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Results 301 - 350 of 1891
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Kume Atsumi - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Hexacosanoic acid (C26:0) is a saturated very long-chain fatty acid and high levels of C26:0 in red blood cells are reported to be closely related with risk factors of atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between absolute levels of C26:0 in whole blood and metabolic syndrome (MS) has not been determined. ...
Upchurch Robert G - - 2008
Stress acclimating plants respond to abiotic and biotic stress by remodeling membrane fluidity and by releasing alpha-linolenic (18:3) from membrane lipids. The modification of membrane fluidity is mediated by changes in unsaturated fatty acid levels, a function provided in part by the regulated activity of fatty acid desaturases. Adjustment of ...
Chang In-Ae - - 2008
Hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs), originally found in small amount mainly from plant systems, are well known to have special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared with other normal fatty acids. Recently, various microbial strains were tested to produce HFAs from different unsaturated fatty acids. Among those microbial strains ...
Kreiling R - - 2008
The skin sensitization potential of eight unsaturated and one saturated lipid (bio)chemicals was tested in both the LLNA and the GPMT to address the hypothesis that chemicals with unsaturated carbon-carbon double bonds may result in a higher number of unspecific (false positive) results in the LLNA compared to the GPMT. ...
Miniadis-Meimaroglou Sofia - - 2008
The concentration of TL in Penaeus kerathurus muscle and cephalothorax was 1.03+/-0.04 (75.9+/-0.8% of which was PhL) and 2.36+/-0.07% (45.5+/-0.8% of which was PhL) of the wet tissue, respectively. The phosphatidylethanolamine represented 26.4+/-0.6% (85.6% diacyl- and 14.4% alkyl-acyl- or alkenyl-acyl-analogues) of muscle and 24.7+/-0.2% (90.7% diacyl- and 9.3% alkyl-acyl- or ...
Fürstova Vlasta - - 2008
We tested the effects of various types of fatty acids, differing in the degree of saturation and in the cis/trans configuration of the double bond, on the growth and viability of NES2Y cells (a human pancreatic beta-cell line). We found that during a 48-hour incubation period, saturated fatty acids, i.e. ...
Yoshida Satoshi - - 2008
The purpose of this research was to develop an infrared spectroscopic technique (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance system; FTIR-ATR) for non-invasive measurement of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid compositions in human oral mucosa obtained from three nationalities; Iranian, Vietnamese, and Indonesian. The histogram patterns of fatty acid ...
Craven Kathryn S - - 2008
Fatty acid concentrations found in the yolk of green sea turtles reflect differences in the diet of the mothers. All of the 12 fatty acids measured in yolk samples were significantly different between eggs produced from the pellet and wild-type diets. However, the relative pattern of yolk fatty acids in ...
Moorman Mark A - - 2008
Exposure of Listeria innocua to acid and starvation stress decreases sensitivity to the quaternary ammonium compound cetrimide, whereas exposure to cold and heat stress increases sensitivity to this compound. Changes in membrane lipids occur in response to certain types of stress, and these changes likely impact cell sensitivity to chemical ...
Maoka Takashi - - 2008
Carotenoids and their fatty acid esters in the carapace of the spiny lobster Panulirus japonicus were investigated. Fatty acid esters of astaxanthin, adonixanthin, and pectenolone were characterized by (1)H-NMR and FAB-MS. The acylated position of adonixanthin and pectenolone monoesters was determined to be a hydroxy group at C-3' by (1)H-NMR. ...
Zeng Li - - 2008
DNA damage triggers a network of signaling events that leads to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. This DNA damage response acts as a mechanism to prevent cancer development. It has been reported that fatty acids (FAs) synthesis is increased in many human tumors while inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN) ...
Koppová I - - 2008
The fatty acid (FA) composition of fresh mycelia of anaerobic rumen fungi was determined. The fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) of six strains belonging to four genera (Neocallimastix, Caecomyces, Orpinomyces, Anaeromyces) and one unknown strain were analyzed by gas chromatography. All studied fungi possess the same FAs but differences were ...
Ben-Youssef Saoussen - - 2008
The aim of this work was to investigate biochemical differences between Octopus vulgaris caught off costal zone and from the deep-sea of the Golf of Gabès (South coast of Tunisia). In both fishing grounds, octopus total lipids constituted almost 1.5% of wet tissue showing no significant difference (p < 0.05). ...
