. Owing to the rich chemistry to which alkyne can be subjected, the present system provides a ...
Mühling J - - 2005
The objective of this study was to determine the dose as well as duration of exposure-dependent effects of L-alanyl-L-glutamine, arginine or taurine on polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) free alpha-keto acid profiles and, in a parallel study, on PMN immune functions. Exogenous L-alanyl-L-glutamine significantly increased PMN alpha-ketoglutarate, pyruvate PMN superoxide anion (O2-) ...
Zhu Ruohua - - 2005
Heavy atom-chelated filter paper was synthesized and used as the substrate for room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP). The synthesis conditions for chelated paper were studied. The Pb-chelated filter paper could selectively induce the RTP of alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (alpha-NAA). The excitation and emission wavelengths of RTP of alpha-NAA were 300 nm and ...
Zeleke Tigabu K - - 2005
This work describes antibodies exhibiting high stereoselectivity and class-specificity towards the enantiomers of free alpha-hydroxy acids. Since the antibodies interact primarily with the carboxyl-hydroxyl-hydrogen triad about the stereogenic center, they are useful for enantiomer analysis of a variety of structurally different alpha-hydroxy acids including aromatic and aliphatic compounds, e.g. lactic ...
Konrad Daniel - - 2005
Alpha-lipoic acid is a naturally occurring cofactor of mitochondrial dehydrogenase complexes and a potent antioxidant. It can interchange between a reduced form and an oxidized form, thereby displaying reducing (antioxidant) and prooxidant properties, respectively. It is suggested that alpha-lipoic acid through its prooxidant properties acutely stimulates the insulin-signaling cascade, thereby ...
Biron Eric - - 2005
N(alpha)-Methylamino acid containing peptides exhibit interesting therapeutic profiles and are increasingly recognized as potentially useful therapeutics. Unfortunately, their synthesis is hampered by the high price and unavaibility of many N(alpha)-methylamino acids. An efficient and practical preparation of N(alpha)-methyl-N(alpha)-(o-nitrobenzenesulfonyl)-alpha-amino acids without extensive purification is described. The procedure is based on the ...
Mohr Justin T - - 2005
The polyhydroxyalkanes 1,6,11,16-hexadecanetetraol (1) and 2,7,12,17-octadecanetetraol (2) were synthesized utilizing the thiophene ring as a scaffold to affix the hydroxyalkyl chains by lithiation of the acidic alpha-hydrogens and subsequent desulfurization. Both compounds exhibited significant anesthetic potency, individually and in additivity studies with hexanol, using immobility in tadpoles as the phenotypic ...
Ferreira Isabel M P L V O - - 2005
The influence of hydrophobic polypeptides concentrated in beer foam, together with the composition of iso-alpha acids and the content of malto-oligosaccharides in beer on foam stability, has been investigated. The objective was to find out whether a shortage of one of these positive contributors to foam stability could be compensated ...
Malowicki Mark G - - 2005
The rate of isomerization of alpha acids to iso-alpha acids (the compounds contributing bitter taste to beer) was determined across a range of temperatures (90-130 degrees C) to characterize the rate at which iso-alpha acids are formed during kettle boiling. Multiple 12 mL stainless steel vessels were utilized to heat ...
Kong Fangming - - 2005
In our search for inhibitors of bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis, two new alpha-pyrones, pseudopyronines A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a marine Pseudomonas sp. F92S91. The naturally occurring alpha-pyrones appeared to be unstable, evidenced by the conversion of pseudopyronine B into an oxidation product, 3-furanone (3). Structural elucidations ...
Bridi Raquel - - 2005
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited neurometabolic disorder caused by deficiency of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity which leads to tissue accumulation of the branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKAs) alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC), alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (KIV) and alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid (KMV) and their respective amino acids. Neuropathologic findings characteristic of ...
Vasques Vilson de Castro Vde - - 2005
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited metabolic disease predominantly characterized by neurological dysfunction. Although a variable degree of psychomotor/delay/mental retardation is found in a considerable number of MSUD patients, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of this disorder are yet not defined. The present study investigated the effect of ...
Rozhko L F - - 2005
The method for the synthesis of 2-substituted 2-hydroxycarbonylethyl-1-aminoalkylphosphinic acids (I) (pseudo-alpha,alpha-dipeptides) from ammonium and potassium hypophosphites (II) is described. The proposed route to the synthesis of pseudo-alpha,alpha-dipeptides consists in addition hypophosphite to acrylic compounds and formation of the first phosphorus-carbon bond with following addition of aminoacid fragment and formation of ...
Marsh S A - - 2005
Endothelial cell apoptosis contributes to atherosclerosis and may be exacerbated by oxidative stress. Results from clinical trials using antioxidant supplementation are equivocal and could be enhanced by antioxidants with additional non-antioxidant properties such as alpha -lipoic acid and alpha -tocopherol. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects ...
Huang Hsueh-Meei - - 2005
The alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) is a mitochondrial enzyme in the TCA cycle. Inhibition of KGDHC activity by alpha-keto-beta-methyl-n-valeric acid (KMV) is associated with neuron death. However, the effect of KMV in microglia is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of KMV on BV-2 microglial cells exposed to hypoxia or ...
