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Results 251 - 300 of 1214
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Liu Xiao-Long - - 1999
A cDNA encoding acidic phospholipase A(2)I(A.aAPLA(2)I)from Agkistrodon acutus was inserted into a bacterial expression vector and effectively expressed in E.coli RR1. The protein was produced as insoluble inclusion bodies. After partial purification by washing the inclusion bodies with Triton X-100, denaturing and refolding, the renatured recombinant protein was purified by ...
Wu R - - 1999
Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is present in oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL), which is implicated in atherosclerosis. Antibodies to cardiolipin (aCL) and oxLDL (aoxLDL) have been shown to crossreact. LPC is formed by hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in LDL and cell membranes, induced by phospholipase A2 or by oxidation. We here demonstrate ...
Liu L - - 1998
In vivo radiotracer experiments using [1-(14C)]acetate as the precursor were conducted to investigate the biosynthesis of vernolic acid (12, 13-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid) in the seeds of Vernonia galamensis. The acetate precursor radioactively labeled vernolate in phosphatidylcholine (PC), diacylglycerol, and triacylglycerol. Time-course kinetics of the incorporation of the radioactive tracer indicated that ...
Momchilova A - - 1998
Although the activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in ras-transformed cells has been well documented, the mechanisms underlying this activation are poorly understood. In this study we tried to elucidate whether the membrane phospholipid composition and physical state influence the activity of membrane-associated PLA2 in ras-transformed fibroblasts. For this purpose membranes ...
Kafrawy O - - 1998
We reported previously that docosahexaenoic acid (22:6)-containing phosphatidylcholine (PC), but not oleic acid-containing PC nor 22:6-containing phosphatidylethanolamine, is toxic to tumor cells in vitro. To test whether other polyunsaturated fatty acids share 22:6's cytotoxic activity, we treated cultured T27A murine leukemia cells with PC liposomes composed of stearic acid in ...
Marchesini N - - 1998
This work provides evidence that phosphatidic acid (PA) is metabolized to diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) in Trypanosoma cruzi. Also the presence of the enzymatic activities involved in its regulation, phosphatidate kinase (PA-k) and phosphatidate phosphatase, is demonstrated. The increase of DGPP levels in T. cruzi epimastigotes or in its membrane fraction ...
Yon J O - - 1998
The cho1/pss mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is auxotrophic for choline or ethanolamine because of the deficiency in phosphatidylserine synthesis, grew in the presence of 0.05 mM phosphatidylcholine (PC) with octanoic acids (diC8PC) or decanoic acids (diC10PC), but not in the presence of PC with longer acyl residues. It did ...
Hite R D - - 1998
Hydrolysis of surfactant-associated phospholipids by secretory phospholipases A2 is an important potential mechanism for surfactant dysfunction in inflammatory lung diseases. In these conditions, airway secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) activity is increased, but the type of sPLA2 and its impact on surfactant function are not well understood. We examined in vitro ...
Liu M - - 1998
Human lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), which is normally specific for the sn-2 position of phosphatidylcholine (PC), derives a significant percentage of acyl groups from the sn-1 position, when sn-2 is occupied by 18:0, 20:4, or 22:6. We investigated the relative importance of the two acyl groups of PC in determining the ...
Arbibe L - - 1998
Lyso-phospholipids exert a major injurious effect on lung cell membranes during Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), but the mechanisms leading to their in vivo generation are still unknown. Intratracheal administration of LPS to guinea pigs induced the secretion of type II secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-II) accompanied by a marked increase ...
Roberts R - - 1998
Phosphatidic acid (PA), lysophosphatidic acid, ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P), and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are lipid mediators generated by phospholipases, sphingomyelinases, and lipid kinases. The major pathway for degradation of these lipids is dephosphorylation catalyzed by members of two classes (types 1 and 2) of phosphohydrolase activities (PAPs). cDNAs encoding two type ...
Henshaw J B - - 1998
Bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholine initially resist catalysis by phospholipase A2. However, after a latency period, they become susceptible when sufficient reaction products (lysolecithin and fatty acid) accumulate in the membrane. Temperature near the main bilayer phase transition and calcium concentration modulate the effectiveness of the reaction products. The purpose of ...
Subbaiah P V - - 1998
Although dietary trans unsaturated fatty acids (TUFA) are known to decrease plasma HDL, the underlying mechanisms for this effect are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the decreased HDL is due to an inhibition of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), the enzyme essential for the formation of HDL, by determining the activity ...
