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Results 101 - 150 of 1249
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Lin Jiann-Tsyh - - 2007
HPLC fractions of diricinoleoylacylglycerols containing one non-ricinoleoyl chain from castor oil were used to identify the regiospecific location of this non-ricinoleoyl chain on the glycerol backbone using electrospray ionization-MS3 of lithium adducts. The regiospecific ions used were from the loss of alpha,beta-unsaturated fatty acid specific at the sn-2 position. The ...
Megighian Aram - - 2007
The study of the effect of snake presynaptic neurotoxins with phospholipase A2 activity on nerve terminals has recently unveiled the inhibitory action of a lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC)/fatty acid mixture. We report here that these neurotoxins have no activity on Drosophila melanogaster nerve terminals. However, a 1:1 mixture of LysoPC and oleic ...
Rakotomanga M - - 2007
Miltefosine (hexadecylphosphocholine [HePC]) is the first orally active antileishmanial drug. Transient HePC treatment of Leishmania donovani promastigotes at 10 microM significantly reduced the phosphatidylcholine content and enhanced the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) content in parasite membranes, suggesting a partial inactivation of PE-N-methyltransferase. Phospholipase D activity did not seem to be affected by ...
Adamczyk Agata - - 2007
In the present study we investigated the role of alpha-synuclein (ASN) and its fragment NAC in arachidonic acid (AA) turnover in the rat brain. Our data indicated that ASN (10 microM) inhibited [3H]AA incorporation into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylserine (PS) together with phosphatidic acid (PA) by 13%, 27% ...
Fritz Markus - - 2007
Plastidial glycolipids contain diacylglycerol (DAG) moieties, which are either synthesized in the plastids (prokaryotic lipids) or originate in the extraplastidial compartment (eukaryotic lipids) necessitating their transfer into plastids. In contrast, the only phospholipid in plastids, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), contains exclusively prokaryotic DAG backbones. PG contributes in several ways to the functions ...
Singh Dev K DK Department of Medicine, Section of Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1819 West Polk, M/C 797, Chicago, IL 60612, - - 2007
We previously showed that group V secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)V) is inhibited by sphingomyelin (SM), but activated by ceramide. Here, we investigated the effect of sphingolipid structure on the activity and acyl specificity of sPLA(2)V. Degradation of HDL SM to ceramide, but not to ceramide phosphate, stimulated the activity by ...
Caccin Paola - - 2006
Lysophosphatidylcholine rapidly paralyses the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), similarly to snake phospholipase A2 neurotoxins, implicating a lipid hemifusion-pore transition in neuroexocytosis. The mode and kinetics of NMJ paralysis of different lysophospholipids (lysoPLs) in high or low [Mg2+] was investigated. The following order of potency was found: lysophosphatidylcholine>lysophosphatidylethanolamine>lysophosphatidic acid>lysophosphatidylserine>lysophosphatidylglycerol. The latter two ...
Oxley Anthony - - 2007
Pathways of lipid resynthesis in the intestine of fish are relatively unknown. Various reports have suggested the existence of both sn-1,3-specific (pancreatic) and non-specific (bile salt-activated) lipase activity operating on dietary triacylglycerol (TAG) in the intestinal lumen of fish during digestion. Thus, sn-2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) and glycerol, respective hydrolytic products of ...
Cho In Hee - - 2007
Metabolomic analysis of raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) of different grades was performed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and principal component analysis (PCA). PCA of the (1)H NMR spectra of aqueous fractions allowed different grades of raw pine-mushroom to be discriminated by a combination of principal ...
Mulder Anke M AM Department of Cell Biology, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, - - 2006
Lipid transmitters are tightly regulated by a balance of biosynthetic and degradative enzymes. Termination of the activity of the N-acyl ethanolamine (NAE) class of lipid-signaling molecules, including the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA), is principally mediated by the integral membrane enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in vivo. FAAH(-/-) mice are highly ...
Yin Jun-Jie - - 2006
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are a group of octadecadienoic acids (18:2) that are naturally present in food products and may have beneficial health effects. Liposomes and ethanol solutions were prepared by mixing synthetic phosphatidylcholines (PCs) with c9,t11-CLA, t10,c12-CLA, and linoleic acid (LA) in the sn-2 position into natural PCs from ...
Andersson Erik - - 2006
15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) can oxygenate both free fatty acids and fatty acids bound to membrane phospholipids. The regulation of the activity of membrane associated 15-LO-1 is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that calcium ionophore stimulates the translocation of 15-LO-1 to the plasma membrane in human dendritic cells. In a protein-lipid overlay ...
