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González-Martı́n I - - 2003
A near infrared spectrometer equipped with a standard 1210/210 bundle remote reflectance fibre-optic probe, with a 5×5 cm quartz window, was used for the determination of fatty acids in the subcutaneous fat of Iberian pigs. A comparative study was made of the determination of fatty acids (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, ...
Fischer Eliane - - 2003
Complete oxidation of carbohydrates to CO2 is considered to be the exclusive property of the ubiquitous tricarboxylic acid cycle, the central process in cellular energy metabolism of aerobic organisms. Based on metabolism-wide in vivo quantification of intracellular carbon fluxes, we describe here complete oxidation of carbohydrates via the novel P-enolpyruvate ...
Joris H - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Zona pellucida opening for blastomere removal can be done by mechanical or chemical means, or by laser. So far, only limited data on the use of laser systems for zona drilling in cases of PGD are available. METHODS: Results of embryo biopsy and outcome of PGD in two periods ...
Edwards J Vincent - - 2003
Occlusion and elasticity were combined in a novel cotton-based alginate dressing containing a nontoxic elastase inhibitor. Cotton gauzes were modified with a textile finishing process for incorporating alginate to yield a dressing material that retains elasticity while enhancing absorption. The algino-cellulose conjugates were formed through citric acid crosslinking of cellulose ...
Godbold Douglas L - - 2003
Fine root distribution and turnover were investigated in ca. 40-year-old pure Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) stands in Germany, growing on four sites that differed in soil acidity (Ebergötzen < Barbis < Fichtelgebirge = Harz). The density of fine root biomass and necromass in different soil horizons differed among the ...
Chen K S - - 2003
This work reports sampling of motorcycle on-road driving cycles in actual urban and rural environments and the development of representative driving cycles using the principle of least total variance in individual regions. Based on the representative driving cycles in individual regions, emission factors for carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen ...
Miyao Mitsue - - 2003
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) has a variety of functions in plants, including a major anaplerotic role in replenishing the tricarboxylic acid cycle with intermediates to meet the demand of carbon skeletons for synthesis of organic acids and amino acids. Various transgenic C3 plants that overproduce PEPC have been produced and analyzed ...
Soldo Tomislav - - 2003
N-(1-Carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxymethyl-pyridinium-3-ol inner salt (alapyridaine), recently identified in heated sugar/amino acid mixtures as well as in beef bouillon, has been shown to exhibit general taste-enhancing activities, although tasteless on its own. Differing from other taste enhancers reported so far, racemic (R/S)-alapyridaine and, to an even greater extent (+)-(S)-alapyridaine, the physiologically active ...
Nekrashevych Yuriy - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to evaluate dental erosion in 0.1 and 1.0% citric acid in vitro by several different methods and to assess the protective potential of experimentally formed salivary pellicle (24 h in vitro). Bovine enamel slabs were embedded in epoxy resin and polished. Erosion was performed ...
Mulligan Catherine N - - 2003
A study was initiated to evaluate the use of the fungus Aspergillus niger for bioleaching and then to determine the effect of process steps, the tailings concentration and type of substrate. An oxidized mining tailing containing mainly copper (7240 mg kg(-1) tailings) was studied. A sucrose and mineral salts medium ...
Augustin Angélique - - 2003
A novel member of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family, hPARP-3, is identified here as a core component of the centrosome. hPARP-3 is preferentially localized to the daughter centriole throughout the cell cycle. The N-terminal domain (54 amino acids) of hPARP-3 is responsible for its centrosomal localization. Full-length hPAPR-3 (540 amino ...
Tang Ruikang - - 2003
Characterization of the dissolution kinetics of individual synthetic and biological calcium phosphates is of considerable importance since these phases often coexist in biological minerals. The constant composition method has been used to study the dissolution kinetics of a series of synthetic calcium phosphates, brushite (DCPD), beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), octacalcium phosphate ...
