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Results 251 - 300 of 1233
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Rao A M - - 1999
CDP-choline is a rate-limiting intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), an important component of the neural cell membrane. The ability of CDP-choline to alter phospholipid metabolism is an important function in the treatment of ischemic injury. Exogenous treatment with CDP-choline stimulates PtdCho synthesis and prevents release of free fatty ...
Pagès C - - 1999
In the present study, we studied the involvement of A2 phospholipases (PLA2) in alpha2-adrenergic receptor-control of preadipocyte actin cytoskeleton. For that, various PLA2 inhibitors were tested on the ability of the selective alpha2-adrenergic agonist UK14304 to induce the spreading in alpha2AF2 preadipocytes. We observed that, whereas several Ca(2+)-dependent PLA2 blockers ...
Sciorra V A - - 1999
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major source of lipid-derived second messenger molecules that function as both intracellular and extracellular signals. PC-specific phospholipase D (PLD) and phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (PAP) are two pivotal enzymes in this signaling system, and they act in series to generate the biologically active lipids phosphatidic acid (PA) ...
Chakraborty T R - - 1999
The topography of formation and migration of phosphatidic acid (PA) in the transverse plane of rat liver mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) were investigated. Isolated mitochondria and microsomes, incubated with sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and an immobilized substrate palmitoyl-CoA-agarose, synthesized both lyso-PA and PA. The mitochondrial and microsomal acylation of glycerophosphate with palmitoyl-CoA-agarose ...
Merkel O - - 1999
The yeast genome contains two genes, designated as PLB2 and PLB3, that are 67% and 62% identical, respectively, to PLB1, which codes for a phospholipase B/lysophospholipase in yeast (Lee, S. K., Patton, J. L., Fido, M., Hines, L. K., Kohlwein, S. D., Paltauf, F., Henry, S. A., and Levin, D. ...
Yin J J - - 1999
The effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the relation between structure and function of membranes is described in this paper. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-label oximetry was used in the present study to evaluate if oxygen transport and oxygen depletion were affected by incorporation of CLA instead of linoleic ...
Ahn T - - 1999
The mixing properties of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) were examined in liquid-crystalline phase using fluorescent probes incorporated into lipid bilayers. The excimer to monomer (E/M) fluorescence ratio of 1-hexadecanoyl-2-(1-pyrenedecanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PPC) versus PPC concentration was higher for binary mixtures containing phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (1:1) compared to PC matrix. When POPC ...
Khozin-Goldberg I - - 1999
Treatment of the microalga Porphyridium cruentum with salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) inhibited growth and affected fatty acid composition. At a relatively low concentration (40 microM) SHAM predominantly inhibits Delta6 desaturation. The effect of the inhibitor was most intense in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine, in which the proportions of the downstream products ...
Ho C L - - 1999
The yellow-legged hornet, Vespa verutina, is widely distributed in both the mountain area and the suburbs of Taiwan and possesses highly toxic venom (LD50=0.02 microl/g mouse). By gel filtration on Fractogel (TSK HW 50f) followed by cation-exchange chromatography on Mono S column, three toxins designated as verutoxin 1, 2a and ...
Martini W Z - - 1999
The primary goal of this study was to determine the contributions of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and de novo synthesized fatty acids (FA) to lung surfactant phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis. A new stable isotope tracer model was developed in which [1, 2-(13)C(2)]acetate and uniformly labeled [U-(13)C(16)]palmitate were infused in nine ...
Jones D R - - 1999
Phosphatidic acid generation through activation of diacylglycerol kinase alpha has been implicated in interleukin-2-dependent T-lymphocyte proliferation. To investigate this lipid signaling in more detail, we characterized the molecular structures of the diradylglycerols and phosphatidic acids in the murine CTLL-2 T-cell line under both basal and stimulated conditions. In resting cells, ...
Mashima R - - 1999
We have previously isolated two proteins which can reduce phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PC-OOH) from human blood plasma and identified one of the proteins as apolipoprotein A-I (Mashima, R. , et al. (1998) J. Lipid Res. 39, 1133-1140). In the present study we have identified the other protein as apolipoprotein B-100 (apo ...
