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Liu J J - - 2000
Digestion of dietary sphingomyelin (SM) is catalyzed by intestinal alkaline sphingomyelinase (SMase) and may have important implications in colonic tumorigenesis. Previous studies demonstrated that the digestion and absorption of dietary SM was slow and incomplete and that the colon was exposed to SM and its hydrolytic products including ceramide. In ...
Parks J S - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that lipid fluidity regulates lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) species were synthesized that varied in fluidity by changing the number, type (cis vs. trans), or position of the double bonds in 18 or 20 carbon sn-2 fatty acyl chains ...
Orlati S - - 2000
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (SPP) acts as a first messenger in immortalized human airway epithelial cells (CFNPE9o(-)), possibly interacting with an Edg family receptor. Expression of the SPP receptors Edg-1 and Edg-3, as well as a low level of Edg-5/H218, was detected in these cells, in agreement with their ability to specifically bind ...
Chauhan A - - 2000
Fibrillar amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) is the major protein of amyloid plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mechanism by which normally produced soluble Abeta gets fibrillized in AD is not clear. We studied the effect of neutral, zwitterionic, and anionic lipids on the fibrillization of Abeta ...
Grossmann E M - - 2000
Eicosanoids are involved in gallbladder inflammation, epithelial water transport, and mucous secretion. Phospholipase Asubscript2 enzymes liberate arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids for the synthesis of eicosanoids. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of selective cytoplasmic and secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitors on basal and stimulated arachidonic acid ...
Mazereeuw-Hautier J - - 2000
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) catalyse the release of fatty acids from the sn-2 position of phospholipids and have been suggested to play a key part in permeability barrier homeostasis. Using a sensitive and versatile fluorometric method, significant PLA2 activity has been detected in both human skin homogenates and tape strippings of ...
Mongrand S - - 2000
Plastids rely on the import of extraplastidial precursor for the synthesis of their own lipids. This key phenomenon in the formation of plastidial phosphatidylcholine (PC) and of the most abundant lipids on earth, namely galactolipids, is poorly understood. Various suggestions have been made on the nature of the precursor molecule(s) ...
Florin-Christensen J - - 2000
This work examines the lipid composition and metabolism of bovine red blood cells infected by apicomplexan Babesia parasites, organisms closely related to Plasmodium sp. We found that erythrocytes infected with Babesia bovis (i-RBC) accumulate lipids and show striking increases in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol and cholesteryl esters as compared to ...
Baker R R - - 2000
Neuronal nuclei isolated from rabbit cerebral cortex were found to be enriched in an NEM-insensitive lysophosphatidic acid (lysoPA) phosphohydrolase activity. LysoPA is an inhibitor of the nuclear lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) lysophospholipase, and by preserving lysoPC levels, lysoPA boosted the nuclear production of the acyl analogue of platelet-activating factor by promoting the ...
Haftendorn R - - 2000
A series of 1,3-diacylglycero-2-phosphocholines (1,3-PCs) with acyl chain lengths of C8-C18 were synthesised by chemical introduction of the phosphocholine moiety into the regioisomerically pure 1,3-diacylglycerols, which were obtained from glycerol and the vinyl esters of fatty acid by means of lipase from Rhizomucor mihei. The 1,3-PCs being regioisomers of the ...
Kashiwagi T - - 2000
Retinal lipids of crayfish, kept at 4 degrees C under continuous darkness for 3 weeks, consisted mainly of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE); sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylserine (PS) were minor contributors. PI, involved in the phototransduction cascade, never reached greater concentrations than 7% of the total. High concentrations ...
Bertello L E - - 2000
The lipid moiety in the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors of glycoproteins of Trypanosoma cruzi consists of an alkylacylglycerol, a lysoalkylglycerol or a ceramide. Previously, we showed that the inositolphosphoceramides (IPCs) are the major components in the precursor inositolphospholipids of epimastigote and trypomastigote forms. Using (3)H-labelled subfractions of IPC, phosphatidylinositol (PI) and glycoinositolphospholipids ...
Florin-Christensen J - - 1999
Phospholipases A(1) and A(2) frequently coexist in biological systems. Generation of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) in such systems cannot be assigned to any of these types of enzymes unless the position of the fatty acid in the lysocompound can be unambiguously determined. We here present a simple method to achieve this purpose. ...
