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Subbaiah Papasani V PV Department of Medicine, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA. - - 2006
Sphingomyelin (SM), the second most abundant phospholipid in plasma lipoproteins, was previously shown to be a physiological inhibitor of the lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) reaction. In this study, we investigated the effects of its metabolites, ceramide and ceramide phosphate, on the activity and fatty acid specificity of LCAT in vitro. Treatment ...
Jitrapakdee S - - 2006
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate. PC serves an anaplerotic role for the tricarboxylic acid cycle, when intermediates are removed for different biosynthetic purposes. In liver and kidney, PC provides oxaloacetate for gluconeogenesis. In adipocytes PC is involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis and ...
Seo Ho Seong - - 2006
Bacterial lipoteichoic acid (LTA) shares a structural motif with platelet-activating factor (PAF). Both molecules are strong inflammatory agents and have a glycerol backbone with two lipid chains at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions. PAF is normally inactivated by PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), a phospholipase A2 (PLA2), which removes a short acyl group ...
Mazie Abigail R - - 2006
Phospholipase D catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to generate phosphatidic acid, and there is currently much interest in elucidating messenger functions for this molecule. We report here that wounding sheets of corneal epithelial and Madin Darby canine kidney cells induces strong activation of phospholipase D, and we provide evidence that ...
Strokin M - - 2006
Polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in the development of pathological states in brain after hypoxia/ischemia. Here, we investigated the role of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in brain phospholipids for neuronal survival. We used organotypic cultures of rat brain hippocampal slices exposed to 40 min of oxygen-glucose deprivation, to study ...
Patel Anamika - - 2006
The antioxidant activity of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC) isolated from three cyanobacterial species Lyngbya (marine), Phormidium (marine) and Spirulina (fresh water) was studied in vitro. The results demonstrate that C-PCs from Lyngbya, Phormidium and Spirulina spp. are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals (determined by crocin bleaching assay) with relative rate constant ratio ...
Kooijman Edgar E - - 2005
Phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid are minor but important anionic bioactive lipids involved in a number of key cellular processes, yet these molecules have a simple phosphate headgroup. To find out what is so special about these lipids, we determined the ionization behavior of phosphatidic acid (PA) and lysophosphatidic acid ...
Wright Christine S CS Department of Pharmacology, X-ray Crystallography Laboratory, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908-0735, USA. - - 2005
GM2-activator protein (GM2AP) is a lysosomal lipid transfer protein with important biological roles in ganglioside catabolism, phospholipid metabolism, and T-cell activation. Previous studies of crystal structures of GM2AP complexed with the physiological ligand GM2 and platelet activating factor (PAF) have shown binding at two specific locations within the spacious apolar ...
Jenkins G M - - 2005
Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyzes the phosphodiester bond of the glycerolipid phosphatidylcholine, resulting in the production of phosphatidic acid and free choline. Phosphatidic acid is widely considered to be the intracellular lipid mediator of many of the biological functions attributed to PLD. However, phosphatidic acid is a tightly regulated lipid in ...
Ichihara Ken'ichi - - 2005
An improved safe method that does not contaminate the environment with cadmium chloride, a toxic heavy metal salt, was developed for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). PC was synthesized from sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (GPC) and fatty acid in one step under mild conditions without the use of cadmium chloride. GPC was prepared ...
Hocquellet Agnès - - 2005
We investigated phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) labelling in shoots and roots from leek plantlets, maize seedlings and Arabidopsis thaliana through the incorporation of radiolabelled acetate. Regardless of the pathway followed in shoots, PC labelling was always higher than PE labelling. However, we obtained an opposite situation in leek and ...
Harder A - - 2005
The research of the class of cyclic octadepsipeptides started at the beginning of the 1990s. PF1022A, the starting material of emodepside, is a natural secondary metabolite of the fungus Mycelia sterilia, which belongs to the microflora of the leaves of Camellia japonica. PF1022A consists of four N-methyl-L-leucins, two D-Iactic acids ...
Nakamura Noriko - - 2005
Phospholipase D (PLD) is known to play a role in vesicle transport through the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to produce the bioactive lipid, phosphatidic acid. Lipid droplets (LDs) are surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids, including PC and its lyso derivative, and exhibit a number of signaling proteins. Our recent ...