Baker R R - - 1999
Neuronal nuclei were isolated from immature rabbit cerebral cortex and nuclear lysophospholipase activities studied using two different 1-acyl lysophospholipids: lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) and lysophosphatidic acid (lysoPA). Our interest in these two lysolipids arose from the observation that lysoPA could promote the acetylation of lysoPC by substantially inhibiting a very active nuclear ...
Bogdanov M - - 1999
Escherichia coli-derived phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or PE with fully saturated fatty acids was able to correct in vitro a defect in folding in the lipid-dependent epitope 4B1 of lactose permease (LacY) resulting from in vivo assembly in the absence of PE. PE plasmalogen, PE with two unsaturated fatty acids, and lyso-PE, ...
Liu X - - 1999
A cDNA encoding a basic-acidic hybrid phospholipase A2-II from Agkistrodon halys Pallas with an N-terminus highly homologous to that of BPLA2 and a C-terminus sequence almost the same as that of APLA2 was inserted into a bacterial expression vector and effectively expressed in Escherichia coli RR1. The protein was produced ...
Knapp S - - 1999
Cytidine and choline, present in cytidine 5'-diphosphate choline (CDP-choline), are major precursors of the phosphatidylcholine found in cell membranes and important regulatory elements in phosphatide biosynthesis. Administration of CDP-choline to rats increases blood and brain cytidine and choline levels; this enhances the production of endogenous CDP-choline which then combines with ...
Athenstaedt K - - 1999
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipid particles harbor two acyltransferases, Gat1p and Slc1p, which catalyze subsequent steps of acylation required for the formation of phosphatidic acid. Both enzymes are also components of the endoplasmic reticulum, but this compartment contains additional acyltransferase(s) involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid (K. Athenstaedt ...
Li J - - 1999
We previously showed indirectly that the increase in diacylglycerol (DAG) levels caused by exposing differentiating PC12 cells to nerve growth factor (NGF) must derive mainly from de novo synthesis and, to a lesser and transient extent, from the hydrolysis of [3H]phosphatidylinositol (PI). To explore further the biochemical mechanisms of this ...
Cogo P E - - 1999
Little is known about endogenous surfactant metabolism in infants, because radioactive isotopes used for this purpose in animals cannot be used in humans. We developed a novel and safe method to measure the endogenous surfactant kinetics in vivo in humans by using stable isotope labeled fatty acids. We infused albumin-bound ...
Liu Xiao-Long - - 1999
A cDNA encoding acidic phospholipase A(2)I(A.aAPLA(2)I)from Agkistrodon acutus was inserted into a bacterial expression vector and effectively expressed in E.coli RR1. The protein was produced as insoluble inclusion bodies. After partial purification by washing the inclusion bodies with Triton X-100, denaturing and refolding, the renatured recombinant protein was purified by ...
Wu R - - 1999
Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is present in oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL), which is implicated in atherosclerosis. Antibodies to cardiolipin (aCL) and oxLDL (aoxLDL) have been shown to crossreact. LPC is formed by hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in LDL and cell membranes, induced by phospholipase A2 or by oxidation. We here demonstrate ...
Liu L - - 1998
In vivo radiotracer experiments using [1-(14C)]acetate as the precursor were conducted to investigate the biosynthesis of vernolic acid (12, 13-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid) in the seeds of Vernonia galamensis. The acetate precursor radioactively labeled vernolate in phosphatidylcholine (PC), diacylglycerol, and triacylglycerol. Time-course kinetics of the incorporation of the radioactive tracer indicated that ...
Momchilova A - - 1998
Although the activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in ras-transformed cells has been well documented, the mechanisms underlying this activation are poorly understood. In this study we tried to elucidate whether the membrane phospholipid composition and physical state influence the activity of membrane-associated PLA2 in ras-transformed fibroblasts. For this purpose membranes ...
Kafrawy O - - 1998
We reported previously that docosahexaenoic acid (22:6)-containing phosphatidylcholine (PC), but not oleic acid-containing PC nor 22:6-containing phosphatidylethanolamine, is toxic to tumor cells in vitro. To test whether other polyunsaturated fatty acids share 22:6's cytotoxic activity, we treated cultured T27A murine leukemia cells with PC liposomes composed of stearic acid in ...
Marchesini N - - 1998
This work provides evidence that phosphatidic acid (PA) is metabolized to diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) in Trypanosoma cruzi. Also the presence of the enzymatic activities involved in its regulation, phosphatidate kinase (PA-k) and phosphatidate phosphatase, is demonstrated. The increase of DGPP levels in T. cruzi epimastigotes or in its membrane fraction ...