Frank S - - 1998
By UVA irradiation of an ethanol solution of psoralen and oleic acid, four main photoproducts have been isolated and characterized: two have cis,cis structure; the other two are trans,cis. The same adducts have been isolated from the photoreaction of psoralen with beta-oleoyl-gamma-stearoyl-1-alpha-phosphatidylcholine followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with phospholipase A2. The ...
Valente R H - - 1998
The non-covalent interaction between two molecular entities namely, phospholipase A2 and crotapotin, results in the main toxin, crotoxin, present in the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. High performance liquid chromatography has enabled us the isolation of three phospholipase A2 isoforms (F1, F2 and F3), characterized through ...
Coleman R A - - 1998
The activity of hepatic monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) (EC 2.3.1.22), a developmentally expressed microsomal enzyme, is inhibited by long-chain fatty acids, and stimulated by its product 1, 2-diacyl-sn-glycerol. Because the quantities of fatty acids and diacylglycerols are likely to vary in membranes during different physiological conditions and could thereby alter MGAT ...
Sai Y - - 1998
We showed previously that cytosol treated with guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP-gammaS) disintegrated lysosomes in vitro [Sai, Y. et al. (1994) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 198, 869-877] in time-, temperature-, and dose-dependent manners. This also requires ATP, however, the latter can be substituted with deoxy-ATP, ADP, or ATPgammaS, suggesting no requirement of ...
Bieber E - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Activation of the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway plays a significant role during the intracellular signal transduction events activated during agonist-stimulated phasic myometrial contractions. Phospholipase C is an essential molecular component of this signaling pathway. These studies sought to characterize the expression of phospholipase C isoform messenger ribonucleic acid in both ...
Yoshida H - - 1998
A Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A that releases various fatty acids from sn-1 and sn-2 positions was partially purified from rat brain soluble fraction. The enzyme showed an approximate molecular mass of 300 kDa on gel filtration column chromatography. Its enzymatic properties are distinct from those of well characterized phospholipase A2 enzymes; ...
Jolly C A - - 1998
The ability of two rat liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) isoforms to influence microsomal phosphatidic acid biosynthesis, a key intermediate in glycerolipid formation, and phospholipid fatty acid remodeling was examined in vitro. Isoform I enhanced microsomal incorporation of [1-14C]-oleoyl-CoA into phosphatidic acid 7-fold while isoform II had no effect ...
Hale C C - - 1998
Since plasmalogens are the predominant phospholipid of cardiac sarcolemma, the activation of the sodium-calcium exchanger by either plasmenylethanolamine or plasmalogenic phosphatidic acid generated by phospholipase D was explored. Sodium-calcium exchange activity was 7-fold greater in proteoliposomes comprised of plasmenylethanolamine compared to proteoliposomes comprised of only plasmenylcholine. Phospholipase D treatment of ...
Feldman D A - - 1998
We previously identified a protein from rat liver that binds CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CT). We have now purified this protein (cytidylyltransferase-binding protein (CTBP)) from rat liver. The purification involved precipitation at pH 5 and extraction of the precipitate with buffer, followed by sequential chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose and butyl-agarose. Final purification was ...
Prasad M R - - 1998
Regional levels of membrane phospholipids [phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC)] were measured in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and control subjects. The levels of PE-derived and PI-derived total fatty acids were significantly decreased in the hippocampus of AD subjects. Here significant decreases were found in PE-derived stearic, oleic ...
Lin J T - - 1998
We have examined the biosynthetic pathway of triacylglycerols containing ricinoleate to determine the steps in the pathway that lead to the high levels of ricinoleate incorporation in castor oil. The biosynthetic pathway was studied by analysis of products resulting from castor microsomal incubation of 1-palmitoyl-2-[14C]oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, the substrate of oleoyl-12-hydroxylase, using ...
Boucrot P - - 1998
Compounds able to inhibit phospholipases A2 can be considered as potential anti-inflammatory drugs. In this respect, the inhibitory effect of the phospholipid analogue 1-decyl 2-octyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (decyloctyl-GPC) added to the culture medium of rat peritoneal macrophages stimulated with ionophore A23187 was determined. (a) The substrate of phospholipase A2 1-octadecanoyl 2-[14C]eicosatetraenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine ([14C]20:4-GPC) ...