Ryu Stephen B - - 2005
Phospholipase A2s (PLA2s) are enzymes that liberate lysophospholipids and free fatty acids (FFAs) from membrane phospholipids in response to hormones and other external stimuli. This report describes the cloning and functional characterization of a PLA2 cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtsPLA2-alpha, which represents one of four secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) genes in ...
Lecompte Marie-France - - 2005
4-Hydroxynonenal (4HNE), generated during polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation, is present in atherosclerotic lesions. As 4HNE is able to react with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), we investigated, using AC polarography, whether it may alter the physico-chemical state of a condensed PE-containing phospholipid monolayer and its interaction with apoA-I. The stability of a phospholipid ...
Kafoury Ramzi M - - 2005
The sequence of events leading to ozone-induced airway inflammation is not well known. To elucidate the molecular and cellular events underlying ozone toxicity in the lung, we hypothesized that lipid ozonation products (LOPs) generated by the reaction of ozone with unsaturated fatty acids in the epithelial lining fluid and cell ...
Tang Xin - - 2006
ACh stimulates arachidonic acid (AA) release from membrane phospholipids of vascular endothelial cells (ECs). In rabbit aorta, AA is metabolized through the 15-lipoxygenase pathway to form vasodilatory eicosanoids 15-hydroxy-11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (HEETA) and 11,12,15-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (THETA). AA is released from phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) by phospholipase A2 (PLA2), or from ...
Katagiri Takeshi - - 2005
Phosphatidic acid (PA) functions as a lipid signaling molecule in plants. Physiological analysis showed that PA triggers early signal transduction events that lead to responses to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination. We measured PA production during seed germination and found increased PA levels during early germination. To investigate the ...
Buang Yohanes - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We compared the effect of dietary phosphatidylcholine (PC) with that of triacylglycerol (TG), both with the same fatty acid profiles, on fatty infiltration in orotic acid (OA)-induced fatty liver of Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Rats were fed an OA-supplemented diets containing TG (TG+OA group) or PC (20% of dietary lipid, ...
Vikbjerg Anders F - - 2005
Thin-layer chromatography with a flame ionization detector (TLC-FID) was used for monitoring the production of structured phospholipids (ML type: L, long-chain fatty acids; M, medium-chain fatty acids) by enzyme-catalyzed acidolysis between soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) and caprylic acid. It was found that the structured PC fractionated into two to three distinct ...
Gauster M - - 2005
We assessed the ability of endothelial lipase (EL) to hydrolyze the sn-1 and sn-2 fatty acids (FAs) from HDL phosphatidylcholine. For this purpose, reconstituted discoidal HDLs (rHDLs) that contained free cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and either 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine, or 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonylphosphatidylcholine were incubated with EL- and control (LacZ)-conditioned media. Gas chromatography analysis ...
Kooijman Edgar E - - 2005
The formation of phosphatidic acid (PA) from lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), diacylglycerol, or phosphatidylcholine plays a key role in the regulation of intracellular membrane fission events, but the underlying molecular mechanism has not been resolved. A likely possibility is that PA affects local membrane curvature facilitating membrane bending and fission. To ...
Murray J Pedro Fernández - - 2005
Deciphering the function of the essential yeast Sec14p protein has revealed a regulatory interface between cargo secretion from Golgi and lipid homeostasis. Abrogation of the CDP-choline (CDP-Cho) pathway for phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis allows for life in the absence of the otherwise essential Sec14p. Nte1p, the product of open reading frame ...
Ng Michael N P - - 2004
During entry into the cell cycle a phosphatidylcholine (PC) metabolic cycle is activated. We have examined the hypothesis that PC synthesis during the G(0) to G(1) transition is controlled by one or more lipid products of PC turnover acting directly on the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis pathway, CTP: phosphocholine ...
Vickery S - - 2004
The study was established to assess the potential for a variety of xenobiotic aromatic carboxylic acids to be incorporated into glycerolipids. The 14C-labelled xenobiotic acids were included in incubations of cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes under defined conditions. Lipids were extracted and identified by TLC and radioscanning. Ibuprofen, 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-butanoic acid (2,4-DB), 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)-butanoic ...
