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Results 301 - 350 of 1228
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Madesh M - - 1997
Mitochondrial damage is one of the prominent features of cell injury during oxidative stress and altered mitochondrial lipids may contribute to this damage. Lipid changes were observed when liver mitochondria were exposed to superoxide generating systems. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine contents were decreased with simultaneous formation of lysophospholipids when exposed to ...
Morris A J - - 1997
Phosphodiesteric cleavage of phosphatidylcholine by members of a growing family of phospholipases D produces choline and phosphatidic acid. These enzymes can also catalyse a transphosphatidylation reaction in which the aliphatic chain of a primary alcohol is transferred to the phosphatidyl moiety of the phosphatidic acid product. PLD enzymes are found ...
Vazquez J M - - 1997
We have investigated pathways of lipid metabolism in spermatozoa and generation of various metabolites with potential messenger functions during exocytosis stimulated with A23187/Ca2+. Stimulation of boar spermatozoa resulted in a considerable rapid increase in saturated/unsaturated 1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-SU-DAG) and, concomitantly, a substantial reduction in disaturated 1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DS-DAG), and in phosphatidylcholine (PC). ...
Schroeder Taylor A T - - 1997
Pathogen-triggered generation of reactive oxidants, termed the oxidative burst, contributes to disease resistance in both plant and animal kingdoms. Since phospholipase D plays a key role in the neutrophil oxidative burst signaling cascade and is highly abundant in plants, we investigated its participation in the plant oxidative burst. Thin layer ...
El Bawab S - - 1997
We have previously reported that concanavalin A (ConA) stimulation of rat thymocytes induces an increase in the cellular phosphatidic acid mass as well as a change in its fatty acid composition. An increase in phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity, mostly due to cAMP-specific (PDE4) isoforms, has also been observed in thymocytes stimulated ...
van der Weyden L - - 1997
This is the first report of a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from the venom of the common death adder, Acanthophis antarcticus. Acanthoxin is a basic, monomeric PLA2 of mol. wt 13,000, consistent with the weight of neurotoxic PLA2s from other Australian elapids. However, preliminary ultracentrifugation experimentation has shown that it is ...
Kovács P - - 1997
Indomethacin an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase pathway for arachidonate metabolism in vertebrates, totally inhibited 32P incorporation into phospholipids at a dose of 2.0 or 5.0 mM in Tetrahymena. Treatment with 0.1 mM indomethacin caused higher arachidonic acid (AA) incorporation into phosphatidylinositol (PI) and lower incorporation into phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), ...
Tóth M - - 1997
The effects of 4beta-phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and 1,2-(sn)-dioctanoylglycerol (DOCG) on the phosphatidylcholine (PC) turnover (defined as degradation to diacylglycerol followed by PC resynthesis) and on the activity of PC-specific phospholipase D were investigated in placental mince incubated with various radiolabelled precursors in vitro. Experiments with [32P]phosphate indicated that 1 microM PMA ...
Gaits F - - 1997
From very recent studies, including molecular cloning of cDNA coding for membrane receptors, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) reached the status of a novel phospholipid mediator with various biological activities. Another strong argument supporting this view was the discovery that LPA is secreted from activated platelets, resulting in its appearance in serum ...
English D - - 1997
Phosphatidic acid and its derivatives play potentially important roles as extracellular messengers in biological systems. An ecto-phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (ecto-PAPase) has been identified which effectively regulates neutrophil responses to exogenous phosphatidic acid by converting the substrate to diacylglycerol. The present study was undertaken to characterize this ecto-enzyme on intact cells ...
Katsuragi Y - - 1997
PURPOSE: We examined the effects of phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidic acid (PA) on human taste sensation to various substances. METHODS: The effects were evaluated psychophysically using paid volunteers. RESULTS: PA inhibited the bitterness of various substances dissolved in water without affecting sweetness, saltiness, and sourness, ...
Garda H A - - 1997
The influence of a fat-free diet on the molecular species composition of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylinositol (PI) of rat liver microsomes was studied by using reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. In the three phosphoglyceride classes analyzed, the fat-free diet produced a large decrease in the 18:0/20:4n-6 species but less ...
San-Blas G - - 1997
In Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a dimorphic fungus pathogenic for humans, no significant differences were observed in the phospholipid species of both morphological phases. The species observed were phosphatidylcholine (PC, 30-40%), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, 27-28%), phosphatidylserine (16-19%), phosphatidylinositol (13-17%) and sphingomyelin (3-5%). The main fatty acids found in the yeast (Y) phase were ...
