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Beaulieu Pierre L - - 2011
In this part 2, new indole 5-carboxamide Thumb Pocket 1 inhibitors of HCV NS5B polymerase are described. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) were explored at the central amino acid linker position and the right-hand-side of the molecule in an attempt to identify molecules with a balanced overall profile of potency (EC(50)<100nM), physicochemical ...
Yang Zan Zhang - - 2011
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginkgo biloba leaves are traditionally used in China for its health-promoting properties. There is substantial experimental evidence to support the view that Ginkgo biloba extracts have neuroprotective properties under conditions such as hypoxia/ischemia. AIM OF STUDY: Although a number of studies have investigated that ginkgolide B, a purified ...
Tan Hooi Poay - - 2011
INTRODUCTION: Phyllagathis rotundifolia (Jack) Bl. (Melastomataceae) is a creeping herb found in Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. Traditionally, a decoction of the leaves is used in the treatment of malaria, fever and stomach ache. OBJECTIVE: To provide ESI-MS(n) data which are applicable for chemical fingerprinting of P. rotundifolia to obviate laborious ...
Kozak Joanna - - 2011
An automatic sequential injection system, combining monosegmented flow analysis, sequential injection analysis and sequential injection titration is proposed for acidity determination. The system enables controllable sample dilution and generation of standards of required concentration in a monosegmented sequential injection manner, sequential injection titration of the prepared solutions, data collecting, and ...
Rafferty Eamon P EP School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, BT9 5AG, - - 2011
Physiological secretion of bile acids has previously been linked to the regulation of blood glucose. GLP-1 is an intestinal peptide hormone with important glucose-lowering actions, such as stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of glucagon secretion. In this investigation, we assessed the ability of several bile acid compounds to secrete ...
Moeller Lucie - - 2011
Biosensor-controlled substrate feeding was used in a citric acid production process with the yeast strain Yarrowia lipolytica H222 with glucose as the carbon source. The application of an online glucose biosensor measurement facilitated the performance of long-time repeated fed-batch process with automated bioprocess control. Ten cycles of repeated fed-batch fermentation ...
Wang Jian - - 2011
Succinic acid has drawn much interest as a precursor of many industrially important chemicals. Using a variety of feedstocks for the bio-production of succinic acid would be economically beneficial to future industrial processes. Escherichia coli SBS550MG is able to grow on both glucose and fructose, but not on sucrose. Therefore, ...
Liu Hongmei - - 2011
Global transcription machinery engineering was employed to engineer xylose metabolism, tolerance and adaptation to lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Mutation of the transcription factor spt15 was introduced by error-prone PCR, then transformed the recombinant plasmid pYX212-spt15 into Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPH499 which was not able to grow on xylose, and screened on media using ...
Yang Xia - - 2011
Hydrogels which release their contents in response to glucose concentration were prepared by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) into β-cyclodextrin grafted polyethyleneimine hydrogels (PEI-βCD hydrogel). For the tight immobilization, hydrophobically modified GOD (HmGOD) was prepared by reacting GOD with palmitic acid-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (PA-NHS) in the molar ratio of 1:40. According to ...
Yu Jinghua - - 2011
In this study, a novel microfluidic paper-based chemiluminescence analytical device (μPCAD) with a simultaneous, rapid, sensitive and quantitative response for glucose and uric acid was designed. This novel lab-on-paper biosensor is based on oxidase enzyme reactions (glucose oxidase and urate oxidase, respectively) and the chemiluminescence reaction between a rhodanine derivative ...
Alkonyi Bálint - - 2012
We used L-[1-(11) C]leucine (LEU) positron emission tomography (PET) to measure amino acid uptake in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS), and to relate amino acid uptake measures with glucose metabolism. LEU and 2-deoxy-2[(18) F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) PET were performed in 7 children (age: 5 months-13 years) with unilateral SWS. Asymmetries of ...
Ståhlberg Tim - - 2011
The dehydration of glucose and other hexose carbohydrates to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) was investigated in imidazolium-based ionic liquids with boric acid as a promoter. A yield of up to 42 % from glucose and as much as 66 % from sucrose was obtained. The yield of HMF decreased as the concentration of boric ...
