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Yamashita Atsushi - - 2010
GPR55 is a seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor that has been proposed as a novel type of cannabinoid receptor. Previously, we identified lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), in particular 2-arachidonoyl-LPI, as an agonist for GPR55. In the present study, we examined whether intracellular phospholipase A1 (DDHD domain containing 1, or DDHD1), previously identified as phosphatidic ...
Rajakumari Sona - - 2010
Triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis, membrane lipid biosynthesis, and lipid turnover are largely interlinked processes. In yeast, TAG is mobilized by three TAG lipases named Tgl3p, Tgl4p, and Tgl5p, which are localized to lipid particles/droplets. These TAG lipases posses a conserved GXSXG motif that is characteristic of hydrolytic enzymes. Here, we demonstrated ...
Sueldo Daniela J - - 2010
*In animals and plants, extracellular ATP exerts its effects by regulating the second messengers Ca(2+), nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In animals, phospholipid-derived molecules, such as diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid (PA) and inositol phosphates, have been associated with the extracellular ATP signaling pathway. The involvement of phospholipids in ...
Duclos Richard I RI Jr Center for Drug Discovery, Northeastern University, 116 Mugar Life Sciences Building, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2010
2-O-Arachidonoyl-1-O-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was synthesized with carbon-13 enrichment of the three glycerol carbons and the carbonyl of the stearoyl group. Phospholipase A(2) was utilized to give optically pure lyso-PC, and only 3% acyl migration occurred during reacylation with arachidonic acid anhydride. This phospholipid is an important biosynthetic precursor of arachidonic acid metabolites ...
Epand Richard M - - 2009
The beef heart adenine nucleotide carrier protein (Anc) of the inner mitochondrial membrane can be purified in a form stabilized by binding the inhibitor carboxyatractyloside. The protein is copurified with bound lipid. We show for the first time that phosphatidic acid, although a minor component, is one of the lipids ...
Kanzawa Noriyuki - - 2009
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) play various roles in cell-cell and cell-environment interactions. GPI is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from phosphatidylinositol (PI) through step-wise reactions including transfers of monosaccharides and preassembled GPI is transferred en bloc to proteins. Cellular PI contains mostly diacyl glycerol and unsaturated fatty acid in the ...
Le Guédard Marina - - 2009
In yeast, both phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine are synthesized from cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol. Because, as in other eukaryotes, phosphatidylinositol contains more saturated fatty acids than phosphatidylserine (and other phospholipids), it has been hypothesized that either phosphatidylinositol is synthesized from distinct cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol molecules, or that, after its synthesis, it is modified by ...
Le Grandois Julie - - 2009
This study is a contribution to the exploration of natural phospholipid (PL) sources rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) with nutritional interest. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) were purified from total lipid extracts of different food matrices, and their molecular species were separated and identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS(2)). ...
Marra Carlos A - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The influence of cytoskeletal integrity on fatty-acid (FA) metabolism is an almost unexplored field of biochemical research. This study therefore investigated the influence of cytoskeletal integrity on the incorporation of palmitate and eicosa-8,11,14-trienoate into glycerolipids of Hep G2 human hepatoma cells. MATERIAL/METHODS: Attached cultures and suspended cells were exposed ...
Grando F C C - - 2009
To determine the effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in phosphatidylcholine (PC) on macrophage activity, peritoneal lavage cells were cultured in the presence of phosphatidylcholine rich in saturated or unsaturated fatty acids (sat PC and unsat PC, respectively), both used at concentrations of 32 and 64 microM. The treatment ...
Morita Shin-ya - - 2009
In this work, we developed a novel enzymatic method for measuring phosphatidic acid (PA) in cultured cells. The enzymatic reaction sequence of the method involves hydrolysis of PA to produce glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), which is then oxidized by G3P oxidase to generate hydrogen peroxide. In the presence of peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide ...
Kooijman Edgar Eduard - - 2009
Phosphatidic acid is the simplest (diacyl)glycerophospholipid present in cells and is now a well established second messenger with direct biological functions. It is specifically recognized by diverse proteins and plays an important role in cellular signaling and membrane dynamics in all eukaryotes. An important determinant of the biological functions of ...
Bates Philip D - - 2009
The reactions leading to triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis in oilseeds have been well characterized. However, quantitative analyses of acyl group and glycerol backbone fluxes that comprise extraplastidic phospholipid and TAG synthesis, including acyl editing and phosphatidylcholine-diacylglycerol interconversion, are lacking. To investigate these fluxes, we rapidly labeled developing soybean (Glycine max) embryos ...