Chi Xiaoyuan - - 2008
Fatty acid desaturases are enzymes that introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids. The fatty acid desaturases from 37 cyanobacterial genomes were identified and classified based upon their conserved histidine-rich motifs and phylogenetic analysis, which help to determine the amounts and distributions of desaturases in cyanobacterial species. ...
Mansilla María Cecilia - - 2008
Microorganisms, plants and animals regulate the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) during changing environmental conditions as well as in response to nutrients. Unsaturation of fatty acid chains has important structural roles in cell membranes: a proper ratio of saturated to UFAs contributes to membrane fluidity. Alterations in this ratio ...
Stoop W M - - 2008
The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for major milk fatty acids and milk production traits. One morning milk sample was collected from 1,918 Holstein-Friesian heifers located in 398 commercial herds in The Netherlands. Each sample was analyzed for total percentages of fat and protein, and for ...
Desfougères Thomas - - 2008
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a facultative anaerobic organism. Under anaerobiosis, sustained growth relies on the presence of exogenously supplied unsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol that yeast is unable to synthesize in the absence of oxygen or upon haem depletion. In the absence of exogenous supplementation with unsaturated fatty acid, ...
Tarmizi Azmil Haizam Ahmad - - 2008
Characterisation of fatty acids composition of three palm-based reference materials was carried out through inter-laboratory proficiency tests. Twelve laboratories collaborated in these tests and the fatty acids compositions of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined by applying the MPOB Test Methods p3.4:2004 and p3.5:2004. Determination of consensus ...
Soni Kamlesh A - - 2008
Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) molecules are used by several microorganisms to modulate various processes, including bioluminescence, biofilm formation, and virulence expression. Certain food matrices, including ground beef extracts, possess compounds capable of inhibiting AI-2 activity. In the present study, we identified and characterized these AI-2 inhibitors from ground beef extract using hexane ...
Sanderson Linda M - - 2008
The effect of dietary fats on human health and disease are likely mediated by changes in gene expression. Several transcription factors have been shown to respond to fatty acids, including SREBP-1c, NF-kappaB, RXRs, LXRs, FXR, HNF4alpha, and PPARs. However, it is unclear to what extent these transcription factors play a ...
Ruths M - - 2008
The effects of adhesion, contact area, and pressure on the lubricating properties of self-assembled monolayers on steel have been investigated with friction force microscopy. The adsorbed molecules were fatty acids with varying degrees of unsaturation (0-2 double bonds; stearic, oleic, and linoleic acid) and a rosin acid (dehydroabietic acid), adsorbed ...
Yu In-Sik - - 2008
An isolated bacterium that converted unsaturated fatty acids to hydroxy fatty acids was identified as Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens by API analysis, cellular fatty acids compositions, sequencing the full 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid, and evaluating its nitrite reduction ability. S. nitritireducens has unique regio-specificity for C16 and C18 cis-9 unsaturated fatty acids. ...
Zink Klaus-G - - 2008
In an earlier study of deep subsurface sediments from Nankai Trough (ODP Leg 190, offshore Japan) we employed intact phospholipids (PLs) as molecular indicators of living microorganisms. The current study extends this work by quantifying absolute amounts of sedimentary PLs by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and by converting PL data ...
Jaquenoud Malika - - 2008
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipids of Trypanosoma brucei undergo lipid remodelling, whereby longer fatty acids on the glycerol are replaced by myristate (C14:0). A similar process occurs on GPI proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae where Per1p first deacylates, Gup1p subsequently reacylates the anchor lipid, thus replacing a shorter fatty acid by C26:0. Heterologous ...
Gianotti Andrea - - 2008
The cell fatty acid (FA) composition of adhered and floating cells of two Listeria monocytogenes strains, selected on the basis of the biofilm forming ability, was taken into consideration. Anteiso-15:0, iso-C15:0 and anteiso-17:0 resulted the principal FAs in floating cells. On the other hand the adhered cells of the two ...
van der Watt Izette - - 2008
BACKGROUND: There is an increased tendency in the field of nutrition research to conduct more outpatient controlled feeding trials. The formulation of accurate diets is essential in order to assemble valid scientific data, which will substantiate hypothesised relationships between a nutrient variable and an outcome. Research dieticians rely on the ...