Vazquez J M - - 1997
We have investigated pathways of lipid metabolism in boar spermatozoa sperm cells incubated for up to 3 days with [14C]palmitic acid, [14C]glycerol, [14C]choline, or [14C]arachidonic acid or incorporated these precursors into diglycerides and/or phospholipids. When spermatozoa were incubated with [14C]palmitic acid or [14C]glycerol, there was first an incorporation into phosphatidic ...
Tang J - - 1997
We report the purification, molecular cloning, and expression of a novel cytosolic calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) from Chinese hamster ovary cells, which lacks extended homology to other phospholipases. iPLA2 is an 85-kDa protein that exists as a multimeric complex of 270-350 kDa with a specific activity of 1 micromol/min/mg. The ...
Gerasimov O V - - 1997
This laboratory has previously shown (Anderson, V.C. and Thompson, D.H. (1992) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1109, 33-42; Thompson, D.H., Gerasimov, O.V., Wheeler, J.J., Rui, Y. and Anderson, V.C. (1996) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1279, 25-34), that plasmenylcholine (1-alk-1'-enyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; PlsPamCho) liposomes release hydrophilic contents upon photooxidation or acid-catalyzed hydrolysis. We now report the ...
Kozawa O - - 1997
In a previous study, we have that endothelin-1 (ET-1) activates phospholipase D independently from protein kinase C in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. It is well recognized that phosphatidylycholine hydrolysis by phospholipase D generates phosphatidic acid, which can be further degraded by phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase to diacylglycerol. In the present study, we ...
Snitko Y - - 1997
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent lipid second messenger which stimulates platelet aggregation, cell proliferation and smooth-muscle contraction. The phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-catalysed hydrolysis of phosphatidic acid (PA) is thought to be a primary synthetic route for LPA. Of the multiple forms of PLA2 present in human tissues, human secretory class-II ...
Fisher A B - - 1997
Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (deltaPC) synthesis by lung epithelium occurs in part by a deacylation/reacylation pathway utilizing phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and an acyl transferase. The role of acidic Ca2+-independent PLA2 (aiPLA2) in this pathway was investigated using a transition-state analog enzyme inhibitor [1-hexadecyl-3-trifluoroethylglycero-sn-2-phosphomethanol (MJ33)]. Granular pneumocytes were isolated from rat lung with ...
Bugge E - - 1997
Mepacrine (quinacrine) has in a number of studies been shown to protect the heart from ischemic injury, a protection commonly claimed to be due to inhibition of phospholipase A2. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of mepacrine 1 microM on isolated, buffer perfused rat hearts ...
Singh I N - - 1997
Amyloid beta protein (25-35) stimulates the phospholipase A2, C and D activation of LA-N-2 cells. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid reduced the phospholipase D activation by 30% (P < 0.008) and indomethacin reduced the phospholipase A2 activation by 58% (P < .001). There were no reductions of the amyloid beta protein activations by ...
Yu B Y - - 1997
The mechanism behind ethanol-induced fatty liver was investigated by administration of [1,1-2H2]ethanol to rats and analysis of intermediates in lipid biosynthesis. Phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylcholine were isolated by chromatography on a lipophilic anion exchanger and molecular species were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography in a non-aqueous system. The glycerol moieties ...
Kuwae T - - 1997
Glycerophospholipid biosynthesis by the de novo pathway was assessed in mouse peritoneal macrophages by pulse-labeling with [U-14C]glycerol. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), which amounts to about 35% of total cellular phospholipids, exhibited the highest rate of glycerol uptake, followed by phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Remodeling of PC molecular species by deacylation/reacylation was ...
Wang J - - 1997
Human LCAT prefers phosphatidylcholine (PC) with sn-1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl PC (POPC) as substrate for cholesteryl ester synthesis, whereas rat LCAT (which is 92% similar in amino acid sequence) prefers sn-1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl PC (PAPC). Six recombinant human LCAT cDNA clones were constructed with unique clusters of rat sequence substitutions in the human background spanning ...
Murakami M - - 1997
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) plays crucial roles in diverse cellular responses, including phospholipid digestion and metabolism, host defense and signal transduction. PLA2 provides precursors for generation of eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins (PGa) and leukotrienes (LTs), when the cleaved fatty acid is arachidonic acid, platelet-activating factor (PAF) when the sn-1 position of ...