Grams Ylva Y - - 2003
In skin and hair research drug targeting to the hair follicle is of great interest. Therefore the influence of permeant lipophilicity and vehicle composition on local accumulation has been examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Formulations saturated with either Oregon Green 488, Bodipy FL C(5) or Bodipy 564/570 C(5) ...
Kamzolova Svetlana V - - 2003
During continuous cultivation of Yarrowia lipolytica N 1, oxygen requirements for growth and citric acid synthesis were found to depend on the iron concentration in the medium. A coupled effect of oxygen and iron concentrations on the functioning of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in Y. lipolytica N 1 was ...
Otero-Losada M E - - 2003
Benzoic acid (Bz) is a prickling compound used to preserve foods. However, its effects on taste are unknown. This work examines Bz-taste interaction using psychophysical methods [magnitude estimation (ME) and paired comparison (PC)] to measure taste intensity in aqueous solutions of pure tastants (T) and their respective mixtures with 10 ...
Sharma Shweta - - 2003
Tannase from Aspergillus niger van Teighem has been used for synthesis of food additive antioxidant propyl gallate by direct transesterification of tannic acid. The optimized yield of 86% was obtained by using simultaneously pH tuned enzyme, immobilized on Celite and using the right amount of water in the non aqueous ...
Chen Y X - - 2003
Adsorption and hydroponics experiments were conducted to study the role of citric acid on the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. The results show that addition of citric acid decreased the adsorption of both lead and cadmium, such an effect was bigger for cadmium than for lead. The decrease in ...
Scelza Miriam F Zaccaro - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: An in vitro study was conducted to determine the efficacy of 17% EDTA plus 1.25% sodium lauryl ether sulfate (EDTA-T), 10% citric acid, and 17% EDTA with respect to Ca(++) extraction. STUDY DESIGN: The root canals of 90 extracted human canines were instrumented by using the step-back technique. The ...
Haq Ikram-Ul - - 2003
The present study describes citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger GCB-47 in a 15-1 stainless steel stirred fermentor. Among the alcohols tested as stimulating agents, 1.0% (v/v) methanol was found to give maximum amount of anhydrous citric acid (90.02 +/- 2.2 g/l), 24 h after inoculation. This yield of citric ...
Nakamura Katsutoshi - - 2003
A formulation containing 0.5 mg/ml minodronic acid, 40 mM citrate, pH 4.5, and sodium chloride, stored in regular flint glass ampoules, was stable without particulate increase under high temperature conditions, such as 40 degrees C for 6 months, or 50 or 60 degrees C for 3 months. However, when stored ...
Karaffa Levente - - 2003
This Mini-Review summarizes the current knowledge on the biochemical and physiological events leading to massive citric acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger under industrially comparable conditions, thereby particularly emphasizing the roles of glycolytic flux and its control, excretion of citric acid from the mitochondria and the cytosol, and the critical fermentation ...
Pelletier Cathy A - - 2003
The ability of sour and sweet-sour mixtures to improve swallowing in 11 nursing home residents with neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia was investigated using fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Citric acid (2.7%) significantly reduced aspiration and penetration compared with water. Teaspoon delivery of liquids significantly reduced aspiration and penetration compared with natural ...
Ayorinde Folahan O - - 2003
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) was used for the simultaneous detection of sugars, ascorbic acid, citric acid, sodium and/or potassium benzoate in non-alcoholic beverages, with meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin (MW 974) as a matrix. Using potassium hydroxide as dopant, fructose/glucose was detected as the potassiated molecule at m/z 219, whereas potassiated ...
Black Clanton C - - 2003
Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) can be traced from Roman times through persons who noted a morning acid taste of some common house plants. From India in 1815, Benjamin-Heyne described a 'daily acid taste cycle' with some succulent garden plants. Recent work has shown that the nocturnally formed acid is decarboxylated ...
Hasegawa Nobuharu - - 2003
We examined the effects of D- or L-amino acids on the stimulation of Brassica rapa roots. When 6.7 microM of D-methionine (D-Met) or L-methionine (L-Met) was applied, root hair numbers increased. L-Met (above concentration of 67.0 microM) caused the tip of roots to spiral. When CoCl2 (ethylene synthesis inhibitor) was ...