Prasitchoke Phatthanon - - 2008
Myristate (C14:0) is an essential multi-functional fatty acid in a variety of organisms. We found that C14:0, but not other fatty acids, causes severe growth retardation in Hpelo1Delta and Hpelo2Delta mutants of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, defective in elongation of very long-chain fatty acids. While transcription of HpELO1 and HpELO2 ...
Qin Yong-Mei - - 2007
Fatty acids are essential for membrane biosynthesis in all organisms and serve as signaling molecules in many animals. Here, we found that saturated very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs; C20:0 to C30:0) exogenously applied in ovule culture medium significantly promoted cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cell elongation, whereas acetochlor (2-chloro-N-[ethoxymethyl]-N-[2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenyl]-acetamide; ACE), which inhibits ...
Gupta Radha - - 2008
Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation to thylakoid membrane and fatty acid profile has been investigated in cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis. The thylakoid membrane was isolated by mechanical disruption of the freeze-dried and lysozyme-treated cells followed by differential density gradient centrifugation and morphological variations were examined. UV radiation distorted the membrane on the outer ...
Portolesi Roxanne - - 2008
The effect of unsaturated fatty acids on the abundance of Delta6 desaturase (D6D) mRNA and the fatty acid composition of HepG2 cell membranes was examined. Supplementation of HepG2 cells with oleic acid (18:1n-9, OA), linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LA), alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, AA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, ...
Colsch Benoit - - 2008
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a human autosomal recessive lysosomal neurodegenerative disorder that results from the accumulation of sulfatides in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is due to the enzyme deficiency of the sulfatide sulfatase i.e. arylsulfatase A (ASA). During adolescence and/or adulthood, there are 2 clinical presentations. It ...
Kim Chang-H - - 2008
Responses of the rumen anaerobic fungus, Piromyces communis M014, to octadecanic long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) were evaluated by measuring total and hydrogen gas productions, filter paper (FP) cellulose degradation and polysaccharidase enzyme activities. Octadecanic acids (stearic acid, C(18:0); oleic acid, C(18:1); linoleic acid, C(18:2) and linolenic acid, C(18:3)) were emulsified ...
Chiang Ming-Lun - - 2008
Vibrio parahaemolyticus 690, a clinical strain, was subjected to ethanol shock in the presence of 5% ethanol for a period of 30 and 60 min. Survival behaviors of the ethanol shocked and control cells of V. parahaemolyticus in the presence of H(2)O(2) (20 ppm), crystal violet (3 ppm), NaCl (20%), ...
Srisukchayakul Pornpoj - - 2007
The taxonomic positions of three strains of marine gliding bacteria, TISTR 1736, TISTR 1741 and TISTR 1750(T), isolated from the southern coastline of Thailand were evaluated by using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three isolates formed a distinct lineage within the ...
Won Se-Ra - - 2007
Among the extracts from 420 kinds of herbs, Prunus salicina, showing the highest glucosyltransferase inhibition activity, was purified and designated GTI-0163. Structural determination of GTI-0163 revealed it to be an oleic acid-based unsaturated fatty acid. GTI-0163 was an uncompetitive inhibitor of GTase. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid showed ...
Calderon Francisco J - - 2007
Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform mid infrared (FTMIR) and near-infrared spectroscopy (FTNIR) were compared to scanning monochromator-grating-based near-infrared spectroscopy (SMNIR), for their ability to quantify fatty acids (FA) in forages. A total of 182 samples from thirteen different forage cultivars and three different harvest times were analyzed. Three calibration analyses were ...
Barthet Véronique J - - 2008
cis-Vaccenic acid or cis-11-octadecenoic acid, a C18:1 (n-7) isomer of oleic acid (C18:1 (n-9)) has been found in several oilseeds. It is synthesized from palmitic acid (C16:0) via production of C16:1 (n-7) by a Delta9 desaturase and elongation by an elongase giving C18:1 (n-7). In this study, the fatty acid ...