Haidl G - - 1997
Previously it was demonstrated that immature and immotile human spermatozoa from the caput epididymides developed a good progressive motility after in-vitro stimulation with phosphatidylcholine (PC). In order to define the role of PC and membrane anisotropy in epididymal maturation and to determine the exact lipid composition of human spermatozoa during ...
Athenstaedt K - - 1997
Lipid particles of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae harbor two enzymes that stepwise acylate glycerol-3-phosphate to phosphatidic acid, a key intermediate in lipid biosynthesis. In lipid particles of the s1c1 disruptant YMN5 (M. M. Nagiec et al., J. Biol. Chem. 268:22156-22163, 1993) acylation stops after the first step, resulting in the ...
Appelblad P - - 1997
A new dansylation reaction, where trifluoromethanesulfonic acid is used as catalyst, has been characterized for six ketosteroids by employing experimental design followed by multivariate data analysis. The molar ratio between the steroid and the derivatization reagent was found to be the factor most strongly affecting the reaction. Faster reaction kinetics ...
Hirano K - - 1997
The properties of phospholipase A1 (PLA1) obtained from the white muscle of bonito, Euthynnus pelamis (Linnaeus), were examined. The PLA1 activity had a pH optimum from 6.5 to 7.0 for phosphatidylcholine (PC), and calcium ion was not required. The optimum temperature was from 20 to 30 degrees C. When a ...
Peres C M - - 1997
[14C]-labelled palmitic acid (PA), oleic acid (OA), linoleic (LA) and arachidonic (AA) acids were transferred from macrophages (M phi) to lymphocytes (LY) when equal numbers of the two cell types were co-cultured. The relative degree and amounts of the fatty acids transferred from M phi to LY are as follow: ...
Durante W - - 1997
Lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) is a major component of atherogenic lipids that stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. Because cationic amino acids are metabolized to growth-stimulatory polyamines, we examined whether lyso-PC regulates the transcellular transport and metabolism of cationic amino acids by vascular SMC. Treatment of SMC with lyso-PC initially (0-2 ...
Zheng Z - - 1997
Our previous studies with mice showed that chronic ethanol (EtOH) administration affected the incorporation of unsaturated free fatty acids (FFA) into four major brain phospholipids (PL). In the current study, we investigated the effects of ganglioside GM1 pretreatment on EtOH-induced changes in the incorporation of various FFA into cerebral PL ...
Goldberg E M - - 1997
The individual and combined effects of the saturated diacylglycerol (DAG) dipalmitin (DP) and saturated or polyunsaturated unesterified fatty acids (PUFAs) on both the structure of phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine (PC/PS; 4:1 mol/mol) bilayers and on protein kinase C (PKC) activity were studied using 2H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and enzyme activity assays. In ...
de Rudder K E - - 1997
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major membrane-forming phospholipid in eukaryotes. In addition to this structural function, PC is thought to play a major role in lipid turnover and signalling in eukaryotic systems. In prokaryotes, only some groups of bacteria, among them the members of the family Rhizobiaceae, contain PC. To understand ...
Guidot D M - - 1997
We determined that lisofylline, a potent inhibitor of oleate- and linoleate-containing phosphatidic acid formation (half-maximal inhibitory concentration = 40 nM), prevented oxidant-mediated capillary leak in isolated rat lungs given interleukin-8 (IL-8) intratracheally and perfused with human neutrophils. Lung leak was prevented by lung, but not neutrophil, lisofylline pretreatment. Furthermore, although ...
Schmid P C - - 1997
Freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were incubated for 20 min with [U-14C]glycerol in the presence or absence of unlabeled linoleic (18:2n-6), arachidonic (20:4n-6), or docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acid, added as albumin complex in 10% ethanol. Most of the radioactivity (approximately 95%) recovered in hepatocyte lipids was present in phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), ...
Madesh M - - 1997
Mitochondrial damage is one of the prominent features of cell injury during oxidative stress and altered mitochondrial lipids may contribute to this damage. Lipid changes were observed when liver mitochondria were exposed to superoxide generating systems. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine contents were decreased with simultaneous formation of lysophospholipids when exposed to ...
Morris A J - - 1997
Phosphodiesteric cleavage of phosphatidylcholine by members of a growing family of phospholipases D produces choline and phosphatidic acid. These enzymes can also catalyse a transphosphatidylation reaction in which the aliphatic chain of a primary alcohol is transferred to the phosphatidyl moiety of the phosphatidic acid product. PLD enzymes are found ...