Luppi Elisa - - 2005
An unusual heparin (approximately 1.9 mg/g of dry tissue) was isolated from the marine italian bivalve mollusk Callista chione. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed a high content of the fast-moving heparin component (85 +/- 7.6%) and 15 +/- 1.3% of the slow-moving species. An average molecular mass of 10 950 was ...
Crugeiras Juan - - 2005
We report second-order rate constants of kDO = 120 dm(3) mol(-1) s(-1) and kB = 6.4 x 10(-4) dm(3) mol(-1) s(-1) for exchange for deuterium of the first alpha-methylene proton of the 4-(aminomethyl)pyridine dication in D2O at 25 degree C and I= 1.0 (KCl). These data are consistent with a ...
Terrier François - - 2005
We report on a structural (multinuclear NMR), thermodynamic (pK(a)), and kinetic (Marcus intrinsic reactivity) study of the ionization of benzylic carbon acids activated by an exocyclic (alpha) SO(2)CF(3) group and SO(2)CF(3) or S(O)(=NSO(2)CF(3))CF(3) in the para position of the phenyl ring. The latter exerts an enormous acidifying effect of ca. ...
Kurz Thomas - - 2005
Substituted 3-amino-oxazolidin-2,4-diones have been prepared by reacting cyanohydrins or alpha-hydroxyesters subsequently with 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole and 1,1-disubstituted hydrazines followed by acidic hydrolysis in case of the intermediate 3-amino-4-imino-oxazolidin-2-ones. Conventional and microwave-assisted syntheses of N',N'-disubstituted alpha-hydroxyhydrazides have been accomplished by reacting substituted 3-amino-oxazolidin-2,4-diones with catalytic amounts of sodium methoxide in methanol.
Mukherjee Sulakshana - - 2005
Use of partial or selective (13)C/(15)N labeling of specific amino acid residues in a given protein to measure the values of (1)J((15)N(i),(13)C(alpha) (i)), (2)J((1)H(N),(13)C(alpha) (i)), (2)J((15)N(i),(13)C(alpha) (i-1)), (1)J((15)N(i),(13)C'(i-1)) and (2)J((1)H(N),(13)C'(i-1)) is described. This was achieved by recording a sensitivity-enhanced 2D [(15)N-(1)H] HSQC experiment, without mixing the spin states of C(alpha) ...
Bradley Richard L - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether key appetite-regulating neuropeptides such as melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), which are known to mediate energy balance through centrally mediated pathways, also have direct acute effects on the lipolytic activity of murine adipocytes. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes ...
Yokoyama Masamoto - - 2005
Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) therapy is strongly associated with certain adverse effects, but the pathophysiologic mechanism is unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of peripherally administered IFN- alpha on amino acid levels in the brain. IFN-alpha was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily to rats, and their brains were ...
Wolski Erika A - - 2005
Binucleate Rhizoctonia (BNR) isolate (232-C6) is an effective biocontrol agent for protection of potato from Rhizoctonia canker, a disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Production of hydrolytic enzymes is one of the best known inducible defense responses following microbial infection. We isolated and characterized a cell wall alpha-glucan from BNR, which ...
Wang Yan - - 2005
As a continuation of our SAR studies of dipeptidyl aspartyl-fmk as caspase inhibitors, we explored the replacement of the P2 alpha-amino acid by a peptidomimetic alpha-hydroxy acid. These alpha-carbamoyl-alkylcarbonyl-aspartyl fluoromethylketones were found to be potent caspase inhibitors, and the SAR of these compounds is similar to the corresponding dipeptidyl aspartyl-fmk. ...
Kiryu Takaaki - - 2005
A new alpha-glucuronidase that specifically hydrolyzed O-alpha-D-glucosyluronic acid alpha-D-glucosiduronic acid (trehalose dicarboxylate, TreDC) was purified from a commercial enzyme preparation from Aspergillus niger, and its properties were examined. The enzyme did not degrade O-alpha-D-glucosyluronic acid alpha-D-glucoside, O-alpha-D-glucosyluronic acid beta-D-glucosiduronic acid, O-alpha-D-glucosyluronic acid-(1-->2)-beta-D-fructosiduronic acid, p-nitrophenyl-O-alpha-D-glucosiduronic acid, methyl-O-alpha-D-glucosiduronic acid, or 6-O-alpha-(4-O-alpha-D-glucosyluronic acid)-D-glucosyl-beta-cyclodextrine. ...
Teichert Jens - - 2005
In an open-label, parallel-group study involving 16 patients (8 with severely reduced renal function, 8 with end-stage renal disease needing hemodialysis), the effect of renal function on the pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and safety and of alpha-lipoic acid (thioctic acid) was evaluated by comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters with those of a reference ...
Villas-Boas Maria Helena - - 2005
Ceramide mono (CMH) or dihexoside (CDH) fractions from Trypanosoma cruzi (Dm28c clone) were identified as glucosyl and lactosylceramides containing non-hydroxylated fatty acids. The di-glycosylated form was much more efficiently recognized by sera from T. cruzi-immunized rabbits, indicating that glycosylation influences antigenicity. Fatty acid hydroxylation was also a determinant of serological ...