Kandel Sylvie - - 2007
A fatty-acid-metabolizing enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana, CYP94C1, belonging to the cytochrome P450 family was cloned and characterized. CYP94C1 was heterologously expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (WAT11) engineered for P450 expression. When recombinant yeast microsomes were incubated with lauric acid (C12:0) for 15 min, one major metabolite was formed. The ...
Fernández E - - 2007
An ion-exchange process has been used to prepare HOT from NaOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate), where the Na(+) counterion has been replaced by H(+). The acidity function, H(0), of the aqueous core of HOT-based microemulsions decreases with W from H(0) approximately 0.6 at W>20 to H(0)=-1.4 at W=2. On the basis of ...
Yazawa Hisashi - - 2007
To make dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) (20:3n-6) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we introduced Kluyveromyces lactis Delta12 fatty acid desaturase, rat Delta6 fatty acid desaturase, and rat elongase genes. Because Fad2p is able to convert the endogenous oleic acid to linoleic acid, this allowed DGLA biosynthesis without the need to supply exogenous fatty ...
Li D - - 2007
AIMS: Isolation and characterization of unsaturated fatty acids during bacteriorhodopsin preparation from Halobacterium halobium. METHODS AND RESULTS: Halobacterium halobium was cultivated in a composite medium. Cells were collected by centrifugation followed by ultrasonic disruption, and the resulting suspension was subject to centrifugation for preparation of both pellet and supernatant. The ...
Ferreri Carla - - 2007
The double bond geometry of most of the naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acid residues is cis. Due to the relevance of fatty acids as structural components of cell membranes and as biologically active molecules, the change of the cis geometry means a change of the associated functions and activities. The ...
Yara Asanori - - 2007
Linolenic acid (18:3) is the most abundant fatty acid in plant membrane lipids and is a source for various oxidized metabolites, called oxylipins. 18:3 and oxylipins play important roles in the induction of defense responses to pathogen infection and wound stress in Arabidopsis. However, in rice, endogenous roles for 18:3 ...
Yi Lunzhao - - 2007
Fatty acids, having intimate relationship with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), are not only the main energy source as nutrients, but also signaling molecules in insulin secretion. In this work, we developed a two-step rapid method to comprehensive profiling of esterified fatty acid (EFA) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) using ...
Chintalapati Suresh - - 2007
Antarctic psychrotolerant, Nostoc sp. (SO-36), when grown at 25 degrees C and then shifted to 10 degrees C, showed an increase in the tri-unsaturated fatty acid [C(18:3(9,12,15))] at the expense of mono- [C(18:1(9))] and di-unsaturated [C(18:2(9,12))] fatty acids. These results indicate that the activities of the enzymes DesA and DesB ...
Lee M R F - - 2007
This study investigated the effects of green odor fatty acid oxidation products (FAOP) from cut grass on lipid metabolism and microbial ecology using in vitro incubations of rumen microorganisms. These compounds have antimicrobial roles in plant defense, and we hypothesized that they may influence rumen lipid metabolism. Further, they may ...
Diakogiannaki Eleftheria - - 2007
Long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids differ in their propensity to induce beta-cell death in vitro with palmitate (C16:0) being cytotoxic, whereas palmitoleate (C16:1n-7) is cytoprotective. We now show that this cytoprotective capacity extends to a poorly metabolised C16:1n-7 derivative, methyl-palmitoleate (0.25 mM palmitate alone: 92 +/- 4% death after ...
Vetter Walter - - 2007
Methyl-branched fatty acids (MBFAs) are the dominant form of fatty acid found in many bacteria. They are also found at low levels in a range of foodstuffs, where their presence has been linked to bacterial sources. In this study we evaluated the potential of compound-specific isotope analysis to obtain insights ...
Brzek Pawel - - 2007
Proximal mechanisms describing the evolution of high levels of basal metabolic rate (BMR) in endotherms are one of the most intriguing problems of evolutionary physiology. Because BMR mostly reflects metabolic activity of internal organs, evolutionary increase in BMR could have been realized by an increase in relative organ size and/or ...
Xu Tao - - 2008
This paper reports the results from a study of the organic composition of rainwater collected at Tianhe district of Guangzhou city, P.R. China, during the dry season. Several special setups of a pyrex bottle with a glass funnel were used for the collection of the rainwater. Three fractions (aliphatics, PAHs ...
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