Vazquez J M - - 1997
We have investigated pathways of lipid metabolism in spermatozoa and generation of various metabolites with potential messenger functions during exocytosis stimulated with A23187/Ca2+. Stimulation of boar spermatozoa resulted in a considerable rapid increase in saturated/unsaturated 1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-SU-DAG) and, concomitantly, a substantial reduction in disaturated 1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DS-DAG), and in phosphatidylcholine (PC). ...
Schroeder Taylor A T - - 1997
Pathogen-triggered generation of reactive oxidants, termed the oxidative burst, contributes to disease resistance in both plant and animal kingdoms. Since phospholipase D plays a key role in the neutrophil oxidative burst signaling cascade and is highly abundant in plants, we investigated its participation in the plant oxidative burst. Thin layer ...
El Bawab S - - 1997
We have previously reported that concanavalin A (ConA) stimulation of rat thymocytes induces an increase in the cellular phosphatidic acid mass as well as a change in its fatty acid composition. An increase in phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity, mostly due to cAMP-specific (PDE4) isoforms, has also been observed in thymocytes stimulated ...
van der Weyden L - - 1997
This is the first report of a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from the venom of the common death adder, Acanthophis antarcticus. Acanthoxin is a basic, monomeric PLA2 of mol. wt 13,000, consistent with the weight of neurotoxic PLA2s from other Australian elapids. However, preliminary ultracentrifugation experimentation has shown that it is ...
Kovács P - - 1997
Indomethacin an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase pathway for arachidonate metabolism in vertebrates, totally inhibited 32P incorporation into phospholipids at a dose of 2.0 or 5.0 mM in Tetrahymena. Treatment with 0.1 mM indomethacin caused higher arachidonic acid (AA) incorporation into phosphatidylinositol (PI) and lower incorporation into phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), ...
Tóth M - - 1997
The effects of 4beta-phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and 1,2-(sn)-dioctanoylglycerol (DOCG) on the phosphatidylcholine (PC) turnover (defined as degradation to diacylglycerol followed by PC resynthesis) and on the activity of PC-specific phospholipase D were investigated in placental mince incubated with various radiolabelled precursors in vitro. Experiments with [32P]phosphate indicated that 1 microM PMA ...
Gaits F - - 1997
From very recent studies, including molecular cloning of cDNA coding for membrane receptors, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) reached the status of a novel phospholipid mediator with various biological activities. Another strong argument supporting this view was the discovery that LPA is secreted from activated platelets, resulting in its appearance in serum ...
English D - - 1997
Phosphatidic acid and its derivatives play potentially important roles as extracellular messengers in biological systems. An ecto-phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (ecto-PAPase) has been identified which effectively regulates neutrophil responses to exogenous phosphatidic acid by converting the substrate to diacylglycerol. The present study was undertaken to characterize this ecto-enzyme on intact cells ...
Katsuragi Y - - 1997
PURPOSE: We examined the effects of phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidic acid (PA) on human taste sensation to various substances. METHODS: The effects were evaluated psychophysically using paid volunteers. RESULTS: PA inhibited the bitterness of various substances dissolved in water without affecting sweetness, saltiness, and sourness, ...
Garda H A - - 1997
The influence of a fat-free diet on the molecular species composition of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylinositol (PI) of rat liver microsomes was studied by using reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. In the three phosphoglyceride classes analyzed, the fat-free diet produced a large decrease in the 18:0/20:4n-6 species but less ...
San-Blas G - - 1997
In Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a dimorphic fungus pathogenic for humans, no significant differences were observed in the phospholipid species of both morphological phases. The species observed were phosphatidylcholine (PC, 30-40%), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, 27-28%), phosphatidylserine (16-19%), phosphatidylinositol (13-17%) and sphingomyelin (3-5%). The main fatty acids found in the yeast (Y) phase were ...
Vazquez J M - - 1997
We have investigated pathways of lipid metabolism in boar spermatozoa sperm cells incubated for up to 3 days with [14C]palmitic acid, [14C]glycerol, [14C]choline, or [14C]arachidonic acid or incorporated these precursors into diglycerides and/or phospholipids. When spermatozoa were incubated with [14C]palmitic acid or [14C]glycerol, there was first an incorporation into phosphatidic ...
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