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Results 301 - 350 of 1912
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Kawashima Hideki - - 2008
To investigate the occurrence of positional isomers of unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids (PL) in the female gonads of a dominant limpet, Cellana grata, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were fractionated according to the degree of their unsaturation by argentation thin-layer chromatography. Their structures were ...
Schennink A - - 2008
With regard to human health aspects of milk fat, increasing the amount of unsaturated fatty acids in milk is an important selection objective. The cow's diet has an influence on the degree of unsaturation, but literature suggests that genetics also plays a role. To estimate genetic variation in milk fatty ...
Lemaitre Rozenn N - - 2008
The fatty acid composition of membranes plays an important role in health and diseases. Whether genetic factors play a role in interindividual variability in membrane fatty acid levels has received limited attention. Using variance decomposition methods, we estimated the heritability of red blood cell (RBC) membrane fatty acids in an ...
Chandrasekaran Manivachagam - - 2008
Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) extracts of four halophytic plants, viz. Arthrocnemum indicum, Salicornia brachiata, Suaeda maritima and Suaeda monoica belonging to the family Chenopodiaceae, were prepared and their composition was analyzed by GC-MS. The FAME extracts were also screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. The GC-MS analysis revealed the ...
Vázquez Cristina - - 2008
Archaeological samples are complex in composition since they generally comprise a mixture of materials submitted to deterioration factors largely dependent on the environmental conditions. Therefore, the integration of analytical tools such as TXRF, FT-IR and GC-MS can maximize the amount of information provided by the sample. Recently, two black rock ...
Kyogashima Mamoru - - 2008
We analysed four types of free ceramides (Cer 1, Cer 2, Cer 3 and Cer 4) from equine kidneys by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Cer 1 was composed of dihydroxy long-chain bases (dLCBs) of (4E)-sphingenine (d18:1), sphinganine and non-hydroxy fatty acids (NFAs); Cer 2 was composed of trihydroxy LCBs (tLCBs) ...
Wu Jianmin - - 2008
The possible roles of reduced glutathione (GSH) in chilling tolerance were studied in callus generated from a representative alpine plant, Chorispora bungeana Fisch. & C.A. Mey (C. bungeana). The callus grew well under low-temperature and chilling treatment led only to slight injury, as indicated by a low level of ion ...
Bradford B J - - 2008
Previous reports have indicated that dietary unsaturated fat can decrease energy intake of lactating dairy cattle. However, the mechanism for this response is unclear. To evaluate the potential role of gut peptides, periprandial concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and ghrelin were measured. From a replicated 4 x ...
Inoue Tetsuyoshi - - 2008
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of moving by swimming, swarming, and twitching motilities. In this study, we investigated the effects of fatty acids on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 motilities. A branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA)--12-methyltetradecanoic acid (anteiso-C15:0)--has slightly repressed flagella-driven swimming motility and completely inhibited a more complex type of surface motility, i.e. ...
GoĊ‚ebiowski Marek - - 2008
Epicuticular lipids in many terrestrial arthropods consist of vast numbers of polar and non-polar aliphatic compounds, which are mainly responsible for the water balance in these animals but can also affect conidia germination of entomopathogenic fungi. In this work the qualitative and quantitative profiles of cuticular fatty acids from three ...
Piñeiro-Vidal M - - 2008
AIMS: In this work, fatty acid content and profiles were analysed in order to differentiate the species Tenacibaculum maritimum, Tenacibaculum gallaicum, Tenacibaculum discolor and Tenacibaculum ovolyticum that are pathogenic for cultured marine fish and to assess the potential of fatty acid profiles as a tool for epizootiological typing. METHODS AND ...
Lesot Philippe - - 2008
The quantitative determination of isotopic (2H/1H)i ratios at natural abundance using the SNIF-NMR protocol is a well-known method for understanding the enzymatic biosynthesis of metabolites. However, this approach is not always successful for analyzing large solutes and, specifically, is inadequate for prochiral molecules such as complete essential unsaturated fatty acids. ...