Maeda K - - 1997
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) catalyzes the release of free fatty acids from membrane phospholipids, and its products derived from these fatty acids, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, significantly up-regulate the key melanogenic enzyme, tyrosinase, in melanocytes. This has led to suggestions that PLA2 itself triggers melanin synthesis in melanogenesis following UV ...
Weiher B - - 1997
Digestion and absorption of phosphatidylcholine by Aeshna cyanea larvae were studied in vivo and in vitro with the isolated digestive juice and isolated midgut. The experiments were performed with stable ether analogues (1-alkyl-2-acyl-,1,2-dialkyl phosphatidylcholine, and 1-monoalkyl-lysophosphatidylcholine), with radioactive 1,2-diacylphosphatidylcholine alternatively labelled in the acyl- and choline moieties, and with several ...
Mauco G - - 1997
The strong inhibition of thrombin-induced platelet functions induced by okadaic acid is not correlated with the partial modification of pleckstrin phosphorylation, which remains still phosphorylated two min after stimulation, indicating that protein kinase C is not affected by okadaic acid. We then investigated the effect of okadaic acid on platelet ...
Pacini L - - 1997
In the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-BE(2), arachidonic acid (AA), supplied in the medium at micromolar concentrations, markedly enhanced [14C]stearic acid (SA) (but not [14C]palmitic acid or [14C]oleic acid) incorporation into phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns). AA failed to stimulate [14C]SA incorporation into PtdIns precursors, namely phosphatidic acid and cytidinediphosphodiacylglycerol: furthermore, enhanced [14C]SA ...
Lyeth B G - - 1996
Hippocampal levels of fatty acids extracted from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), free fatty acids (FFA), and lactate were measured after central fluid percussion traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. At 5 min after injury, there was a decrease in fatty acids extracted from PIP2 suggesting a decrease in PIP2. At the ...
Heape A M - - 1996
In vivo glycerolipid metabolism was studied in sciatic nerves of normal and Trembler mice. The results showed that two kinetically independent pathways were implicated in the labeling of diacylglycerophospholipids from [3H]palmitate: the Kennedy pathway and a 'direct acylation' pathway. In normal nerves, 45% of the glycerophospholipids were labeled, with a ...
Huh N W - - 1996
Because proteins and other molecules with a high polyphenol content are commonly involved in adhesion processes, we are investigating the interactions between polyphenols and biological materials. A naturally occurring polyphenol that binds a variety of proteins and lipids is tannic acid (TA), which contains five digallic acid residues covalently linked ...
Olafsson S O - - 1996
The purpose of this study was to examine the availability of arachidonic acid in phosphatdidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) of mucosa and the stomach wall of adult male Wistar rats fed a standard diet. There were significant differences in the fatty acid composition of PC and PE between various parts ...
Arai H - - 1996
The reactivity of rabbit reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) with phosphatidylcholine (PC) possessing linoleic acid (LA-PC), arachidonic acid (AA-PC), or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA-PC) was investigated by measuring oxygen uptake in the suspension of large unilamellar liposomes (LUV). The 15-LOX reaction with PC LUV was found to follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent values ...
Nishimaki-Mogami T - - 1996
The effects of bezafibrate and clofibric acid, fibrate hypolipidemic agents, on phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis via the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) methylation pathway were studied. In cultured rat hepatocytes, bezafibrate and clofibric acid added to the medium rapidly and markedly reduced the conversion of ethanolamine-labeled PE to PC (IC50 30 and 150 microM, ...
Lehr M - - 1996
3-(1,4-Diacylpyrrol-2-yl)propionic acids were designed as inhibitors of cytosolic phospholipase A2. Enzyme inhibition was assayed by evaluation of calcium ionophore A23187-induced arachidonic acid release from bovine platelets. While the synthesized bisacyl compound 3-[3,5-dimethyl-4-octadecanoyl-1-(3-phenylpropionyl)pyrrol-2-yl] propionic acid was inactive at 33 microM, the related monoacylated 3-(3,5-dimethyl-4-octadecanoylpyrrol-2-yl)-propionic acid and 3-(1,3,5-trimethyl-4-octadecanoylpyrrol-2-yl)-propionic acid proved to be ...
Savany A - - 1996
The cytosolic cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity from rat thymocytes was resolved into five peaks by HPLC. Only two forms of the cAMP-specific PDE4 were found to be sensitive to physiologically relevant phosphatidic acid (PA) concentrations. PA activated the PDE4-peak 3 form, the fatty acid composition and unsaturation degree determining ...