Cockcroft Shamshad - - 2009
Phosphatidic acid (PA) production by receptor-stimulated phospholipase D is believed to play an important role in the regulation of cell function. The second messenger function of PA remains to be elucidated. PA can bind and affect the activities of different enzymes and here we summarise the current status of activation ...
Beranek Andreas A Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Humboldtstrasse 50/II, Graz A-8010, - - 2009
The mitochondrial dimeric phospholipid cardiolipin is characterized by a high degree of unsaturation of its acyl chains, which is important for its functional interaction with mitochondrial enzymes. The unusual fatty acid composition of cardiolipin molecular species emerges from a de novo synthesized "premature" species by extensive acyl chain remodeling that ...
Tilley Dana M - - 2008
CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) catalyzes the conversion of phosphocholine and cytidine 5'-triphosphate (CTP) to CDP-choline for the eventual synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). The enzyme is regulated by reversible association with cellular membranes, with the rate of catalysis increasing following membrane association. Two isoforms of CCT appear to be present in higher ...
Santos-Filho Norival A - - 2008
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2, EC 3.1.1.4), a major component of snake venoms, specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of fatty acid ester bonds at position 2 of 1,2-diacyl-sn-3-phosphoglycerides in the presence of calcium. This article reports the purification and biochemical/functional characterization of BmooTX-I, a new myotoxic acidic phospholipase A2 from Bothrops moojeni snake ...
Yurkova Irina L - - 2008
Mitochondria are an important intracellular source of ROS as well as a sensitive target for oxidative damage under certain pathological conditions such as iron or copper overload. Mitochondrial membranes are rich in the tetraacyl phospholipid cardiolipin. Its integrity is important for efficient oxidative phosphorylation. Mouse liver mitochondria were subjected to ...
Pasquaré S J - - 2008
We have demonstrated that the competition between phosphatidic acid (PA) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) for lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPP) generates different levels of diacylglycerol (DAG) depending on the illumination state of the retina. The aim of the present research was to determine the ...
Yang Jia-Shu JS Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2008
Proteins essential for vesicle formation by the Coat Protein I (COPI) complex are being identified, but less is known about the role of specific lipids. Brefeldin-A ADP-ribosylated substrate (BARS) functions in the fission step of COPI vesicle formation. Here, we show that BARS induces membrane curvature in cooperation with phosphatidic ...
Young Claire C Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford, United - - 2009
To evaluate the localization of phospholipase C zeta (PLC zeta) in non-capacitated, capacitated, and ionophore-treated sperm. Phospholipase C zeta was cloned from the hamster, an important model organism for studying fertilization. Next, we used hamster and mouse models to investigate the localization of PLC zeta in non-capacitated and capacitated sperm ...
Matsuda Shinji - - 2008
Glycerophospholipids in biological membranes are metabolically active and participate in a series of deacylation-reacylation reactions, which may lead to accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. The reacylation reaction is believed to be catalyzed by acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):lysophospholipid acyltransferase. Very recently, we have ...
Malanovic Nermina N Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Humboldtstrasse 50/II, Graz, - - 2008
In eukaryotes, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (Sah1) offers a single way for degradation of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, a product and potent competitive inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet)-dependent methyltransferases. De novo phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis requires three AdoMet-dependent methylation steps. Here we show that down-regulation of SAH1 expression in yeast leads to accumulation of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and decreased ...
Di Venosa Gabriela - - 2008
Liposomes of different compositions have been designed to improve delivery of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and its esterified derivatives ALA-Hexyl ester (He-ALA) and ALA-Undecanoyl ester (Und-ALA) for its use in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Egg yolk phosphatidyl choline (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidyl glycerol (PG) were employed in the preparation of ...
Miller Rhea M - - 2008
Pseudomonas aeruginosa demonstrates type IV pilus-mediated directional twitching motility up a gradient of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Only one of four extracellular phospholipases C of P. aeruginosa (i.e., PlcB), while not required for twitching motility per se, is required for twitching-mediated migration up a gradient of PE or phosphatidylcholine. Whether other lipid ...
Scapa Erez F EF Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2008
Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP, also known as StarD2) is a highly specific intracellular lipid binding protein with accentuated expression in oxidative tissues. Here we show that decreased plasma concentrations of glucose and free fatty acids in fasting PC-TP-deficient (Pctp(-/-)) mice are attributable to increased hepatic insulin sensitivity. In hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp ...
