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Purohit R D - - 2006
Nanocrystalline ceria powders have been synthesized by combustion technique using citric acid as a fuel and nitrate as an oxidizer. The auto-ignition of the gels containing cerium nitrate and citric acid resulted in ceria powders. A theory based on adiabatic flame temperature for different citric acid-to-cerium nitrate molar ratios has ...
Proudfoot Alex T - - 2006
Sodium fluoroacetate was introduced as a rodenticide in the US in 1946. However, its considerable efficacy against target species is offset by comparable toxicity to other mammals and, to a lesser extent, birds and its use as a general rodenticide was therefore severely curtailed by 1990. Currently, sodium fluoroacetate is ...
Salameh Adnan K - - 2006
In this study, moisture-induced caking of deliquescent crystalline powder blends was investigated. Physical mixtures of sugars and citric acid anhydrous showed significant cake formation when cycled above and below the mixture critical relative humidity. It was found that combinations of glucose and citric acid underwent efflorescence to form crystalline solid ...
Schleppi Patrick - - 2006
The analysis of 15N in aqueous samples requires the concentration of dissolved nitrogen (N) into a small volume that can be analysed by mass spectrometry. This is conveniently achieved by the NH3 diffusion technique, where NH4+ is captured on small acidified filters enclosed in PTFE. NO3- can be analysed the ...
Mazzola Priscila G - - 2006
Purified water for pharmaceutical purposes must be free of microbial contamination and pyrogens. Even with the additional sanitary and disinfecting treatments applied to the system (sequential operational stages), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas picketti, Flavobacterium aureum, Acinetobacter lowffi and Pseudomonas diminuta were isolated and identified from a thirteen-stage ...
Stops Frances - - 2006
A floating dosage form based on calcium alginate beads has been developed. Riboflavin, was selected as the model drug and successfully incorporated into calcium alginate beads. The aims of the current study were to: (a) assess the influence of prolonged gastro-retention on the bioavailability of riboflavin from freeze dried calcium ...
Stops Frances - - 2006
Gastro-retentive dosage forms have the potential to improve local therapy and decrease the variation in bioavailability that is observed with a number of commercially available immediate and modified release preparations. In this study, a dosage form has been developed, utilising freeze-dried calcium alginate beads, designed to float on the surface ...
Dabbs Daniel M - - 2005
Citric acid has been shown to act as an agent for increasing the solubility of aluminum oxyhydroxides in aqueous solutions of high (>2.47 mol/mol) hydroxide-to-aluminum ratios. Conversely, citric acid also colloidally stabilizes particles in aqueous suspensions of aluminum-containing particles. Solutions of aluminum chloride, with and without citric acid added, were ...
Gokulakrishnan Narasimhan - - 2006
The presence of citric acid in decontamination waste can cause complexation of the radioactive cations resulting in interferences in their removal by various treatment processes such as chemical precipitation, ion-exchange, etc., which are employed for the removal of radioactivity and may cause potential danger to the environment. Mesoporous Al-MCM-41 (Si/Al=30, ...
Papagianni Maria - - 2005
Stoichiometric modeling of the early stages of the citric acid fermentation process by Aspergillus niger revealed that ammonium ions combine with a carbon-containing metabolite inside the cell, in a ratio 1:1, to form a nitrogen compound which is then excreted by the mycelium. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis identified glucosamine as ...
van Hellemond J J - - 2005
African trypanosomes are parasitic protozoa that cause sleeping sickness and nagana. Trypanosomes are not only of scientific interest because of their clinical importance, but also because these protozoa contain several very unusual biological features, such as their specially adapted mitochondrion and the compartmentalization of glycolytic enzymes in glycosomes. The energy ...
Shinoda Yuki - - 2005
A model solution of orange juice was prepared and stored. Factors affecting browning and formation of such decomposition products as 3-hydroxy-2-pyrone (3OH2P), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), furfural, 5-hydroxymaltol, and 2-furoic acid were examined. Ascorbic acid (AsA) was essential for browning, which was stimulated by amino acids and citric acid, and repressed by ...