Sato Rina - - 2004
A simple method for synthesizing diastereomerically pure phosphatidylglycerols (PtdGro), namely, 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-3'-sn-glycerol (R,R configuration) and 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1'-sn-glycerol (R,S configuration), was established. For this purpose, diastereomeric 1,2-O-isopropylidene PtdGro were prepared from 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PtdCho) and enantiomeric 1,2-O-isopropylideneglycerols by transphosphatidylation with phospholipase D (PLD) from Actinomadura sp. This species was selected because of its higher ...
Zhang Weihua - - 2004
Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) has potential for phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites. In this study, the synthesis of total thiols and acid-soluble thiols in P. vittata was investigated under arsenic exposure. The strong and positive correlation between As concentration and acid-soluble thiols in plant leaflets suggests that acid-soluble thiols may ...
Aikens Christopher L - - 2004
The automated docking program AutoDock was used to dock nine phosphatidic acids (PAs), six phosphatidylcholines, five phosphatidylethanolamines, four phosphatidylglycerols, one phosphatidylinositol and two phosphatidylserines, which have two identical saturated fatty acid residues with an even numbers of carbon atoms, onto the active site of Streptomyces sp. PMF phospholipase D (PLD). ...
Hirano Kaoru - - 2004
1,2-Didocosahexaenoyl phosphatidylcholine (PC), which has highly unsaturated fatty acid at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions of glycerol, is a characteristic molecular species of bonito muscle. To examine the involvement of a de novo route in its synthesis, the molecular species of phosphatidic acid (PA) were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization ...
Farooqui Akhlaq A - - 2004
The phospholipases A2 (PLA2) belong to a large family of enzymes involved in the generation of several second messengers that play an important role in signal transduction processes associated with normal brain function. The phospholipase A2 family includes secretory phospholipase A2, cytosolic phospholipase A2, calcium-independent phospholipase A2, plasmalogen-selective phospholipase A2 ...
Noiriel Alexandre - - 2004
During a search for cDNAs encoding plant sterol acyltransferases, we isolated four full-length cDNAs from Arabidopsis thaliana that encode proteins with substantial identity with animal lecithin : cholesterol acyltransferases (LCATs). The expression of one of these cDNAs, AtLCAT3 (At3g03310), in various yeast strains resulted in the doubling of the triacylglycerol ...
Canavoso Lilián E - - 2004
The metabolism of dietary lipids in the anterior midgut of Panstrongylus megistus during blood digestion was studied. Fifth instar nymphs were fed a blood meal containing 7.1 +/- 0.4 mg of lipids, consisting mainly of triacylglycerol (TAG), and completed the overall process of digestion in about 20 days. Lipolysis of ...
Onyango Arnold N - - 2004
Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) having an acyl chain with a 2,4-dienal terminal are expected to be important bioactive compounds formed during lipid peroxidation in vivo. However, they have not been isolated from biological tissues. Here we used electrospray mass spectroscopy to investigate whether a high autoxidative instability may contribute to the difficulty ...
Tserng Kou-Yi - - 2004
The traditional (parallel) model of molecular species synthesis of phosphatidylcholine is based on the substrate specificity of two glycerolphosphate acyltransferases. Preformed molecular species of diacylglycerols are then converted to phosphatidylcholine. In this investigation, we used [1,2,3,4-(13)C(4)]palmitate as a tracer to determine the turnover rates of diacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines. In HL60 ...
Shadyro Oleg - - 2004
By use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, phosphatidic acid was found to be the main product of gamma radiolysis of cardiolipin, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylglycerol. It has been shown that gamma irradiation of such glycolipids as cerebroside and galactosyl diglyceride leads to formation of ceramide and diglyceride, respectively. These ...
Loewen C J R - - 2004
Cells regulate the biophysical properties of their membranes by coordinated synthesis of different classes of lipids. Here, we identified a highly dynamic feedback mechanism by which the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can regulate phospholipid biosynthesis. Phosphatidic acid on the endoplasmic reticulum directly bound to the soluble transcriptional repressor Opi1p to ...
Yu Bin - - 2004
Phosphatidic acid is a key intermediate for chloroplast membrane lipid biosynthesis. De novo phosphatidic acid biosynthesis in plants occurs in two steps: first the acylation of the sn-1 position of glycerol-3-phosphate giving rise to lysophosphatidic acid; second, the acylation of the sn-2 position of lysophosphatidic acid to form phosphatidic acid. ...