Fletcher J E - - 1996
Myonecrosis induced in vivo by cardiotoxin, melittin, and Asp49 and Lys49 phospholipase A2 (PLA2) myotoxins involves rapid lysis of the sarcolemma, myofibril clumping, and hypercontraction of sarcomeres. In contrast, skeletal muscle necrosis induced by crotamine and myotoxin a is much slower, consisting of mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic reticulum swelling, myofibril degeneration, ...
Taupiac M P - - 1996
We attached human transferrin to Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) to specifically localize this toxin to the endosomal compartment and study its translocation from purified endosomes using a cell-free assay. Transferrin was linked to PE via a disulfide bond. Chemical derivatization inactivated the PE cell-binding domain, and transferrin-PE was found to ...
Migas I - - 1996
The metabolic fate of endogenous diacylglycerol (DAG) in cultured A10 smooth muscle cells was determined. Preincubation of A10 cells with [3H]myristic acid or [3H]arachidonic acid resulted in preferential labeling of phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidylinositol (PI), respectively. Addition of PC-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) to [3H]myristate-labeled A10 cells resulted in a 10-fold ...
Cuélla M J - - 1996
The hydroalcoholic extract of Poria cocos and two lanostane derivatives isolated from it, pachymic acid (1) and dehydrotumulosic acid (2), were active as inhibitors of phospholipase A2 from snake venom when a polarographic method was used. Dehydrotumulosic acid exhibited an IC50 of 0.845 mM. These two compounds are structurally related ...
Sarri E - - 1996
Noradrenaline- and ionomycin-stimulated as well as basal phospholipase D activity from rat hippocampus produced, in the presence of ethanol, two different classes of [32P]phosphatidylethanol (designated I and II), which were separated by thin layer chromatography. Endogenous labeling experiments using 3H-fatty acids showed that two different classes of phosphatidylcholine, separated by ...
Werbovetz K A - - 1996
Myristate is the exclusive fatty acid species in the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor of the Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). [3H]Myristate can be incorporated into T. brucei GPIs by two distinct processes known as fatty acid remodelling and myristate exchange. Myristoyllysophosphatidylcholine (M-LPC) can also serve as a myristate donor ...
English D - - 1996
Generated during the initial phases of cell signalling, phosphatidic acid has been implicated as a messenger involved in the activation of cellular kinases and phospholipases as well as certain proto-oncogene products and low-molecular-weight G-proteins. Although many of the reported effects of phosphatidic acid can be attributed to metabolites generated by ...
Kokotos G - - 1996
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) catalyze the hydrolysis of glycerophospholipids at the sn-2 position, and their inhibition is considered a rational approach for the prevention and treatment of inflammation. A number of amides and esters of alpha-amino acids with saturated linear side chains, esters of alpha-amino alcohols and derivatives of lipidic peptides ...
Igal R A - - 1996
Neutral lipid storage disease (NLSD) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which excess triacylglycerol (TG) accumulates in most cells. Although it has been hypothesized that the TG accumulation is caused by a functional defect in cytosolic lipase activity, we were able to expose TG hydrolysis in NLSD cells by using ...
Tsujita T - - 1996
The basic protein protamine strongly inhibited hydrolysis of triolein emulsified with soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) by pancreatic and carboxylester lipases; 10 micrograms/ml protamine, about 1000 times lower than the concentration of bovine serum albumin for the same effect, inhibited triolein hydrolysis completely. This inhibition was not affected by the incubation pH ...
Portilla D - - 1996
We have recently identified a cytosolic calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (PLA2) that represents the major measurable PLA2 activity in rabbit proximal tubules (Portilla, D., Shah, S. V., Lehman, P. A., and Creer, M. H.(1994) J. Clin. Invest. 93, 1609-1615). We now report the 3200-fold purification of this PLA2 to homogeneity from ...
Magret V - - 1996
The conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) into phosphatidylcholine (PC) by a sequence of three transmethylation reactions is shown to be stimulated by the apolipoprotein E-free subclass of high-density lipoprotein (HDL3) in isolated bovine brain capillary (BBC) membranes, HDL3-induced stimulation of BBC membranes pulsed with [methyl-14C]methionine causes a transient increase in each ...
Caldironi H A - - 1996
The content and composition of neutral lipids and phosphoglycerides from full-grown prophase-arrested Bufo arenarum Hensel oocytes and from their ghost preparations were studied. The ghosts obtained are highly enriched in plasma membrane as suggested by the activity of 5'-nucleotidase, a marker enzyme, and the level of typical membrane components such ...
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