Wang Xingxiang - - 2005
Kaolinite is a dominant clay mineral in the soils in tropical and subtropical regions, and its dissolution has an influence on a variety of soil properties. In this work, kaolinite dissolution induced by three kinds of low-molecular-weight organic acid, i.e., citric, oxalic, and malic acids, was evaluated under far-from-equilibrium conditions. ...
Bowling Francis G - - 2005
For many years it has been apparent from estimates of the anion gap and the strong ion gap that anions of unknown identity can be generated in sepsis and shock states. Evidence is emerging that at least some of these are intermediates of the citric acid cycle. The exact source ...
Shimizu Motoyuki - - 2005
A proteomic differential display technique was utilized to study cellular responses of Phanerochaete chrysosporium exposed to vanillin, one of the key intermediates found during lignin biodegradation. Intracellular proteins were resolved by 2-DE and target protein spots were identified using MALDI-MS after in-gel tryptic digestions. Upon addition of vanillin to P. ...
Götze Gabriela da Rosa Gda - - 2005
This study aimed to assess the capacity of a sodium hypochlorite and citric acid (CA) association (the latter at different concentrations) in removing coronal smear layer (SL) of primary teeth. For this purpose, the pulp chamber roof and floor of 28 primary molars were removed to obtain enamel and dentine ...
Cheddadi Rachid - - 2005
The Velay sequence (France) provides a unique, continuous, palynological record spanning the last four climatic cycles. A pollen-based reconstruction of temperature and precipitation displays marked climatic cycles. An analysis of the climate and vegetation changes during the interglacial periods reveals comparable features and identical major vegetation successions. Although Marine Isotope ...
Rafacz-Livingston K A - - 2005
Previous research from our laboratory has shown that citric acid improves phytate P utilization in chicks fed a P-deficient corn-soybean meal diet. The current study was conducted to determine if other organic acids also are effective, with an emphasis on gluconic acid. Four experiments were conducted in which 4 replicate ...
Yu Xiao-Wei - - 2005
Microencapsulated Aspergillus niger with mycelium-bound tannase activity was employed to investigate the esterification of propyl gallate from gallic acid and propanol in organic solvents. The effects of various organic solvents (log P: -1.0 to 6.6) on the enzymatic reactions showed that benzene (log P: 2.0) was the suitable solvent, for ...
Morimoto Yasuhiro - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We introduce a new technique for the functional evaluation of the salivary glands using continuous magnetic resonance (MR) sialography before and after citric acid stimulation. METHODS: In 10 volunteers, the time-dependent changes in the maximum area of the detectable parotid gland ducts on MR sialographic images taken every 30 ...
Kayingo Gerald - - 2005
Candida albicans produces and accumulates large amounts of the polyols d-arabitol and glycerol in culture, and/or in infected mammalian tissues. However, the effects of environmental stresses on production and accumulation of these polyols, and the means by which polyol production and accumulation are regulated have not been studied. C. albicans ...
Suzuki Yohey - - 2005
The hydrothermal-vent gastropod Alviniconcha aff. hessleri from the Kairei hydrothermal field on the Central Indian Ridge houses bacterium-like cells internally in its greatly enlarged gill. A single 16S rRNA gene sequence was obtained from the DNA extract of the gill, and phylogenetic analysis placed the source organism within a lineage ...
Lohse Swanhild - - 2005
Colonization of root cortical cells by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi leads to marked cytological changes of plastids and mitochondria. Plastids in particular are forming tubular extensions partially connecting individual organelles in a network-like way. These cytological changes correspond to an increased need for plastid and mitochondrial products during establishment and functioning ...
Tanaka Motomu - - 2005
Previously, we developed a novel coughing model that evoked coughs via citric acid microinjection into the larynx of unanesthetized, unrestrained guinea pigs. Here, we compared the effects of capsaicin and citric acid administration into the larynx using this model. Inhalation of capsaicin (30 microM) or citric acid (0.4 M) for ...
Suzuki Yohey - - 2005
The hydrothermal-vent gastropod Alviniconcha hessleri from the Alice Springs deep-sea hydrothermal field in the Mariana Back-Arc Basin in the Western Pacific houses an intracellular bacterial endosymbiont in its gill. Although enzymatic analysis has revealed that the endosymbiont is a sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotroph using the Calvin-Benson cycle for the fixation of carbon ...