Murphy Bridget M - - 2005
Raman spectroscopy (RS) was used to determine the crystallinity of lactose (a commonly used carrier in dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations). Samples of alpha-lactose monohydrate and amorphous lactose were prepared using ethanol precipitation and lyophilisation respectively. The anomeric forms were confirmed using DSC at a rate of 10 degrees C/min ...
Sola Srikanth - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome is associated with increased angiotensin II activity, induction of a proinflammatory and oxidative state, and endothelial dysfunction. We evaluated the ability of irbesartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, and lipoic acid, an antioxidant, to affect endothelial function and inflammation in patients with the metabolic syndrome. METHODS AND ...
Wada Takehiko - - 2005
Peptide ribonucleic acid (PRNA) is one of artificial nucleic acids, which enables us to control its nucleobase orientation and recognition behavior by external factors through the synergetic effects of reversible borate ester formation and intramolecular hydrogen bond formation. In this study, a series of novel alpha-PRNA oligomers, possessing alternative alpha-PRNA/basic ...
Demir Ulku - - 2005
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effect of alpha-lipoic acid against oxidative damage in rabbit conjunctiva and cornea exposed to ultraviolet radiation. METHODS: 20 rabbits weighing 2,500- 3,000 g were used, and we divided them into 4 groups with 5 randomly selected rabbits. The rabbits ...
Marcus Elizabeth A - - 2005
The role of the periplasmic alpha-carbonic anhydrase (alpha-CA) (HP1186) in acid acclimation of Helicobacter pylori was investigated. Urease and urea influx through UreI have been shown to be essential for gastric colonization and for acid survival in vitro. Intrabacterial urease generation of NH3 has a major role in regulation of ...
Larsen Laila N - - 2005
FA with varying chain lengths and an alpha-methyl group and/or a sulfur in the beta-position were tested as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha, -delta(beta), and -gamma ligands by transient transfection in COS-1 cells using chimeric receptor expression plasmids, containing cDNAs encoding the ligand-binding domain of PPARalpha, -delta, and -gamma. For PPARalpha, ...
Mühling J - - 2005
We have examined the effects of midazolam, Ro 5-4864 (agonist for "peripheral" [p] benzodiazepine receptors [BR]), PK 11195 (antagonist for pBR), flumazenil (antagonist for "central" BR), naloxone (antagonist for opiate receptors) and the combination of midazolam and Ro 5-4864, PK 11195, flumazenil or naloxone on intracellular amino- and alpha-keto acids ...
Palacios Francisco - - 2004
A simple method for preparation of fluoroalkyl beta-enaminophosphonates 1 from alkylphosphonates 2 and perfluoroalkyl nitriles 3 is reported. Olefination reaction of functionalized phosphates 1 with aldehydes gives alpha,beta-unsaturated imines 5. Acid hydrolysis of these fluoroalkyl derivatives 5 affords alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones 6, while their selective reduction with hydrides leads to the ...
Arao Keisuke - - 2004
The physiological effects of 9cis,11trans,13cis-conjugated linolenic acid (9c,11t,13c-CLNA), one of the CLNA isomers, were studied in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. 9c,11t,13c-CLNA significantly decreased apolipoprotein B100 secretion compared with alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA). The uptake of (14)C-oleate into newly synthesized cellular triacylglycerol was also decreased by 9c,11t,13c-CLNA more than by alpha-LNA treatment. ...
Yang Yi-Wen - - 2004
Non-alpha-tocopherols are hydroxymethylated and hydrogenated to produce alpha-tocopherol in one pot process by simultaneously reacting with paraformaldehyde and hydrogen in the presence of catalysts of benzenesulfonic acid and 5% Pd/C in an autoclave. Effects of various operation conditions have been studied. The preferable reaction conditions are: temperature 180 degrees C ...
Doggrell Sheila A - - 2004
Obesity shortens life expectancy and is a risk factor for hypertension and Type 2 diabetes. When added to the standard chow of Sprague-Dawley or Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, alpha-lipoic acid (0.5% weight/weight) reduced body weight and food intake. Alpha-lipoic acid also increased whole-body energy expenditure. It exerts its effects ...
Tacke Reinhold - - 2004
A series of zwitterionic lambda(5)Si-silicates with a (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinio)methyl group and two identical bidentate ligands derived from glycine, (S)-alanine, (S)-phenylalanine, glycolic acid, (S)-lactic acid, (S)-3-phenyllactic acid, or (S)-mandelic acid were synthesized and structurally characterized (solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy; single-crystal X-ray diffraction). The chiral lambda(5)Si-silicates with ligands derived from optically active ...
Akiba Satoshi - - 2004
We examined the mechanisms underlying the activation of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)alpha) contributing to the supply of fatty acids required for the formation of cholesteryl ester in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-stimulated macrophages. The possible involvement of oxidized lipids was also examined. In [(3)H]arachidonic acid-labeled mouse peritoneal macrophages, oxLDL ...
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