Yon J O - - 1998
The cho1/pss mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is auxotrophic for choline or ethanolamine because of the deficiency in phosphatidylserine synthesis, grew in the presence of 0.05 mM phosphatidylcholine (PC) with octanoic acids (diC8PC) or decanoic acids (diC10PC), but not in the presence of PC with longer acyl residues. It did ...
Hite R D - - 1998
Hydrolysis of surfactant-associated phospholipids by secretory phospholipases A2 is an important potential mechanism for surfactant dysfunction in inflammatory lung diseases. In these conditions, airway secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) activity is increased, but the type of sPLA2 and its impact on surfactant function are not well understood. We examined in vitro ...
Liu M - - 1998
Human lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), which is normally specific for the sn-2 position of phosphatidylcholine (PC), derives a significant percentage of acyl groups from the sn-1 position, when sn-2 is occupied by 18:0, 20:4, or 22:6. We investigated the relative importance of the two acyl groups of PC in determining the ...
Arbibe L - - 1998
Lyso-phospholipids exert a major injurious effect on lung cell membranes during Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), but the mechanisms leading to their in vivo generation are still unknown. Intratracheal administration of LPS to guinea pigs induced the secretion of type II secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-II) accompanied by a marked increase ...
Roberts R - - 1998
Phosphatidic acid (PA), lysophosphatidic acid, ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P), and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are lipid mediators generated by phospholipases, sphingomyelinases, and lipid kinases. The major pathway for degradation of these lipids is dephosphorylation catalyzed by members of two classes (types 1 and 2) of phosphohydrolase activities (PAPs). cDNAs encoding two type ...
Henshaw J B - - 1998
Bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholine initially resist catalysis by phospholipase A2. However, after a latency period, they become susceptible when sufficient reaction products (lysolecithin and fatty acid) accumulate in the membrane. Temperature near the main bilayer phase transition and calcium concentration modulate the effectiveness of the reaction products. The purpose of ...
Subbaiah P V - - 1998
Although dietary trans unsaturated fatty acids (TUFA) are known to decrease plasma HDL, the underlying mechanisms for this effect are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the decreased HDL is due to an inhibition of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), the enzyme essential for the formation of HDL, by determining the activity ...
Frank S - - 1998
By UVA irradiation of an ethanol solution of psoralen and oleic acid, four main photoproducts have been isolated and characterized: two have cis,cis structure; the other two are trans,cis. The same adducts have been isolated from the photoreaction of psoralen with beta-oleoyl-gamma-stearoyl-1-alpha-phosphatidylcholine followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with phospholipase A2. The ...
Valente R H - - 1998
The non-covalent interaction between two molecular entities namely, phospholipase A2 and crotapotin, results in the main toxin, crotoxin, present in the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. High performance liquid chromatography has enabled us the isolation of three phospholipase A2 isoforms (F1, F2 and F3), characterized through ...
Coleman R A - - 1998
The activity of hepatic monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) (EC 2.3.1.22), a developmentally expressed microsomal enzyme, is inhibited by long-chain fatty acids, and stimulated by its product 1, 2-diacyl-sn-glycerol. Because the quantities of fatty acids and diacylglycerols are likely to vary in membranes during different physiological conditions and could thereby alter MGAT ...
Sai Y - - 1998
We showed previously that cytosol treated with guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP-gammaS) disintegrated lysosomes in vitro [Sai, Y. et al. (1994) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 198, 869-877] in time-, temperature-, and dose-dependent manners. This also requires ATP, however, the latter can be substituted with deoxy-ATP, ADP, or ATPgammaS, suggesting no requirement of ...
Bieber E - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Activation of the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway plays a significant role during the intracellular signal transduction events activated during agonist-stimulated phasic myometrial contractions. Phospholipase C is an essential molecular component of this signaling pathway. These studies sought to characterize the expression of phospholipase C isoform messenger ribonucleic acid in both ...
Yoshida H - - 1998
A Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A that releases various fatty acids from sn-1 and sn-2 positions was partially purified from rat brain soluble fraction. The enzyme showed an approximate molecular mass of 300 kDa on gel filtration column chromatography. Its enzymatic properties are distinct from those of well characterized phospholipase A2 enzymes; ...