Ståhlberg Tim - - 2011
The dehydration of glucose and other hexose carbohydrates to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) was investigated in imidazolium-based ionic liquids with boric acid as a promoter. A yield of up to 42 % from glucose and as much as 66 % from sucrose was obtained. The yield of HMF decreased as the concentration of boric ...
Nagano Naoki - - 2011
Heterotrophic marine protists known as thraustochytrids can synthesize polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The biosynthetic pathways of PUFAs in thraustochytrids are poorly understood, however. In this study, we attempted to reveal the enzymes involved in DHA synthesis in thraustochytrids. Nine thraustochytrid strains representing 3 genera (Aurantiochytrium, ...
Arroyo-Figueroa Gabriela - - 2011
Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the ...
Zavala-Alonso Veronica - - 2011
The aim was to characterize by atomic force microscopy (AFM) the nanostructure of human dentin surfaces affected by dental fluorosis (DF) before and after phosphoric acid etching. This study included 240 human dentin samples classified according to the severity of DF, which were divided into four groups using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov ...
Yanty N A M - - 2011
Lard being an edible fat could be used in different forms in food systems. In this study, composition and thermal analysis of lard stearin (LS) and lard olein (LO) were undertaken to determine some common parameters which would enable their detection in food. A sample of native lard was partitioned ...
Hashimoto Satoshi - - 2011
Midgut glands of bivalves are used for the mouse bioassay of diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP). A large quantity of free fatty acids (FFAs) causes a false positive outcome in the assay. To examine whether this is likely to occus under conditions of actual use, we analyzed the contents of the ...
Boonchawalit Samatchaya - - 2011
The envelope glycoproteins (Env), gp120 and gp41, are the most variable proteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and are the major targets of humoral immune responses against HIV-1. A circulating recombinant form of HIV-1, CRF01_AE, is prevalent throughout Southeast Asia; however, only limited information regarding the immunological characteristics ...
Hamzah Hairul Hisham - - 2011
Fabrication of a test strip for detection of benzoic acid was successfully implemented by immobilizing tyrosinase, phenol and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) onto filter paper using polystyrene as polymeric support. The sensing scheme was based on the decreasing intensity of the maroon colour of the test strip when introduced into benzoic ...
Ibert Mathias - - 2010
During the course of the 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy free radical-catalyzed electrochemical oxidation of d-glucose to d-glucaric acid a new side-product was observed. This compound was isolated and identified as a tricarboxylic acid of unique structure, which was named maribersonic acid. Its structure was proven by different experiments coupled with several analytical methods, ...
Tarhan Leman - - 2011
The alterations of organic acids citrate, α-ketoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, malate production together with isocitrate lyase activity as a glyoxalate shunt enzyme, and antibiotic production of Streptomyces sp M4018 were investigated in relation to changes in the glucose, glycerol and starch concentrations (5-20 g/L) after identification as a strain of Streptomyces hiroshimensis ...
Van Lancker Fien - - 2011
Furan has recently received considerable attention as a possibly carcinogenic compound occurring in thermally processed foods. Although several food constituents have been identified as furan precursors, multiple formation pathways remain unclear. Therefore, the mechanisms of furan formation in Maillard model systems were studied by means of the carbon module labeling ...
Jiang Majiong - - 2010
This paper describes a systematic study on the epitaxial overgrowth of Pt on well-defined Pd nanocrystals with different shapes (and exposed facets), including regular octahedrons, truncated octahedrons, and cubes. Two different reducing agents, i.e., citric acid and L-ascorbic acid, were evaluated and compared for the reduction of K₂PtCl₄ in an ...
Kwok Kaho - - 2010
Previous studies have shown that deliquescent organic compounds frequently exhibit chemical instability when stored in environmental conditions above their deliquescence relative humidity (RH). The goal of the current study was to investigate the effect of atmospheric moisture on the long-term chemical stability of crystalline sucrose-citric acid mixtures following storage at ...
