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Results 451 - 500 of 1903
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Di Pasqua Rosangela - - 2006
Major active compounds from essential oils are well-known to possess antimicrobial activity against both pathogen and spoilage microorganisms. The aim of this work was to determine the alteration of the membrane fatty acid profile as an adaptive mechanism of the cells in the presence of a sublethal concentration of antimicrobial ...
Dicklin M E - - 2006
Ontogeny and fatty acid chain-length specificity of gastrointestinal lipases in neonatal piglets were examined to explore the basis for variations in postnatal use of medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT). Twenty-four newborn pigs were studied at 4 ages: 0, 6, 18, and 48 h postpartum (n = 6 pigs/age). Piglets were gastrically intubated ...
Sakai Tadashi - - 2006
Pork was boiled at 100 degrees C for 5, 10 and 15 min and stored at 0 degrees C, and changes in the 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), malonaldehyde (MA) and fatty acid (FA) contents were analyzed immediately and 3 days later. The HNE, MA and FA contents in all samples were not ...
Balunas Marcy J MJ Program for Collaborative Research in the Pharmaceutical Sciences and Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, - - 2006
Natural product drug discovery efforts frequently utilize noncellular screening assays. Fatty acids are commonly found in natural product extracts, and some have been shown to interfere with noncellular assays. Several pure fatty acids were tested using a noncellular aromatase assay, with the unsaturated analogues showing strong inhibitory activity, while the ...
Temina Marina - - 2007
Low molecular, hydroxy, dioic, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were determined of six cyanobacterial species belonging to genus Nostoc and in different habitats: freshwater, terrestrial, and as well as symbionts. There are large variations in individual fatty acid contents according to species, and location of the genus Nostoc. Statistical analysis ...
Cox K D - - 2006
Limited information is available regarding the composition of cellular fatty acids in Armillaria and the extent to which fatty acid profiles can be used to characterize species in this genus. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles generated from cultures of A. tabescens, A. mellea, and A. gallica consisted of 16-18 ...
Jakobsson Andreas - - 2006
A significant amount of the fatty acids synthesized by the cytosolic enzyme complex fatty acid synthase (FAS) or taken up by the diet are further elongated into very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in a four-step reaction cycle by membrane-bound enzymes predominantly located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Members of the ...
Harvatine Kevin J - - 2006
Rates of fatty acid biohydrogenation and passage were determined for fat supplements varying in saturation using lactating dairy cows. First-order fractional passage rates were determined by dividing the duodenal flux of fatty acids by their respective ruminal pool sizes. The determination of rates of biohydrogenation required the development of a ...
Harvatine K J - - 2006
Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on feed intake, meal patterns, and chewing behavior. Eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were control and a linear substitution of 2.5% fatty ...
Wei Yuren - - 2006
Accumulation of lipids in nonadipose tissues can lead to cell dysfunction and cell death, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. However, the signaling pathways and mechanisms linking lipid accumulation to cell death are poorly understood. The present study examined the hypothesis that saturated fatty acids disrupt endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis and ...
Liechti Robin - - 2006
Plants possess an interrelated family of potent fatty acid-derived regulators-the jasmonates. These compounds, which play roles in both defense and development, are derived from tri-unsaturated fatty acids [alpha-linolenic acid (18:3) or 7Z,10Z,13Z-hexadecatrienoic acid (16:3)]. The lipoxygenase-catalyzed addition of molecular oxygen to alpha-linolenic acid initiates jasmonate synthesis by providing a 13-hydroperoxide ...
Garofalaki Theodosia F - - 2006
The total lipids of muscle and cephalothorax of Mediterranean lobster Palinurus vulgaris were found to be 1.0% and 2.4% of the wet tissue of which the phospholipids represented 66.5% and 47.5%, respectively. The main PhL saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in muscle and cephalothorax were C16:0, C18:0, C18:1omega-9, C18:1omega-7, ...
Horani Mohamad H - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: We determined whether hyperglycemia-induced oxidative burst is augmented in the presence of saturated, unsaturated, and trans-fatty acids (FAs). METHODS: The time course of superoxide (O2-) production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with 5.5 mM (D100) or 27.5 mM (D500) of dextrose and select FAs were measured using ...