Tian Jing - - 2005
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has adapted its metabolism for persistence in the human macrophage. The adaptations are likely to involve Mtb's core intermediary metabolism, whose enzymes have been little studied. The tricarboxylic acid cycle is expected to yield precursors for energy, lipids, amino acids, and heme. The genome sequence of Mtb ...
Ahmad Suhail - - 2005
Dialyzer reuse is limited by the clotting of blood, which blocks the fibers and reduces the membrane surface area. Clotting during treatment may also reduce dialysis efficiency and potentially decrease delivered dose, Kt/V(urea). A new dialysate containing citric acid, instead of the standard acetic acid, as the acidifying agent has ...
Frisvad Jens C - - 2005
Accumulation of the carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B, has been reported from members of three different groups of Aspergilli (4) Aspergillus flavus, A. flavus var. parvisclerotigenus, A. parasiticus, A. toxicarius, A. nomius, A. pseudotamarii, A. zhaoqingensis, A. bombycis and from the ascomycete genus Petromyces (Aspergillus section Flavi), (2) Emericella astellata and ...
Bari M L - - 2005
The inability of chlorine to completely inactivate human bacterial pathogens on whole and fresh-cut produce suggests a need for other antimicrobial washing treatments. Nisin (50 microg/ml) and pediocin (100 AU/ml) individually or in combination with sodium lactate (2%), potassium sorbate (0.02%), phytic acid (0.02%), and citric acid (10 mM) were ...
Kargi Fikret - - 2005
A three-step sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used for nutrient removal from synthetic wastewater with different glucose-organic acid mixtures (1/1). Acetic, butyric, propionic and citric acids were used as organic acids along with glucose. The operation consisted of anaerobic, anoxic and oxic (An/Ax/Ox) phases with durations of 2/1/4.5h. Sludge age ...
Jamin Eric - - 2005
A new method has been developed for measuring the D/H ratio of the nonexchangeable sites of citric acid by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Pure citric acid is transformed into its calcium salt and subsequently analyzed by pyrolysis-IRMS. The citric acid isolated from authentic fruit juices (citrus, pineapple, and red ...
Salih Fadhil M - - 2006
The presence of flavored colorants (peach and raspberry), flavors (caramel, citric acid and vanilla) and food preservatives (sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate, sodium benzoate, benzoic acid, potassium sorbate and sodium chloride) in Escherichia coli suspension during exposure to sunlight did not change the extent of cell survival. No effect on viability ...
Ikeda Yuko - - 2006
Gluconic acid production was investigated using an enzymatic hydrolysate of waste office automation paper in a culture of Aspergillus niger. In repeated batch cultures using flasks, saccharified solution medium (SM) did not show any inhibitory effects on gluconic acid production compared to glucose medium (GM). The average gluconic acid yields ...
Coltro Wendell K T - - 2005
The meat fatty acids (FA) profiles of caprines submitted to different dietary treatments were determined by gas chromatography. The data were treated by Chemometrics to consider all variables together. The contents of saturated FA (SFA), monounsaturated FA (MUFA), polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), omega-3 (n-3) FA, and omega-6 (n-6) FA in 32 ...
Demirel Figen - - 2005
The effects of citric acid and acidulated phosphate fluoride on the surface roughness of autoglazed and overglazed all-ceramic IPS Empress materials were analyzed. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the roughness. Citric acid solution (2.00%) was applied for 8 hours, simulating 2 years of exposure. Acidulated phosphate fluoride gel ...
Lu Ying - - 2005
The glyoxylate cycle is a modified form of the tricarboxylic acid cycle that converts C2 compounds into C4 dicarboxylic acids at plant developmental stages. By studying submerged rice seedlings, we revealed the activation of the glyoxylate cycle by identifying the increased transcripts of mRNAs of the genes of isocitrate lyase ...
Valentão Patrícia - - 2005
The organic acids composition of six wild edible mushroom species (Amanita caesarea, Boletus edulis, Gyroporus castaneus, Lactarius deliciosus, Suillus collinitus, and Xerocomus chrysenteron) was determined by an HPLC-UV detector method. The results showed that all of the samples presented a profile composed of at least five organic acids: citric, ketoglutaric, ...