Ushida Yusuke - - 2008
The aim of this study was to point out the potential of tartary buckwheat on vascular functions. A nonabsorbed fraction of hot-water extract of tartary buckwheat on a SP70 column (TBSP-T), which was free from rutin, was used for this aim. In a contractile experiment using Sprague-Dawley rat thoracic aorta ...
Pruitt Nancy L - - 2008
Abstract Third-instar larvae of the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae) are freeze tolerant in winter. During freezing, cell membranes must compensate for both low temperature and partial dehydration. Documented adaptations to low temperature include increased fatty acid unsaturation and enrichment of cone-shaped phosphatides, both of which inhibit formation ...
Ghosh Ananda K - - 2008
One of the major determinants of organic solvent tolerance is the increase in membrane phospholipids. Here we report for the first time that an increase in the synthesis of phosphatidic acid is responsible for enhanced phospholipid synthesis that confers tolerance to the organic solvent in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This increase in ...
Zhao Yang - - 2008
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is synthesized through the Kennedy pathway, but more than 50% of PC is remodeled through the Lands cycle, i.e. the deacylation and reacylation of PC to attain the final and proper fatty acids within PC. The reacylation step is catalyzed by lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), and we report here ...
Zhang Xu Hannah XH Division of Experimental Diabetes and Aging, Department of Geriatrics and Adult Development, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, - - 2007
The G1 phase of the cell cycle is marked by the rapid turnover of phospholipids. This turnover is regulated by CTP:phosphocholine-cytidylyltransferase (CCT) and group VIA Ca(2+)-independent-phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)). We previously reported that inhibition of iPLA(2) arrests cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle by activating the p53-p21 checkpoint. Here ...
Nakamura Yuki - - 2007
The origin of diacylglycerol, a substrate for membrane lipid biosynthesis, is not fully understood. Here, we report that Petunia hybrida floral organs contain large amounts of diacylglycerol. Our data suggest that in stamens and pistils diacylglycerol is supplied both from phosphatidylcholine by non-specific phospholipase C activity and de novo via ...
Boeris P S - - 2007
AIMS: The aim of this work was to establish if the response to tetradecyltrimethylammonium (TDTMA), a representative quaternary ammonium compound (QAC), involves changes in the phospholipid (PL) composition of Pseudomonas putida A ATCC 12633. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pseudomonas putida was exposed to 50 mg l(-1) of TDTMA for 15 min, ...
Bates Philip D - - 2007
In expanding pea leaves, over 95% of fatty acids (FA) synthesized in the plastid are exported for assembly of eukaryotic glycerolipids. It is often assumed that the major products of plastid FA synthesis (18:1 and 16:0) are first incorporated into 16:0/18:1 and 18:1/18:1 molecular species of phosphatidic acid (PA), which ...
Benghezal Mohammed - - 2007
Phosphatidic acid is the intermediate, from which all glycerophospholipids are synthesized. In yeast, it is generated from lysophosphatidic acid, which is acylated by Slc1p, an sn-2-specific, acyl-coenzyme A-dependent 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase. Deletion of SLC1 is not lethal and does not eliminate all microsomal 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase activity, suggesting that an additional enzyme ...
Bleijerveld Onno B - - 2007
In mammalian cells, phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) is mainly synthesized via the CDP-ethanolamine (Kennedy) pathway and by decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer). However, the extent to which these two pathways contribute to overall PtdEtn synthesis both quantitatively and qualitatively is still not clear. To assess their contributions, PtdEtn species synthesized by the two ...
Zarei Kobra - - 2007
A very sensitive, simple and selective spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of phosphate and silicate based on formation of phospho- and silicomolybdenum blue complexes in the presence of ascorbic acid is described. Although the complexes of phosphate and silicate with reagent in the presence of ascorbic acid show a spectral ...
Panasenko Oleg M - - 2007
The leukocyte enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) is capable of catalyzing the oxidation of chloride and bromide ions, at physiological concentrations of these substrates, by hydrogen peroxide, generating hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hypobromous acid (HOBr), respectively. Our previous results showed that the hypohalous acids formed react with double bonds in phosphatidylcholines (PCs) ...
Russo Marco Antonio - - 2007
In a long-term experiment bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings were grown for 18 days in hydroponics in either phosphate-sufficient (+P) or phosphate-deficient (-P) nutrient solutions. Phosphate deprivation halved the phosphorous content of roots. In plasma membrane (PM) fractions isolated from -P roots the phospholipid (PL) level was reduced from 35 ...