Kitsiouli E I - - 1999
The purpose of the present study was the development and evaluation of a fluorimetric method for the screening and differential determination of phospholipase A(2) and PAF-acetylhydrolase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and serum. Phospholipase A(2) was determined using C(12)-NBD-PC in the presence of Ca(2+), from the slope of the fluorescence ...
Fortes-Dias C L - - 1999
A phospholipase A2 inhibitor has been previously purified and cloned from the blood plasma of the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus terrificus. This inhibitor, named CNF for Crotalus neutralizing factor, interacts with crotoxin, the main neurotoxin from C. d. terrificus venom, abolishing its phospholipase A2 activity. Crotoxin is a heterodimer ...
Lee J Y - - 1999
Brain glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D (GPI-PLD)-catalyzed conversion of amphiphilic form of Zn2+ -glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase (Amp-GPC PDE) into hydrophilic form was investigated in the presence of natural amphiphiles. Monoacylglycerols enhanced considerably the conversion by GPI-PLD of Amp-GPC PDE to hydrophilic form, with the enhancing effect of monoacylglycerols being dependent on the size ...
Rao A M - - 1999
CDP-choline is a rate-limiting intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), an important component of the neural cell membrane. The ability of CDP-choline to alter phospholipid metabolism is an important function in the treatment of ischemic injury. Exogenous treatment with CDP-choline stimulates PtdCho synthesis and prevents release of free fatty ...
Pagès C - - 1999
In the present study, we studied the involvement of A2 phospholipases (PLA2) in alpha2-adrenergic receptor-control of preadipocyte actin cytoskeleton. For that, various PLA2 inhibitors were tested on the ability of the selective alpha2-adrenergic agonist UK14304 to induce the spreading in alpha2AF2 preadipocytes. We observed that, whereas several Ca(2+)-dependent PLA2 blockers ...
Sciorra V A - - 1999
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major source of lipid-derived second messenger molecules that function as both intracellular and extracellular signals. PC-specific phospholipase D (PLD) and phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (PAP) are two pivotal enzymes in this signaling system, and they act in series to generate the biologically active lipids phosphatidic acid (PA) ...
Chakraborty T R - - 1999
The topography of formation and migration of phosphatidic acid (PA) in the transverse plane of rat liver mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) were investigated. Isolated mitochondria and microsomes, incubated with sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and an immobilized substrate palmitoyl-CoA-agarose, synthesized both lyso-PA and PA. The mitochondrial and microsomal acylation of glycerophosphate with palmitoyl-CoA-agarose ...
Merkel O - - 1999
The yeast genome contains two genes, designated as PLB2 and PLB3, that are 67% and 62% identical, respectively, to PLB1, which codes for a phospholipase B/lysophospholipase in yeast (Lee, S. K., Patton, J. L., Fido, M., Hines, L. K., Kohlwein, S. D., Paltauf, F., Henry, S. A., and Levin, D. ...
Yin J J - - 1999
The effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the relation between structure and function of membranes is described in this paper. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-label oximetry was used in the present study to evaluate if oxygen transport and oxygen depletion were affected by incorporation of CLA instead of linoleic ...
Ahn T - - 1999
The mixing properties of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) were examined in liquid-crystalline phase using fluorescent probes incorporated into lipid bilayers. The excimer to monomer (E/M) fluorescence ratio of 1-hexadecanoyl-2-(1-pyrenedecanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PPC) versus PPC concentration was higher for binary mixtures containing phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (1:1) compared to PC matrix. When POPC ...
Khozin-Goldberg I - - 1999
Treatment of the microalga Porphyridium cruentum with salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) inhibited growth and affected fatty acid composition. At a relatively low concentration (40 microM) SHAM predominantly inhibits Delta6 desaturation. The effect of the inhibitor was most intense in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine, in which the proportions of the downstream products ...
Ho C L - - 1999
The yellow-legged hornet, Vespa verutina, is widely distributed in both the mountain area and the suburbs of Taiwan and possesses highly toxic venom (LD50=0.02 microl/g mouse). By gel filtration on Fractogel (TSK HW 50f) followed by cation-exchange chromatography on Mono S column, three toxins designated as verutoxin 1, 2a and ...