Miyazaki Makoto - - 2006
Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) catalyzes the desaturation of saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids in mammalian cells. Currently, there are four known enzymatic isoforms (SCD1-SCD4) in the mouse genome. The physiological roles for multiple SCD isoforms and their substrate specificities are unknown at present. We report here distinct substrate ...
Oh Chan-Seok - - 2006
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins scSpt23p and scMga2p control the formation of unsaturated fatty acids by a mechanism that involves their release from the membrane by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. The resulting soluble polypeptides act as transcription activators that specifically control the expression of scOLE1, a gene that encodes ...
Zambonin Laura - - 2006
Trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids are absorbed from the diet, due to their presence in diary fat and hydrogenated vegetable oils, and health concern has risen due to their effects on lipid risk factors in cardiovascular diseases. On the basis of the efficiency of the thiyl-radical-catalyzed cis/trans isomerization in ...
Rezaei Gomari K A - - 2006
The effect of long-chain fatty acid adsorption on the wetting states of calcite and mica powders is investigated. The selected long-chain fatty acids are saturated or unsaturated aliphatic acids (stearic acid and oleic acid, respectively) and naphthenic acids with saturated or unsaturated aromatic rings (18-cyclohexyloctadecanoic acid and 18-phenoloctadecanoic acid, respectively). ...
Zhao Jian-Shen - - 2006
Indigenous bacteria found in the sediment of the Emerald Basin (depth of 215 m, Atlantic Ocean) located offshore of Halifax Harbour (Nova Scotia, Canada) were previously found to be able to degrade the explosive compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). In the present study, a novel obligately respiratory, denitrifying and RDX-mineralizing bacterium, designated ...
Onuki Yoshinori - - 2006
We investigated the effect of fatty acids such as stearic acid (SA, 18:0), oleic acid (OA, 18:1), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) on a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer by determining the phase transition temperature, fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH), and detergent insolubility. Treatment with unsaturated fatty acid ...
Li Xingwen - - 2006
A series of positionally pure triglycerides (TAGs) of the form PXP and YPY, where P is the palmitate moiety and X and Y are large arrays of different fatty acid moieties, is synthesized and analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The intensities of the collision-induced decomposition (CID) products ...
Lu Ying-Jie - - 2006
The transcriptional regulation of membrane fatty acid composition in the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is distinct from the systems utilized in the model organisms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The genes encoding the components of type II fatty acid biosynthesis cluster at a single location within the S. pneumoniae genome, ...
Casabuono Adriana C - - 2006
The isolation, purification and analysis of the lipid A obtained from Mesorhizobium loti Ayac 1 BII strain is presented. Analysis of the carbohydrate moiety after acid hydrolysis by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography with pulse amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) showed the presence of glucosamine and galacturonic acid as the only sugar components. Gas ...
Hashimoto Kosuke - - 2006
Fatty acids are the major components of membrane molecules. The fact that unsaturated fatty acids play multiple important roles, physically and biologically, means that the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids in the membrane needs to be strictly regulated to maintain cellular homeostasis. The most ubiquitous and widespread modification ...
Clapham William M - - 2005
Managing the fatty acid composition of grazing ruminant diets could lead to meat and milk products that have higher conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations, but forage fatty acid dynamics must be more fully understood for a range of forages before grazing systems can be specified. The fatty acid profiles of ...
Irmisch G - - 2006
Fatty acids can influence important cellular and hormonal processes in the human body. Non-adequate contents of fatty acids, e.g., in blood, can cause and/or result in various diseases. In depressive patients, changes in fatty acid concentrations were found (deficits in omega3-fatty acids, in particular). This paper poses the question whether ...
Pistocchi R - - 2005
Bacteria and diatom strains from the Adriatic Sea were investigated, under standard and altered environmental conditions, for carbohydrate production and for the presence of specific biomarkers. Algae from P-depleted cultures showed an increase in extracellular carbohydrate production, a significantly lower chlorophyll a content and unchanged total lipid levels. However, the ...
d'Ippolito Giuliana - - 2005
An unprecedented series of C16 oxylipins (1-8) has been characterized from the marine diatom Thalassiosira rotula. Absolute stereochemistry of the major alcohols 1 and 3 was determined to be 9S by spectroscopic and chemical methods. All the described products are formally derived by unprecedented enzymatic oxidation of C16 fatty acids. ...