Handwerger Rachel G RG Institute for Medicine and Engineering, 1024 Vagelos Laboratories, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, - - 2007
A biotinylated photocleavable polyethylenimine (B-PC-PEI) was designed and synthesized for the capture and controlled release of nucleic acids from solid supports. B-PC-PEI was synthesized via a three-step reaction process and verified by 1H NMR and mass spectrometry. In aqueous solution, the o-nitrobenzyl group within B-PC-PEI was efficiently cleaved by 5 ...
Lin Jiann-Tsyh - - 2007
HPLC fractions of diricinoleoylacylglycerols containing one non-ricinoleoyl chain from castor oil were used to identify the regiospecific location of this non-ricinoleoyl chain on the glycerol backbone using electrospray ionization-MS3 of lithium adducts. The regiospecific ions used were from the loss of alpha,beta-unsaturated fatty acid specific at the sn-2 position. The ...
Megighian Aram - - 2007
The study of the effect of snake presynaptic neurotoxins with phospholipase A2 activity on nerve terminals has recently unveiled the inhibitory action of a lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC)/fatty acid mixture. We report here that these neurotoxins have no activity on Drosophila melanogaster nerve terminals. However, a 1:1 mixture of LysoPC and oleic ...
Rakotomanga M - - 2007
Miltefosine (hexadecylphosphocholine [HePC]) is the first orally active antileishmanial drug. Transient HePC treatment of Leishmania donovani promastigotes at 10 microM significantly reduced the phosphatidylcholine content and enhanced the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) content in parasite membranes, suggesting a partial inactivation of PE-N-methyltransferase. Phospholipase D activity did not seem to be affected by ...
Adamczyk Agata - - 2007
In the present study we investigated the role of alpha-synuclein (ASN) and its fragment NAC in arachidonic acid (AA) turnover in the rat brain. Our data indicated that ASN (10 microM) inhibited [3H]AA incorporation into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylserine (PS) together with phosphatidic acid (PA) by 13%, 27% ...
Fritz Markus - - 2007
Plastidial glycolipids contain diacylglycerol (DAG) moieties, which are either synthesized in the plastids (prokaryotic lipids) or originate in the extraplastidial compartment (eukaryotic lipids) necessitating their transfer into plastids. In contrast, the only phospholipid in plastids, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), contains exclusively prokaryotic DAG backbones. PG contributes in several ways to the functions ...
Singh Dev K DK Department of Medicine, Section of Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1819 West Polk, M/C 797, Chicago, IL 60612, - - 2007
We previously showed that group V secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)V) is inhibited by sphingomyelin (SM), but activated by ceramide. Here, we investigated the effect of sphingolipid structure on the activity and acyl specificity of sPLA(2)V. Degradation of HDL SM to ceramide, but not to ceramide phosphate, stimulated the activity by ...
Caccin Paola - - 2006
Lysophosphatidylcholine rapidly paralyses the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), similarly to snake phospholipase A2 neurotoxins, implicating a lipid hemifusion-pore transition in neuroexocytosis. The mode and kinetics of NMJ paralysis of different lysophospholipids (lysoPLs) in high or low [Mg2+] was investigated. The following order of potency was found: lysophosphatidylcholine>lysophosphatidylethanolamine>lysophosphatidic acid>lysophosphatidylserine>lysophosphatidylglycerol. The latter two ...
Oxley Anthony - - 2007
Pathways of lipid resynthesis in the intestine of fish are relatively unknown. Various reports have suggested the existence of both sn-1,3-specific (pancreatic) and non-specific (bile salt-activated) lipase activity operating on dietary triacylglycerol (TAG) in the intestinal lumen of fish during digestion. Thus, sn-2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) and glycerol, respective hydrolytic products of ...
Cho In Hee - - 2007
Metabolomic analysis of raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) of different grades was performed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and principal component analysis (PCA). PCA of the (1)H NMR spectra of aqueous fractions allowed different grades of raw pine-mushroom to be discriminated by a combination of principal ...
Mulder Anke M AM Department of Cell Biology, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, - - 2006
Lipid transmitters are tightly regulated by a balance of biosynthetic and degradative enzymes. Termination of the activity of the N-acyl ethanolamine (NAE) class of lipid-signaling molecules, including the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA), is principally mediated by the integral membrane enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in vivo. FAAH(-/-) mice are highly ...
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