Martini W Z - - 1999
The primary goal of this study was to determine the contributions of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and de novo synthesized fatty acids (FA) to lung surfactant phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis. A new stable isotope tracer model was developed in which [1, 2-(13)C(2)]acetate and uniformly labeled [U-(13)C(16)]palmitate were infused in nine ...
Jones D R - - 1999
Phosphatidic acid generation through activation of diacylglycerol kinase alpha has been implicated in interleukin-2-dependent T-lymphocyte proliferation. To investigate this lipid signaling in more detail, we characterized the molecular structures of the diradylglycerols and phosphatidic acids in the murine CTLL-2 T-cell line under both basal and stimulated conditions. In resting cells, ...
Mashima R - - 1999
We have previously isolated two proteins which can reduce phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PC-OOH) from human blood plasma and identified one of the proteins as apolipoprotein A-I (Mashima, R. , et al. (1998) J. Lipid Res. 39, 1133-1140). In the present study we have identified the other protein as apolipoprotein B-100 (apo ...
Baker R R - - 1999
Neuronal nuclei were isolated from immature rabbit cerebral cortex and nuclear lysophospholipase activities studied using two different 1-acyl lysophospholipids: lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) and lysophosphatidic acid (lysoPA). Our interest in these two lysolipids arose from the observation that lysoPA could promote the acetylation of lysoPC by substantially inhibiting a very active nuclear ...
Bogdanov M - - 1999
Escherichia coli-derived phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or PE with fully saturated fatty acids was able to correct in vitro a defect in folding in the lipid-dependent epitope 4B1 of lactose permease (LacY) resulting from in vivo assembly in the absence of PE. PE plasmalogen, PE with two unsaturated fatty acids, and lyso-PE, ...
Liu X - - 1999
A cDNA encoding a basic-acidic hybrid phospholipase A2-II from Agkistrodon halys Pallas with an N-terminus highly homologous to that of BPLA2 and a C-terminus sequence almost the same as that of APLA2 was inserted into a bacterial expression vector and effectively expressed in Escherichia coli RR1. The protein was produced ...
Knapp S - - 1999
Cytidine and choline, present in cytidine 5'-diphosphate choline (CDP-choline), are major precursors of the phosphatidylcholine found in cell membranes and important regulatory elements in phosphatide biosynthesis. Administration of CDP-choline to rats increases blood and brain cytidine and choline levels; this enhances the production of endogenous CDP-choline which then combines with ...
Athenstaedt K - - 1999
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipid particles harbor two acyltransferases, Gat1p and Slc1p, which catalyze subsequent steps of acylation required for the formation of phosphatidic acid. Both enzymes are also components of the endoplasmic reticulum, but this compartment contains additional acyltransferase(s) involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid (K. Athenstaedt ...
Li J - - 1999
We previously showed indirectly that the increase in diacylglycerol (DAG) levels caused by exposing differentiating PC12 cells to nerve growth factor (NGF) must derive mainly from de novo synthesis and, to a lesser and transient extent, from the hydrolysis of [3H]phosphatidylinositol (PI). To explore further the biochemical mechanisms of this ...
Cogo P E - - 1999
Little is known about endogenous surfactant metabolism in infants, because radioactive isotopes used for this purpose in animals cannot be used in humans. We developed a novel and safe method to measure the endogenous surfactant kinetics in vivo in humans by using stable isotope labeled fatty acids. We infused albumin-bound ...
Liu Xiao-Long - - 1999
A cDNA encoding acidic phospholipase A(2)I(A.aAPLA(2)I)from Agkistrodon acutus was inserted into a bacterial expression vector and effectively expressed in E.coli RR1. The protein was produced as insoluble inclusion bodies. After partial purification by washing the inclusion bodies with Triton X-100, denaturing and refolding, the renatured recombinant protein was purified by ...
Wu R - - 1999
Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is present in oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL), which is implicated in atherosclerosis. Antibodies to cardiolipin (aCL) and oxLDL (aoxLDL) have been shown to crossreact. LPC is formed by hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in LDL and cell membranes, induced by phospholipase A2 or by oxidation. We here demonstrate ...