Jolly C A - - 1998
The ability of two rat liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) isoforms to influence microsomal phosphatidic acid biosynthesis, a key intermediate in glycerolipid formation, and phospholipid fatty acid remodeling was examined in vitro. Isoform I enhanced microsomal incorporation of [1-14C]-oleoyl-CoA into phosphatidic acid 7-fold while isoform II had no effect ...
Hale C C - - 1998
Since plasmalogens are the predominant phospholipid of cardiac sarcolemma, the activation of the sodium-calcium exchanger by either plasmenylethanolamine or plasmalogenic phosphatidic acid generated by phospholipase D was explored. Sodium-calcium exchange activity was 7-fold greater in proteoliposomes comprised of plasmenylethanolamine compared to proteoliposomes comprised of only plasmenylcholine. Phospholipase D treatment of ...
Feldman D A - - 1998
We previously identified a protein from rat liver that binds CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CT). We have now purified this protein (cytidylyltransferase-binding protein (CTBP)) from rat liver. The purification involved precipitation at pH 5 and extraction of the precipitate with buffer, followed by sequential chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose and butyl-agarose. Final purification was ...
Prasad M R - - 1998
Regional levels of membrane phospholipids [phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC)] were measured in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and control subjects. The levels of PE-derived and PI-derived total fatty acids were significantly decreased in the hippocampus of AD subjects. Here significant decreases were found in PE-derived stearic, oleic ...
Lin J T - - 1998
We have examined the biosynthetic pathway of triacylglycerols containing ricinoleate to determine the steps in the pathway that lead to the high levels of ricinoleate incorporation in castor oil. The biosynthetic pathway was studied by analysis of products resulting from castor microsomal incubation of 1-palmitoyl-2-[14C]oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, the substrate of oleoyl-12-hydroxylase, using ...
Boucrot P - - 1998
Compounds able to inhibit phospholipases A2 can be considered as potential anti-inflammatory drugs. In this respect, the inhibitory effect of the phospholipid analogue 1-decyl 2-octyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (decyloctyl-GPC) added to the culture medium of rat peritoneal macrophages stimulated with ionophore A23187 was determined. (a) The substrate of phospholipase A2 1-octadecanoyl 2-[14C]eicosatetraenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine ([14C]20:4-GPC) ...
Haidl G - - 1997
Previously it was demonstrated that immature and immotile human spermatozoa from the caput epididymides developed a good progressive motility after in-vitro stimulation with phosphatidylcholine (PC). In order to define the role of PC and membrane anisotropy in epididymal maturation and to determine the exact lipid composition of human spermatozoa during ...
Athenstaedt K - - 1997
Lipid particles of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae harbor two enzymes that stepwise acylate glycerol-3-phosphate to phosphatidic acid, a key intermediate in lipid biosynthesis. In lipid particles of the s1c1 disruptant YMN5 (M. M. Nagiec et al., J. Biol. Chem. 268:22156-22163, 1993) acylation stops after the first step, resulting in the ...
Appelblad P - - 1997
A new dansylation reaction, where trifluoromethanesulfonic acid is used as catalyst, has been characterized for six ketosteroids by employing experimental design followed by multivariate data analysis. The molar ratio between the steroid and the derivatization reagent was found to be the factor most strongly affecting the reaction. Faster reaction kinetics ...
Hirano K - - 1997
The properties of phospholipase A1 (PLA1) obtained from the white muscle of bonito, Euthynnus pelamis (Linnaeus), were examined. The PLA1 activity had a pH optimum from 6.5 to 7.0 for phosphatidylcholine (PC), and calcium ion was not required. The optimum temperature was from 20 to 30 degrees C. When a ...
Peres C M - - 1997
[14C]-labelled palmitic acid (PA), oleic acid (OA), linoleic (LA) and arachidonic (AA) acids were transferred from macrophages (M phi) to lymphocytes (LY) when equal numbers of the two cell types were co-cultured. The relative degree and amounts of the fatty acids transferred from M phi to LY are as follow: ...
Durante W - - 1997
Lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) is a major component of atherogenic lipids that stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. Because cationic amino acids are metabolized to growth-stimulatory polyamines, we examined whether lyso-PC regulates the transcellular transport and metabolism of cationic amino acids by vascular SMC. Treatment of SMC with lyso-PC initially (0-2 ...
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