Kodama Shuji - - 2010
The ratio of citric acid to D-isocitric acid can be used to distinguish authentic and adulterated fruit juices. To separate DL-isocitric acid enantiomers, we used ligand exchange CE. D-Quinic acid was used as a chiral selector ligand and Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) ions were used as the ...
Rodríguez Galdón Beatriz - - 2010
Citric, malic, tartaric, oxalic, ascorbic, aconitic and fumaric acids, and sucrose, fructose and glucose, were determined in ten potato cultivars (Azucena negra, Bonita, Bonita negra, Borralla, Colorada de baga, Mora, Negra, Palmera lagarteada, Peluca blanca and Terrenta) from the Canary Islands in order to differentiate them. The influence of the ...
Kamo Tsunashi - - 2010
The ¹³C labels of [¹³C]carbon dioxide and D-[¹³C₆]glucose were incorporated into cyanamide (NH₂CN) when they were administered to Vicia villosa subsp. varia shoots. In contrast, the administration of sodium [2,3-¹³C₂]pyruvate did not affect the relative area of the [M + 1]+ ion of cyanamide in the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. ...
Lee Sarah - - 2010
Gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and principal component analysis were used to obtain the metabolite profiles of guava (Psidium guajava) fruits. Results with two types of data-processing software, ChromaTOF and AMDIS, were compared to explain the differences between the samples. There were some differences in score and loading ...
Prathna T C - - 2011
In the present study, silver nanoparticles were rapidly synthesized at room temperature by treating silver ions with the Citrus limon (lemon) extract. The effect of various process parameters like the reductant concentration, mixing ratio of the reactants and the concentration of silver nitrate were studied in detail. In the standardized ...
Ferrer-Luque Carmen María - - 2010
Chelating agents, such as EDTA or citric acid, can be incorporated into irrigants in order to provide different properties in a single compound. Maleic acid has recently been proposed as an alternative irrigant to EDTA given its better smear layer removal and biocompatibility; however, its antimicrobial activity is not known. ...
Jaitz Leonhard - - 2011
A sensitive method for quantification of citric, fumaric, malic, malonic, oxalic, trans aconitic, and succinic acid in soil- and root-related samples is presented. The method is based on a novel, fast, and simple esterification procedure and subsequent analysis via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Derivatization comprises in situ generation of HCl, which ...
Olszewski Kellen L - - 2010
A central hub of carbon metabolism is the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which serves to connect the processes of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, respiration, amino acid synthesis and other biosynthetic pathways. The protozoan intracellular malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.), however, have long been suspected of possessing a significantly streamlined carbon metabolic network in which ...
Xie Xiao-Lan - - 2010
NAGase (EC.3.2.1.52) from crustaceans has the important roles in immunity, molting and digestion of chitinous foods. In this paper, the effects of citric acid on the activity of NAGase from Litopenaeus vannamei for the hydrolysis of pNP-NAG have been studied. The results showed that appropriate concentrations of citric acid could ...
Khan Majibur Rahman - - 2010
Silk fibers from Bombyx mori silkworm was degummed with different concentration of citric acid, and the physical properties and fine structure were investigated to elucidate the effects of citric acid treatment. The silk sericin removal percentage was almost 100% after degumming with 30% citric acid which resulted in a total ...
Rödig T - - 2010
AIM: To compare the efficacy of different solutions (1% sodium hypochlorite, 10% citric acid and 20% EDTA) in the removal of calcium hydroxide from root canals. METHODOLOGY: One hundred single-rooted maxillary incisors were prepared to size 50 and split longitudinally. Two standardized grooves were cut into the apical and coronal ...
Kumar G Suresh - - 2010
In a number of recent reports on the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) by sol-gel method using citric acid as an organic modifier, washing was an essential step to remove the byproducts and citric acid. In the present study we made an attempt to synthesize HA by sol-gel method in the ...
Pushpadass Heartwin A - - 2010
The structures and biodegradabilities of loose-fill foams, containing starch and polystyrene at ratios of 70:30 and 80:20, were evaluated using a laboratory composting system. Each formulation was foamed (extrusion expanded) using either 0.2% azodicarbonamide or 0.25% citric acid as the chemical blowing agent. Biodegradability, a measure of the quantity of ...