Liu L - - 1998
In vivo radiotracer experiments using [1-(14C)]acetate as the precursor were conducted to investigate the biosynthesis of vernolic acid (12, 13-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid) in the seeds of Vernonia galamensis. The acetate precursor radioactively labeled vernolate in phosphatidylcholine (PC), diacylglycerol, and triacylglycerol. Time-course kinetics of the incorporation of the radioactive tracer indicated that ...
Momchilova A - - 1998
Although the activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in ras-transformed cells has been well documented, the mechanisms underlying this activation are poorly understood. In this study we tried to elucidate whether the membrane phospholipid composition and physical state influence the activity of membrane-associated PLA2 in ras-transformed fibroblasts. For this purpose membranes ...
Kafrawy O - - 1998
We reported previously that docosahexaenoic acid (22:6)-containing phosphatidylcholine (PC), but not oleic acid-containing PC nor 22:6-containing phosphatidylethanolamine, is toxic to tumor cells in vitro. To test whether other polyunsaturated fatty acids share 22:6's cytotoxic activity, we treated cultured T27A murine leukemia cells with PC liposomes composed of stearic acid in ...
Marchesini N - - 1998
This work provides evidence that phosphatidic acid (PA) is metabolized to diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) in Trypanosoma cruzi. Also the presence of the enzymatic activities involved in its regulation, phosphatidate kinase (PA-k) and phosphatidate phosphatase, is demonstrated. The increase of DGPP levels in T. cruzi epimastigotes or in its membrane fraction ...
Yon J O - - 1998
The cho1/pss mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is auxotrophic for choline or ethanolamine because of the deficiency in phosphatidylserine synthesis, grew in the presence of 0.05 mM phosphatidylcholine (PC) with octanoic acids (diC8PC) or decanoic acids (diC10PC), but not in the presence of PC with longer acyl residues. It did ...
Hite R D - - 1998
Hydrolysis of surfactant-associated phospholipids by secretory phospholipases A2 is an important potential mechanism for surfactant dysfunction in inflammatory lung diseases. In these conditions, airway secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) activity is increased, but the type of sPLA2 and its impact on surfactant function are not well understood. We examined in vitro ...
Liu M - - 1998
Human lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), which is normally specific for the sn-2 position of phosphatidylcholine (PC), derives a significant percentage of acyl groups from the sn-1 position, when sn-2 is occupied by 18:0, 20:4, or 22:6. We investigated the relative importance of the two acyl groups of PC in determining the ...
Arbibe L - - 1998
Lyso-phospholipids exert a major injurious effect on lung cell membranes during Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), but the mechanisms leading to their in vivo generation are still unknown. Intratracheal administration of LPS to guinea pigs induced the secretion of type II secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-II) accompanied by a marked increase ...
Roberts R - - 1998
Phosphatidic acid (PA), lysophosphatidic acid, ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P), and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are lipid mediators generated by phospholipases, sphingomyelinases, and lipid kinases. The major pathway for degradation of these lipids is dephosphorylation catalyzed by members of two classes (types 1 and 2) of phosphohydrolase activities (PAPs). cDNAs encoding two type ...
Henshaw J B - - 1998
Bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholine initially resist catalysis by phospholipase A2. However, after a latency period, they become susceptible when sufficient reaction products (lysolecithin and fatty acid) accumulate in the membrane. Temperature near the main bilayer phase transition and calcium concentration modulate the effectiveness of the reaction products. The purpose of ...
Subbaiah P V - - 1998
Although dietary trans unsaturated fatty acids (TUFA) are known to decrease plasma HDL, the underlying mechanisms for this effect are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the decreased HDL is due to an inhibition of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), the enzyme essential for the formation of HDL, by determining the activity ...
Frank S - - 1998
By UVA irradiation of an ethanol solution of psoralen and oleic acid, four main photoproducts have been isolated and characterized: two have cis,cis structure; the other two are trans,cis. The same adducts have been isolated from the photoreaction of psoralen with beta-oleoyl-gamma-stearoyl-1-alpha-phosphatidylcholine followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with phospholipase A2. The ...
Valente R H - - 1998
The non-covalent interaction between two molecular entities namely, phospholipase A2 and crotapotin, results in the main toxin, crotoxin, present in the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. High performance liquid chromatography has enabled us the isolation of three phospholipase A2 isoforms (F1, F2 and F3), characterized through ...
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