Agha A - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of citric acid-enhanced Helicobacter pylori urease activity remains unclear. AIM: To compare ascorbic, citric and malic acid given at the same concentration and pH on intragastric urease activity. METHODS: Volunteers received 40 mg of famotidine the evening prior to breath testing. After an overnight fast volunteers were ...
Bagdasaryan Z N - - 2005
The optimal concentrations of nutrient medium components, aeration conditions, and pH providing for maximum biomass yields, as well as fumarase and L-aspartase activities, during submerged cultivation of Erwinia sp. were determined. The data showed that different concentrations of carbon source (molasses) and pH of the nutrient medium were required to ...
Lee I-Hsien - - 2005
In order to remove and recover copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from the wastewater treatment sludge generated by an electroplating process, the heavy metal extraction kinetics was studied in a batch reactor using two different extraction agents (nitric and citric acid) at constant agitation speed (150 rpm) and solid to ...
Liang Yong - - 2005
Calcium chloride, and to a lesser extent MgCl2, aided in the separation of membranes by centrifugation from cod (Gadus morhua) muscle homogenates solubilized at pH 3 in the presence of citric acid or malic acid but not lactic acid. Adding citric acid and Ca2+ before solubilizing the cod muscle homogenates ...
Bamba Rozy - - 2005
During hot and humid seasons, extensive rot of sour lime was observed to be caused by Aspergillus flavus. In view of this, investigations were undertaken to obtain data on the production of various toxins by A. flavus during post harvest pathogenesis of sour lime. Sixty percent of the pathogenic A. ...
Bhatia Naveen P - - 2005
Field-collected, young plants of Ni hyperaccumulator Stackhousia tryonii, grown in a glasshouse for 20 weeks, were exposed to low- (available Ni concentration in the native serpentine soil, i.e. 60 microg g(-1) dry soil) and high- (external application of 1000 ppm) Ni concentrations in the substrate. Nickel concentration in the freeze-dried ...
Fernández-Fernández E - - 2005
Galician chorizo sausage, a dry-cured meat product from northwest Spain, was conserved by different methods with the aim of increasing its useful life. We studied changes in the sensory properties of this dry-cured meat product conserved by freezing, vacuum-packing and a traditional method involving immersion in sunflower oil. The reasons ...
Visco Giovanni - - 2005
A new tool for the measurement of TOC based on the heterogeneous photocatalysis activated by two different light sources has been planned. The instrument is constituted by a cell where the degradation occurs thanks to both the UV irradiation and the presence of a powered catalyst and by a measurement ...
Ikram-Ul-Haq - - 2005
The present investigation is concerned with the optimization of nitrogen for enhanced citric acid productivity by a 2-deoxy D-glucose resistant culture of Aspergillus niger NGd-280 in a 15 l stirred tank bioreactor. Nutrients, especially nitrogen source have a marked influence on citrate productivity because it is an essential constituent of ...
González-Martı́n I - - 2005
A near infrared spectrometer equipped with a standard 210/210 bundle remote reflectance fibre-optic probe, with a 5×5 cm quartz window type, was used for the determination of fatty acids in the Longissimus dorsi muscle of Iberian breed swine. The fatty acids C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, ...
Eldeniz Ayce Unverdi - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of citric acid and EDTA solutions on the microhardness and the roughness of human root canal dentin. Forty-five human teeth sectioned longitudinally were used. Specimens were randomly divided into three groups of 30 teeth each and were treated as follows: ...
Ettenhuber Christian - - 2005
Tobacco plants grown in vitro were supplied with a mixture of [U-13C6]glucose and unlabelled sucrose via the root system. After 20 days, leaves were harvested and extracted with water. Glucose was isolated from the extract and was analysed by 13C NMR spectroscopy. All 13C signals appeared as complex multiplets due ...
Schliemann-Willers Sibylle - - 2005
Combined exposure to different irritants in the workplace may lead to irritant contact dermatitis, which is the main type of occupational dermatitis among bakers and confectioners. Following previous work on "tandem irritation", a panel of healthy volunteers was exposed twice daily for 4 days to the organic fruit acids: citric, ...
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