Wang Pingzhen - - 2004
As part of a collaborative study of cellular efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids, photoactivable analogues 4-8 of phosphatidylcholine (PC) having benzophenone groups in the choline moiety and at the end of the C2 and C1 alkyl chains have been synthesized. The efficient preparation via Suzuki coupling of the appropriate long-chain ...
Lin Jiann-Tsyh - - 2004
The incorporations of oleate (endogenous) and ricinoleate (nonendogenous) into phosphatidylcholine (PC) and acylglycerol (AG) in immature soybean microsomes were compared. [(14)C]Oleate and [(14)C]ricinoleate were incubated individually with soybean microsomal preparations for up to 4 h, and molecular species of PC and AG incorporated were identified and quantified by HPLC. The ...
Sugiyama Michiyo - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Lysophosphatidic acid stimulates the proliferation of ovarian cancer cell through specific members of the guanosine triphosphate-binding protein-coupled receptor family. We attempted to identify the guanosine triphosphate-binding protein subtypes that are linked to lysophosphatidic acid receptor-stimulated production of cytokine, which are involved potentially in ovarian cancer development. STUDY DESIGN: Cytokine ...
Aoki Kazuhiro - - 2004
Novel ZGLs (zwitterionic glycosphingolipids) have been found in and extracted from the mycelia of filamentous fungi ( Acremonium sp.) isolated from soil. Five ZGLs (ZGL1-ZGL5) were structurally elucidated by sugar compositional analysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS, (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and fast-atom bombardment MS. Their chemical structures were ...
Lin Jianming - - 2004
The role of molecular organization in heated aqueous dispersions of egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and egg phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was studied with respect to the formation of key odorants. Evidence was found for the crucial role of self-assembly structures adopted by phospholipid molecules on the quantitative composition of volatile constituents. The concentrations ...
Rasi Silvia - - 2004
It is accepted by many authors that the formation of closed molecular structures is a key step in the evolution of life. Oleate vesicles represent a good model system in this framework due to the fact that they self-assemble spontaneously and that fatty acids are considered as possible prebiotic structures. ...
Phillis John W - - 2004
Phospholipases are a diverse group of enzymes whose activation may be responsible for the development of injury following insult to the brain. Amongst the numerous isoforms of phospholipase proteins expressed in mammals are 19 different phospholipase A2's (PLA2s), classified functionally as either secretory, calcium dependent, or calcium independent, 11 isozymes ...
Leslie Christina C - - 2004
Mammalian cells contain many structurally and functionally diverse phospholipases A2 (PLA2) that catalyze the hydrolysis of sn-2 fatty acid from membrane phospholipid. Assays are described for measuring the activity of Group IVA cytosolic PLA2alpha(cPLAalpha) and for secreted PLA2s (sPLA2) that are suitable for purified enzymes and for measuring activity in ...
Kubo Kazuhiro - - 2004
We examined the relationship between the transbilayer distribution of aminophospholipids, such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), PE plasmalogen and phosphatidylserine, and the oxidative stability of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the aminophospholipids. To modulate the transbilayer distribution of aminophospholipid in liposomes, we used phosphatidylcholine (PC) with two types of acyl chain region: ...
Arai Kazuya - - 2004
In order to discover novel invertebrate cytokines from the budding tunicate, Polyandrocarpa misakiensis, we treated the water-insoluble fraction of tunicate homogenates with trypsin. The extracts showed remarkable activities to promote the growth and motility of tunicate cells. The activities were heat-stable and proteinase K-resistant. After anion exchange chromatography, the activities ...
Zhao Yue - - 2003
We previously described a point mutation in human LCAT (E to A at residue 149; hE149A) that demonstrated greater activity with phosphatidylcholine (PC) substrate containing 20:4 in the sn-2 position compared with the wild-type enzyme [hLCAT; Wang et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 280-286], resulting in a human enzyme ...
Sun Grace Y - - 2004
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) belongs to a family of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of fatty acids from the sn-2 position of phospholipids. There are more than 19 different isoforms of PLA2 in the mammalian system, but recent studies have focused on three major groups, namely, the group IV cytosolic PLA2, ...
Schiller Jürgen - - 2003
In this study we demonstrated the combination of MALDI-TOF MS and TLC as a fast and powerful tool to investigate the phospholipid (PL) composition of organic extracts of bull spermatozoa. Since phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the dominant PL species, an adequate resolution of MALDI-TOF spectra for sphingomyelin (SM) or phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) ...
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