Pepi Milva - - 2008
Bacillus sp. ORAs2 and Pseudomonas sp. ORAs5, two arsenic-resistant bacterial strains previously isolated from sediments of the Orbetello Lagoon, Italy, were tested for their adaptation to mixed contaminants on the level of membrane fatty acid composition. The two bacterial strains were characterized by high levels of arsenic resistance, and Pseudomonas ...
Dhayal S - - 2008
Exposure of pancreatic beta-cells to long-chain free fatty acids leads to differential responses according to the chain length and degree of unsaturation. In particular, long-chain saturated molecules such as palmitate (C16:0) cause apoptosis, whereas equivalent mono-unsaturated species (for example, palmitoleate (C16:1)) are not overtly toxic. Moreover, mono-unsaturates exert a powerful ...
Amir S - - 2008
The composting process involves a succession of different communities of microorganisms that decompose the initial material, transforming it into a stable final product. In this work, the levels of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), neutral lipid fatty acid (NLFA) and sterol were monitored in compost versus time, as indicators of the ...
Heinrich Christoph - - 2008
Wide-field Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy is employed to identify saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in micro-emulsions and cells, using the ratio between the strong -C-H CARS signal at 2850 cm(-1) and the weak signal of the =C-H vibration around 3015 cm(-1) for distinction. Quantitative CARS imaging at the ...
Park Hee Yun - - 2008
The principal sex pheromone component produced by females of the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae, is derived from the monounsaturated fatty acid, Z11-16:1, whereas two additional trace components are derived from E11-16:1 and Z9-16:1. This report presents the isolation and analysis of cDNAs encoding pheromone gland-specific acyl-CoA desaturases implicated in the ...
Alvarez-Ordóñez Avelino - - 2008
The effects of growth temperature (in the range 10-45 degrees C) and acidification up to pH 4.5 of the culture medium (Brain Heart Infusion, BHI) with different organic acids (acetic, citric and lactic) and hydrochloric acid on membrane fatty acid composition and heat resistance of Salmonella typhimurium CECT 443 were ...
Li Yan - - 2008
The Delta9-fatty acid desaturase is a key enzyme in the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids in Psychrobacter urativorans is characterized by a high degree of desaturation at Delta9 position. Based on CODEHOP-mediated PCR strategy, a novel gene designated as PuFAD9, putatively encoding a ...
Lucu C - - 2008
We have assessed the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, cAMP, free fatty acids (FFA) and metallothionein (MT) in the posterior gills of the brackish water shore crab Carcinus aestuarii during acclimation to 10 ppt dilute seawater (DSW). Following 3-18 days acclimation in DSW specific activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in native gill homogenates and ...
Zhang S - - 2008
The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the thioesterase (TE) domain of the bovine fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene and to evaluate the extent to which they were associated with beef fatty acid composition. The four exons in FASN that encode for the TE ...
Kume Atsumi - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Hexacosanoic acid (C26:0) is a saturated very long-chain fatty acid and high levels of C26:0 in red blood cells are reported to be closely related with risk factors of atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between absolute levels of C26:0 in whole blood and metabolic syndrome (MS) has not been determined. ...
Upchurch Robert G - - 2008
Stress acclimating plants respond to abiotic and biotic stress by remodeling membrane fluidity and by releasing alpha-linolenic (18:3) from membrane lipids. The modification of membrane fluidity is mediated by changes in unsaturated fatty acid levels, a function provided in part by the regulated activity of fatty acid desaturases. Adjustment of ...
Chang In-Ae - - 2008
Hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs), originally found in small amount mainly from plant systems, are well known to have special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared with other normal fatty acids. Recently, various microbial strains were tested to produce HFAs from different unsaturated fatty acids. Among those microbial strains ...
Kreiling R - - 2008
The skin sensitization potential of eight unsaturated and one saturated lipid (bio)chemicals was tested in both the LLNA and the GPMT to address the hypothesis that chemicals with unsaturated carbon-carbon double bonds may result in a higher number of unspecific (false positive) results in the LLNA compared to the GPMT. ...