Carballeira Néstor M - - 2005
The hitherto unknown 2-methylsulfanyldecanoic acid and 2-methylsulfanyldodecanoic acid were synthesized from methyl decanoate and methyl dodecanoate, respectively, through the reaction of lithium diisopropylamide and dimethyldisulfide in THF followed by saponification with potassium hydroxide in ethanol. Both alpha-methylsulfanylated FA were cytotoxic to the human chronic myelogenous leukemia K-562 and the human ...
Hong Jing - - 2005
The influence of fatty acids on beta cell function has been well established whereas little is known about the role of fatty acids on alpha cell function. The aim of our study was to investigate the short-term effects of chain length, spatial configuration, and degree of unsaturation of fatty acids ...
Laucks Mary L - - 2005
Psychro-active bacteria, important constituents of polar ecosystems, have a unique ability to remain active at temperatures below 0 degrees C, yet it is not known to what extent the composition of their outer cell surfaces aids in their low-temperature viability. In this study, aqueous suspensions of five strains of Arctic ...
Zheng Chang Ji - - 2005
Long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid, show antibacterial activity and are the key ingredients of antimicrobial food additives and some antibacterial herbs. However, the precise mechanism for this antimicrobial activity remains unclear. We found that linoleic acid inhibited bacterial enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI), an essential component of ...
Khan Muhammad Ahmad - - 2005
To devise proper strategies to evaluate and maintain the quality of cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) during storage on ice, this study examined the potential use of microbial growth, pH, lipid oxidation, and composition characteristics as quality indicators. It also evaluated the use of individual (i15:0, ai15:0, i16:0, ai16:0, i17:0, ...
Santiago-V?zquez Lory Z - - 2005
Algal preparations from Acetabularia crenulata were analyzed for their fatty acid composition to establish the suitability of this alga as a model to study fatty acid oxidation and oxylipin biosynthesis. The work was based on two goals. The first goal of this study was to determine the contribution of fatty ...
Larsen A - - 2005
Fatty acids of Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 12837 were determined at various times during aerobic vegetative growth at 30 degrees C to provide baseline data for studying the effects of chemical agents on the organism's survival and fatty acid biosynthesis. Palmitate (16:0) was the highest at 36.7+/-4.3 mol% (mean+/-SD) after the ...
Kandel Sylvie - - 2005
We cloned and characterized CYP709C1, a new plant cytochrome P450 belonging to the P450 family, that so far has no identified function except for clustering with a fatty acid metabolizing clade of P450 enzymes. We showed here that CYP709C1 is capable of hydroxylating fatty acids at the omega-1 and omega-2 ...
Wang Yutong - - 2005
Abnormal high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism among patients with diabetes and insulin resistance may contribute to their increased risk of atherosclerosis. ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1 mediates the transport of cholesterol and phospholipids from cells to HDL apolipoproteins and thus modulates HDL levels and atherogenesis. Unsaturated fatty acids, which are elevated ...
Bonamore Alessandra - - 2006
The Delta5-desaturase from Bacillus subtilis has been cloned in Escherichia coli BL21 cells and its enzyme activity has been investigated as a function of temperature and oxygenation by analyzing methyl ester adducts from the total lipid extract in GC-MS measurements. The present data bring out that the activity of recombinant ...
Loffhagen Norbert - - 2006
The fatty acid composition of pyruvate-grown Comamonas testosteroni ATCC 17454 was analyzed after growth at 30 and 20 degrees C and after half-maximum growth inhibition caused by different membrane-active chemicals at 30 degrees C. Palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1 omega7c) and vaccenic acid (18:1 omega7c) were the dominant fatty ...
Sassaki Guilherme L - - 2005
The photobiont of the lichen, Dictyonema glabratum (Scytonema sp.), was isolated and cultivated in a soil-extract medium and submitted to chemical analysis. Successive extractions with CHCl3-MeOH, aqueous MeOH, and H2O gave rise to solutions of lipids (25%), low-molecular-weight carbohydrates (22%), and polysaccharides (4%), respectively. TLC of the lipid extract showed ...