Murthy S N Prasanna - - 2006
This paper uses phospholipase Cepsilon as a model to demonstrate that lipids can act as ligands to bind to specific motifs and regulate protein activity via allosteric effects. Phospholipids such as phosphatidic acid and free fatty acids such as arachidonate are potent activators of PLCepsilon, increasing the rate of PI ...
Cazzolli Rosanna - - 2006
Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyzes the phosphodiester bond of the predominant membrane phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine producing phosphatidic acid and free choline. This activity can participate in signal transduction pathways and impact on vesicle trafficking for secretion and endocytosis, as well as receptor signalling. Phospholipids can regulate PLD activity directly, through specific intermolecular ...
Yoneyama Kelly A G - - 2006
Detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) from Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes, insoluble in 1% Triton X-100 at 4 degrees C, were fractionated by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. They were composed of glycoinositolphospholipids (GIPLs), inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and sterols. In contrast, 1% Triton X-100-soluble fraction was composed of PE, phosphatidylcholine, ...
Ghosh Moumita - - 2006
The Group IV phospholipase A2 family is comprised of six intracellular enzymes commonly called cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) alpha, cPLA2beta, cPLA2gamma, cPLA2delta, cPLA2epsilon and cPLA2zeta. They are most homologous to phospholipase A and phospholipase B/lysophospholipases of filamentous fungi particularly in regions containing conserved residues involved in catalysis. However, a number ...
Subbaiah Papasani V PV Department of Medicine, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA. - - 2006
Sphingomyelin (SM), the second most abundant phospholipid in plasma lipoproteins, was previously shown to be a physiological inhibitor of the lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) reaction. In this study, we investigated the effects of its metabolites, ceramide and ceramide phosphate, on the activity and fatty acid specificity of LCAT in vitro. Treatment ...
Jitrapakdee S - - 2006
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate. PC serves an anaplerotic role for the tricarboxylic acid cycle, when intermediates are removed for different biosynthetic purposes. In liver and kidney, PC provides oxaloacetate for gluconeogenesis. In adipocytes PC is involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis and ...
Seo Ho Seong - - 2006
Bacterial lipoteichoic acid (LTA) shares a structural motif with platelet-activating factor (PAF). Both molecules are strong inflammatory agents and have a glycerol backbone with two lipid chains at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions. PAF is normally inactivated by PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), a phospholipase A2 (PLA2), which removes a short acyl group ...
Mazie Abigail R - - 2006
Phospholipase D catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to generate phosphatidic acid, and there is currently much interest in elucidating messenger functions for this molecule. We report here that wounding sheets of corneal epithelial and Madin Darby canine kidney cells induces strong activation of phospholipase D, and we provide evidence that ...
Strokin M - - 2006
Polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in the development of pathological states in brain after hypoxia/ischemia. Here, we investigated the role of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in brain phospholipids for neuronal survival. We used organotypic cultures of rat brain hippocampal slices exposed to 40 min of oxygen-glucose deprivation, to study ...
Patel Anamika - - 2006
The antioxidant activity of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC) isolated from three cyanobacterial species Lyngbya (marine), Phormidium (marine) and Spirulina (fresh water) was studied in vitro. The results demonstrate that C-PCs from Lyngbya, Phormidium and Spirulina spp. are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals (determined by crocin bleaching assay) with relative rate constant ratio ...
Kooijman Edgar E - - 2005
Phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid are minor but important anionic bioactive lipids involved in a number of key cellular processes, yet these molecules have a simple phosphate headgroup. To find out what is so special about these lipids, we determined the ionization behavior of phosphatidic acid (PA) and lysophosphatidic acid ...
Wright Christine S CS Department of Pharmacology, X-ray Crystallography Laboratory, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908-0735, USA. - - 2005
GM2-activator protein (GM2AP) is a lysosomal lipid transfer protein with important biological roles in ganglioside catabolism, phospholipid metabolism, and T-cell activation. Previous studies of crystal structures of GM2AP complexed with the physiological ligand GM2 and platelet activating factor (PAF) have shown binding at two specific locations within the spacious apolar ...
Jenkins G M - - 2005
Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyzes the phosphodiester bond of the glycerolipid phosphatidylcholine, resulting in the production of phosphatidic acid and free choline. Phosphatidic acid is widely considered to be the intracellular lipid mediator of many of the biological functions attributed to PLD. However, phosphatidic acid is a tightly regulated lipid in ...