Miniadis-Meimaroglou Sofia - - 2008
The concentration of TL in Penaeus kerathurus muscle and cephalothorax was 1.03+/-0.04 (75.9+/-0.8% of which was PhL) and 2.36+/-0.07% (45.5+/-0.8% of which was PhL) of the wet tissue, respectively. The phosphatidylethanolamine represented 26.4+/-0.6% (85.6% diacyl- and 14.4% alkyl-acyl- or alkenyl-acyl-analogues) of muscle and 24.7+/-0.2% (90.7% diacyl- and 9.3% alkyl-acyl- or ...
Fürstova Vlasta - - 2008
We tested the effects of various types of fatty acids, differing in the degree of saturation and in the cis/trans configuration of the double bond, on the growth and viability of NES2Y cells (a human pancreatic beta-cell line). We found that during a 48-hour incubation period, saturated fatty acids, i.e. ...
Yoshida Satoshi - - 2008
The purpose of this research was to develop an infrared spectroscopic technique (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance system; FTIR-ATR) for non-invasive measurement of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid compositions in human oral mucosa obtained from three nationalities; Iranian, Vietnamese, and Indonesian. The histogram patterns of fatty acid ...
Craven Kathryn S - - 2008
Fatty acid concentrations found in the yolk of green sea turtles reflect differences in the diet of the mothers. All of the 12 fatty acids measured in yolk samples were significantly different between eggs produced from the pellet and wild-type diets. However, the relative pattern of yolk fatty acids in ...
Moorman Mark A - - 2008
Exposure of Listeria innocua to acid and starvation stress decreases sensitivity to the quaternary ammonium compound cetrimide, whereas exposure to cold and heat stress increases sensitivity to this compound. Changes in membrane lipids occur in response to certain types of stress, and these changes likely impact cell sensitivity to chemical ...
Maoka Takashi - - 2008
Carotenoids and their fatty acid esters in the carapace of the spiny lobster Panulirus japonicus were investigated. Fatty acid esters of astaxanthin, adonixanthin, and pectenolone were characterized by (1)H-NMR and FAB-MS. The acylated position of adonixanthin and pectenolone monoesters was determined to be a hydroxy group at C-3' by (1)H-NMR. ...
Zeng Li - - 2008
DNA damage triggers a network of signaling events that leads to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. This DNA damage response acts as a mechanism to prevent cancer development. It has been reported that fatty acids (FAs) synthesis is increased in many human tumors while inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN) ...
Koppová I - - 2008
The fatty acid (FA) composition of fresh mycelia of anaerobic rumen fungi was determined. The fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) of six strains belonging to four genera (Neocallimastix, Caecomyces, Orpinomyces, Anaeromyces) and one unknown strain were analyzed by gas chromatography. All studied fungi possess the same FAs but differences were ...
Ben-Youssef Saoussen - - 2008
The aim of this work was to investigate biochemical differences between Octopus vulgaris caught off costal zone and from the deep-sea of the Golf of Gabès (South coast of Tunisia). In both fishing grounds, octopus total lipids constituted almost 1.5% of wet tissue showing no significant difference (p < 0.05). ...
Chi Xiaoyuan - - 2008
Fatty acid desaturases are enzymes that introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids. The fatty acid desaturases from 37 cyanobacterial genomes were identified and classified based upon their conserved histidine-rich motifs and phylogenetic analysis, which help to determine the amounts and distributions of desaturases in cyanobacterial species. ...
Mansilla María Cecilia - - 2008
Microorganisms, plants and animals regulate the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) during changing environmental conditions as well as in response to nutrients. Unsaturation of fatty acid chains has important structural roles in cell membranes: a proper ratio of saturated to UFAs contributes to membrane fluidity. Alterations in this ratio ...
Stoop W M - - 2008
The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for major milk fatty acids and milk production traits. One morning milk sample was collected from 1,918 Holstein-Friesian heifers located in 398 commercial herds in The Netherlands. Each sample was analyzed for total percentages of fat and protein, and for ...
Desfougères Thomas - - 2008
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a facultative anaerobic organism. Under anaerobiosis, sustained growth relies on the presence of exogenously supplied unsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol that yeast is unable to synthesize in the absence of oxygen or upon haem depletion. In the absence of exogenous supplementation with unsaturated fatty acid, ...