Villasuso A L - - 2005
Physiological and cellular adaptations to environmental changes are known to be related to modifications in membrane lipids. This work provides metabolic and compositional evidence that Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes are able to synthesize and desaturate fatty acids, to incorporate them into their lipids, and to modify this incorporation when carbamoylcholine is ...
Moffitt J H - - 2005
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Long-term exposure of beta cells to lipids, particularly saturated fatty acids in vitro, results in cellular dysfunction and apoptosis (lipotoxicity); this could contribute to obesity-related diabetes. Our aims were to relate cell death to intracellular triglyceride concentration, composition and localisation following incubation of INS1 cells in saturated and unsaturated ...
Steger Kristin - - 2005
Composting is characterized by dramatic changes in microbial community structure, to a high extent driven by changes in temperature and in the composition of the organic substrate. This study focuses on the interrelationships between decomposition of major classes in the organic material and dynamics in microbial populations during thermophilic composting ...
Chisada Shin-ichi - - 2005
Three major glycosphingolipids (tentatively designated IGL-1, 2, and 3) were isolated from the intestine of red sea bream (Pagrus major) and were subjected to a TLC-overlay assay with (35)S-labeled Vibrio trachuri which causes vibriosis of fish. The bacteria adhered to IGL-2, which was determined to be a GM4 ganglioside (NeuAcalpha2-3Galbeta1-ceramide). ...
Boettcher Katherine J - - 2005
An alpha-proteobacterium has been identified which is believed to be the causative agent of juvenile oyster disease (JOD). Since its first isolation in 1997, the bacterium has been recovered as the numerically dominant species from JOD-affected animals throughout the north-eastern United States (Maine, New York and Massachusetts). Colonies are usually ...
Nasri Nizar - - 2005
Pinus pinea L. is widely disseminated all over the Mediterranean Basin. Qualitatively, P. pinea fatty acid seed composition is identical and typical of the genus Pinus. This composition is made of unsaturated oil with several unusual polymethylene-interrupted unsaturated fatty acids. Linoleic acid is the major fatty acid followed by oleic, ...
Dickschat Jeroen S - - 2005
The fatty acid (FA) profiles of the myxobacteria Stigmatella aurantiaca and Myxococcus xanthus were investigated by acidic methanolysis of total cell extracts and GC or GC-MS analysis. The main components were 13-methyltetradecanoic acid (iso-15:0) and (Z)-hexadec-11-enoic acid (16:1, omega-5 cis). The biosynthesis of iso-FAs was investigated in several feeding experiments. ...
Chihib Nour Eddine - - 2005
The effects of growth temperature and salinity on the cellular fatty acids were investigated on Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria. Under optimal growth conditions, fatty acids patterns were dominated by even-numbered chains C(16:0), C(16:1cis9), C(18:1cis11), C(12:0) and C(14:0). Growth temperature modifications induced, in the three Aeromonas species, important ...
Nagarajan Samuthirapandian - - 2005
A cyanide-utilizing Yersinia species was isolated from the cyanide-bearing gold-plating industrial wastewater. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of the organism revealed that it contains large amounts of saturated fatty acids. The unsaturated hydroxy- and cyclopropyl-ring-bearing fatty acids are present in low concentrations. A comparison of the fatty acid composition ...
Andrade Luciana Nogueira de Sousa - - 2005
High concentrations of certain fatty acids can cause cell death via apoptosis or necrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on melanoma cell lines, which was evaluated by either loss of membrane integrity and/or DNA fragmentation using flow cytometric analysis. ...
Stubhaug Ingunn - - 2005
Isolated hepatocytes from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), fed diets containing either 100% fish oil or a vegetable oil blend replacing 75% of the fish oil, were incubated with a range of seven (14)C-labelled fatty acids. The fatty acids were [1-(14)C]16:0, [1-(14)C]18:1n-9, 91-(14)C]18:2n-6, [1-(14)C]18:3n-3, [1-(14)C]20:4n-6, [1-(14)C]20:5n-3, and [1-(14)C]22:6n-3. After 2 h ...
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