Ichihara Ken'ichi - - 2005
An improved safe method that does not contaminate the environment with cadmium chloride, a toxic heavy metal salt, was developed for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). PC was synthesized from sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (GPC) and fatty acid in one step under mild conditions without the use of cadmium chloride. GPC was prepared ...
Hocquellet Agnès - - 2005
We investigated phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) labelling in shoots and roots from leek plantlets, maize seedlings and Arabidopsis thaliana through the incorporation of radiolabelled acetate. Regardless of the pathway followed in shoots, PC labelling was always higher than PE labelling. However, we obtained an opposite situation in leek and ...
Harder A - - 2005
The research of the class of cyclic octadepsipeptides started at the beginning of the 1990s. PF1022A, the starting material of emodepside, is a natural secondary metabolite of the fungus Mycelia sterilia, which belongs to the microflora of the leaves of Camellia japonica. PF1022A consists of four N-methyl-L-leucins, two D-Iactic acids ...
Nakamura Noriko - - 2005
Phospholipase D (PLD) is known to play a role in vesicle transport through the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to produce the bioactive lipid, phosphatidic acid. Lipid droplets (LDs) are surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids, including PC and its lyso derivative, and exhibit a number of signaling proteins. Our recent ...
Ryu Stephen B - - 2005
Phospholipase A2s (PLA2s) are enzymes that liberate lysophospholipids and free fatty acids (FFAs) from membrane phospholipids in response to hormones and other external stimuli. This report describes the cloning and functional characterization of a PLA2 cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtsPLA2-alpha, which represents one of four secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) genes in ...
Lecompte Marie-France - - 2005
4-Hydroxynonenal (4HNE), generated during polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation, is present in atherosclerotic lesions. As 4HNE is able to react with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), we investigated, using AC polarography, whether it may alter the physico-chemical state of a condensed PE-containing phospholipid monolayer and its interaction with apoA-I. The stability of a phospholipid ...
Kafoury Ramzi M - - 2005
The sequence of events leading to ozone-induced airway inflammation is not well known. To elucidate the molecular and cellular events underlying ozone toxicity in the lung, we hypothesized that lipid ozonation products (LOPs) generated by the reaction of ozone with unsaturated fatty acids in the epithelial lining fluid and cell ...
Tang Xin - - 2006
ACh stimulates arachidonic acid (AA) release from membrane phospholipids of vascular endothelial cells (ECs). In rabbit aorta, AA is metabolized through the 15-lipoxygenase pathway to form vasodilatory eicosanoids 15-hydroxy-11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (HEETA) and 11,12,15-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (THETA). AA is released from phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) by phospholipase A2 (PLA2), or from ...
Katagiri Takeshi - - 2005
Phosphatidic acid (PA) functions as a lipid signaling molecule in plants. Physiological analysis showed that PA triggers early signal transduction events that lead to responses to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination. We measured PA production during seed germination and found increased PA levels during early germination. To investigate the ...
Buang Yohanes - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We compared the effect of dietary phosphatidylcholine (PC) with that of triacylglycerol (TG), both with the same fatty acid profiles, on fatty infiltration in orotic acid (OA)-induced fatty liver of Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Rats were fed an OA-supplemented diets containing TG (TG+OA group) or PC (20% of dietary lipid, ...
Vikbjerg Anders F - - 2005
Thin-layer chromatography with a flame ionization detector (TLC-FID) was used for monitoring the production of structured phospholipids (ML type: L, long-chain fatty acids; M, medium-chain fatty acids) by enzyme-catalyzed acidolysis between soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) and caprylic acid. It was found that the structured PC fractionated into two to three distinct ...
Gauster M - - 2005
We assessed the ability of endothelial lipase (EL) to hydrolyze the sn-1 and sn-2 fatty acids (FAs) from HDL phosphatidylcholine. For this purpose, reconstituted discoidal HDLs (rHDLs) that contained free cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and either 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine, or 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonylphosphatidylcholine were incubated with EL- and control (LacZ)-conditioned media. Gas chromatography analysis ...
Kooijman Edgar E - - 2005
The formation of phosphatidic acid (PA) from lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), diacylglycerol, or phosphatidylcholine plays a key role in the regulation of intracellular membrane fission events, but the underlying molecular mechanism has not been resolved. A likely possibility is that PA affects local membrane curvature facilitating membrane bending and fission. To ...