Tarmizi Azmil Haizam Ahmad - - 2008
Characterisation of fatty acids composition of three palm-based reference materials was carried out through inter-laboratory proficiency tests. Twelve laboratories collaborated in these tests and the fatty acids compositions of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined by applying the MPOB Test Methods p3.4:2004 and p3.5:2004. Determination of consensus ...
Soni Kamlesh A - - 2008
Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) molecules are used by several microorganisms to modulate various processes, including bioluminescence, biofilm formation, and virulence expression. Certain food matrices, including ground beef extracts, possess compounds capable of inhibiting AI-2 activity. In the present study, we identified and characterized these AI-2 inhibitors from ground beef extract using hexane ...
Sanderson Linda M - - 2008
The effect of dietary fats on human health and disease are likely mediated by changes in gene expression. Several transcription factors have been shown to respond to fatty acids, including SREBP-1c, NF-kappaB, RXRs, LXRs, FXR, HNF4alpha, and PPARs. However, it is unclear to what extent these transcription factors play a ...
Ruths M - - 2008
The effects of adhesion, contact area, and pressure on the lubricating properties of self-assembled monolayers on steel have been investigated with friction force microscopy. The adsorbed molecules were fatty acids with varying degrees of unsaturation (0-2 double bonds; stearic, oleic, and linoleic acid) and a rosin acid (dehydroabietic acid), adsorbed ...
Yu In-Sik - - 2008
An isolated bacterium that converted unsaturated fatty acids to hydroxy fatty acids was identified as Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens by API analysis, cellular fatty acids compositions, sequencing the full 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid, and evaluating its nitrite reduction ability. S. nitritireducens has unique regio-specificity for C16 and C18 cis-9 unsaturated fatty acids. ...
Zink Klaus-G - - 2008
In an earlier study of deep subsurface sediments from Nankai Trough (ODP Leg 190, offshore Japan) we employed intact phospholipids (PLs) as molecular indicators of living microorganisms. The current study extends this work by quantifying absolute amounts of sedimentary PLs by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and by converting PL data ...
Jaquenoud Malika - - 2008
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipids of Trypanosoma brucei undergo lipid remodelling, whereby longer fatty acids on the glycerol are replaced by myristate (C14:0). A similar process occurs on GPI proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae where Per1p first deacylates, Gup1p subsequently reacylates the anchor lipid, thus replacing a shorter fatty acid by C26:0. Heterologous ...
Gianotti Andrea - - 2008
The cell fatty acid (FA) composition of adhered and floating cells of two Listeria monocytogenes strains, selected on the basis of the biofilm forming ability, was taken into consideration. Anteiso-15:0, iso-C15:0 and anteiso-17:0 resulted the principal FAs in floating cells. On the other hand the adhered cells of the two ...
van der Watt Izette - - 2008
BACKGROUND: There is an increased tendency in the field of nutrition research to conduct more outpatient controlled feeding trials. The formulation of accurate diets is essential in order to assemble valid scientific data, which will substantiate hypothesised relationships between a nutrient variable and an outcome. Research dieticians rely on the ...
Prasitchoke Phatthanon - - 2008
Myristate (C14:0) is an essential multi-functional fatty acid in a variety of organisms. We found that C14:0, but not other fatty acids, causes severe growth retardation in Hpelo1Delta and Hpelo2Delta mutants of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, defective in elongation of very long-chain fatty acids. While transcription of HpELO1 and HpELO2 ...
Qin Yong-Mei - - 2007
Fatty acids are essential for membrane biosynthesis in all organisms and serve as signaling molecules in many animals. Here, we found that saturated very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs; C20:0 to C30:0) exogenously applied in ovule culture medium significantly promoted cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cell elongation, whereas acetochlor (2-chloro-N-[ethoxymethyl]-N-[2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenyl]-acetamide; ACE), which inhibits ...
Gupta Radha - - 2008
Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation to thylakoid membrane and fatty acid profile has been investigated in cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis. The thylakoid membrane was isolated by mechanical disruption of the freeze-dried and lysozyme-treated cells followed by differential density gradient centrifugation and morphological variations were examined. UV radiation distorted the membrane on the outer ...
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