Tevz Gregor - - 2010
Aspergillus terreus is successfully used for industrial production of itaconic acid. The acid is formed from cis-aconitate, an intermediate of the tricarboxylic (TCA) cycle, by catalytic action of cis-aconitate decarboxylase. It could be assumed that strong anaplerotic reactions that replenish the pool of the TCA cycle intermediates would enhance the ...
Liu Xiao-Yan - - 2010
The INU1 gene encoding exo-inulinase cloned from Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 6556 was ligated into the surface display plasmid and expressed in the cells of the marine-derived yeast Yarrowia lipolytica which can produce citric acid. The expressed inulinase was immobilized on the yeast cells. The activity of the immobilized inulinase with ...
Fan-Chiang Ho-Ju - - 2010
Sugar and nonvolatile acid analyses were conducted on 52 samples of blackberries (Rubus spp), the objective being to develop a compositional database for evaluating authenticity and quality. Brix ranged from 6.88 to 16.83, with a mean of 10.82. Titratable acidity ranged from 0.52 to 2.24 g citric acid/100 mL, with ...
Dafny-Yalin Mery - - 2010
The current study describes differences in pomegranate fruit size and aril weight of 29 accessions grown in Israel. The contents of sugars and organic acids in their aril juices and peel homogenates, as well as color parameters, were determined. While the levels of total soluble solids (TSS) and soluble sugars ...
Rymowicz Waldemar - - 2010
Yarrowia lipolytica A-101-1.22 produces high citric acid (112 g l(-1)) with a yield of 0.6 g g(-1) and a productivity of 0.71 g l(-1) h(-1) during batch cultivation in the medium with glycerol-containing waste of biodiesel industry. However, it was observed that the specific citric acid production rate, which was ...
Cai Menghao - - 2010
Aspergiolide A production enhancement by citrate and its effects on growth and sexual development of marine-derived fungus Aspergillus glaucus HB1-19 were investigated. In agar plate culture, 15 mM citric acid decreased colony radial growth and aspergiolide A production by 31.5% and 23.0%, respectively. It also improved sexual cleistothecium formation by ...
Thai Van Viet - - 2010
In this study, an injectable bone substitute (IBS) consisting of citric acid, chitosan, and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as the liquid phase and tetra calcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and calcium sulfate dehydrate (CSD, CaSO4 x 2H2O) powders as the solid phase, were fabricated. Two groups were ...
Karthikeyan Alagarsamy - - 2010
The growing demand for citric acid and the current need for alternative sources have encouraged biotechnologists to search for novel and economical substrates. Koji fermentation was conducted using the peels of banana (Musa acuminata) as an inexpensive substrate for the production of citric acid using Aspergillus niger. Various crucial parameters ...
Honeychurch Kevin C - - 2010
Cobalt phthalocyanine-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (CoPC-SPCEs) have been investigated as disposable sensors for the measurement of citric acid. The analyte was found to undergo an electrocatalytic oxidation process involving the Co(2+)/Co(3+) redox couple. Calibration plots were found to be linear in the range 2 mM to 2.0 M; replicate determinations ...
Lim Byungkwon - - 2010
This paper describes the synthesis of Pd-Au bimetallic nanocrystals with controlled morphologies via a one-step seeded-growth method. Two different reducing agents, namely, L-ascorbic acid and citric acid, were utilized for the reduction of HAuCl(4) in an aqueous solution to control the overgrowth of Au on cubic Pd seeds. When L-ascorbic ...
Pineño Oskar - - 2010
Rats given presentations of a citric acid solution while recovering from LiCl-induced illness (i.e., a "medicine effect" treatment) subsequently drank more of an aversively conditioned NaCl solution at test, when the NaCl presentation was immediately preceded by citric acid. That is, citric acid passed a summation test of conditioned inhibition. ...
Zhao Shimin S School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 20032, - - 2010
Protein lysine acetylation has emerged as a key posttranslational modification in cellular regulation, in particular through the modification of histones and nuclear transcription regulators. We show that lysine acetylation is a prevalent modification in enzymes that catalyze intermediate metabolism. Virtually every enzyme in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, ...
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