Murray J Pedro Fernández - - 2005
Deciphering the function of the essential yeast Sec14p protein has revealed a regulatory interface between cargo secretion from Golgi and lipid homeostasis. Abrogation of the CDP-choline (CDP-Cho) pathway for phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis allows for life in the absence of the otherwise essential Sec14p. Nte1p, the product of open reading frame ...
Ng Michael N P - - 2004
During entry into the cell cycle a phosphatidylcholine (PC) metabolic cycle is activated. We have examined the hypothesis that PC synthesis during the G(0) to G(1) transition is controlled by one or more lipid products of PC turnover acting directly on the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis pathway, CTP: phosphocholine ...
Vickery S - - 2004
The study was established to assess the potential for a variety of xenobiotic aromatic carboxylic acids to be incorporated into glycerolipids. The 14C-labelled xenobiotic acids were included in incubations of cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes under defined conditions. Lipids were extracted and identified by TLC and radioscanning. Ibuprofen, 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-butanoic acid (2,4-DB), 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)-butanoic ...
Sato Rina - - 2004
A simple method for synthesizing diastereomerically pure phosphatidylglycerols (PtdGro), namely, 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-3'-sn-glycerol (R,R configuration) and 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1'-sn-glycerol (R,S configuration), was established. For this purpose, diastereomeric 1,2-O-isopropylidene PtdGro were prepared from 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PtdCho) and enantiomeric 1,2-O-isopropylideneglycerols by transphosphatidylation with phospholipase D (PLD) from Actinomadura sp. This species was selected because of its higher ...
Zhang Weihua - - 2004
Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) has potential for phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites. In this study, the synthesis of total thiols and acid-soluble thiols in P. vittata was investigated under arsenic exposure. The strong and positive correlation between As concentration and acid-soluble thiols in plant leaflets suggests that acid-soluble thiols may ...
Aikens Christopher L - - 2004
The automated docking program AutoDock was used to dock nine phosphatidic acids (PAs), six phosphatidylcholines, five phosphatidylethanolamines, four phosphatidylglycerols, one phosphatidylinositol and two phosphatidylserines, which have two identical saturated fatty acid residues with an even numbers of carbon atoms, onto the active site of Streptomyces sp. PMF phospholipase D (PLD). ...
Hirano Kaoru - - 2004
1,2-Didocosahexaenoyl phosphatidylcholine (PC), which has highly unsaturated fatty acid at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions of glycerol, is a characteristic molecular species of bonito muscle. To examine the involvement of a de novo route in its synthesis, the molecular species of phosphatidic acid (PA) were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization ...
Farooqui Akhlaq A - - 2004
The phospholipases A2 (PLA2) belong to a large family of enzymes involved in the generation of several second messengers that play an important role in signal transduction processes associated with normal brain function. The phospholipase A2 family includes secretory phospholipase A2, cytosolic phospholipase A2, calcium-independent phospholipase A2, plasmalogen-selective phospholipase A2 ...
Noiriel Alexandre - - 2004
During a search for cDNAs encoding plant sterol acyltransferases, we isolated four full-length cDNAs from Arabidopsis thaliana that encode proteins with substantial identity with animal lecithin : cholesterol acyltransferases (LCATs). The expression of one of these cDNAs, AtLCAT3 (At3g03310), in various yeast strains resulted in the doubling of the triacylglycerol ...
Canavoso Lilián E - - 2004
The metabolism of dietary lipids in the anterior midgut of Panstrongylus megistus during blood digestion was studied. Fifth instar nymphs were fed a blood meal containing 7.1 +/- 0.4 mg of lipids, consisting mainly of triacylglycerol (TAG), and completed the overall process of digestion in about 20 days. Lipolysis of ...
Onyango Arnold N - - 2004
Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) having an acyl chain with a 2,4-dienal terminal are expected to be important bioactive compounds formed during lipid peroxidation in vivo. However, they have not been isolated from biological tissues. Here we used electrospray mass spectroscopy to investigate whether a high autoxidative instability may contribute to the difficulty ...
Tserng Kou-Yi - - 2004
The traditional (parallel) model of molecular species synthesis of phosphatidylcholine is based on the substrate specificity of two glycerolphosphate acyltransferases. Preformed molecular species of diacylglycerols are then converted to phosphatidylcholine. In this investigation, we used [1,2,3,4-(13)C(4)]palmitate as a tracer to determine the turnover rates of diacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines. In HL60 ...
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