Ma Liang - - 2003
Msx2-deficient mice exhibit progressive hair loss, starting at P14 and followed by successive cycles of wavelike regrowth and loss. During the hair cycle, Msx2 deficiency shortens anagen phase, but prolongs catagen and telogen. Msx2-deficient hair shafts are structurally abnormal. Molecular analyses suggest a Bmp4/Bmp2/Msx2/Foxn1 acidic hair keratin pathway is involved. ...
Yoon Jeong-Jun - - 2002
Fruit bodies of the copper-tolerant brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis palustris were produced in liquid medium for the first time. To induce fruit body formation of this fungus, it was important to inoculate the liquid medium with mycelia grown on potato dextrose agar plates and also to adjust the initial pH of ...
Zhaofan Xia - - 2002
A new approach for the analysis of hepatic metabolism after burn injury is introduced. Relative anaplerotic, pyruvate recycling and gluconeogenic fluxes were measured by 13C NMR isotopomer analysis of blood glucose from rats with 40% body surface area injury, and from rats exposed to sham injury. A short chain fatty ...
Berg Ivan A - - 2002
Itaconate is known as a potent inhibitor of isocitrate lyase. Unexpectedly, itaconate was a strong inhibitor of acetate and propionate assimilation in isocitrate lyase-negative purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. It was shown that in cell extracts of R. rubrum itaconate inhibited propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) activity. The participation of PCC in ...
Martini Wenjun Z - - 2003
Normal cardiac metabolism requires continuous replenishment (anaplerosis) of catalytic intermediates of the citric acid cycle. Little is known about the quantitative aspects of propionate as a substrate of in vivo anaplerosis; therefore, we measured the rate of propionate entry into the citric acid cycle in hearts of anesthetized pigs. [U-(13)C(3)]propionate ...
Lai Yih-Loong - - 2002
We tested if there is a direct relationship between reactive oxygen species and citric acid-induced airway constriction. Guinea pigs were divided into two groups: control and dimethylthiourea (a hydroxyl radical scavenger). The animals in each group were further separated into four subgroups: baseline, recovery 2-3 min, recovery 10 min, and ...
Comte Blandine - - 2002
Little is known about the role of mitochondrial NADP(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)-ICDH) in the heart, where this enzyme shows its highest expression and activity. We tested the hypothesis that in the heart, NADP(+)-ICDH operates in the reverse direction of the citric acid cycle (CAC) and thereby may contribute to the fine ...
Sarda S - - 2002
Most of the research performed on calcium phosphate bone cements (CPBCs) has dealt with the improvement of bone cement formulations for new, demanding bone-filling applications. In particular, the development of injectable bone cements is of real interest for the biomedical community. The aim of this work was to study the ...
Eisenburger M - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To determine the influence of load and time on enamel wear by attrition under neutral and acid environments in vitro. METHODS: Groups of 10 enamel cusp and smooth surface specimens obtained from unerupted third molars were opposed in a wear machine under loads of 200, 400 and 600 g ...
Adham Nehad Z - - 2002
Natural oils with high unsaturated fatty acids content when added at concentrations of 2% and 4% (v/v) to beet molasses (BM) medium caused a considerable increase in citric acid yield from Aspergillus niger. The fermentation capacities were also examined for production of citric acid using BM-oil media under different fermentation ...
Vorarat Suwanna - - 2002
Alpha hydroxy acids, malic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid and lactic acid, were analyzed simultaneously using capillary electrophoresis with direct UV detection at 200 nm. The separation was carried out with uncoated fused-silica (50 cm x 50 microns i.d.), pressure injection at 15 psi s and operated at ...
MacDonald Michael J - - 2002
Succinic acid methyl esters are potent insulin secretagogues in rat pancreatic islets, but they do not stimulate insulin release in mouse islets. Unlike rat and human islets, mouse islets lack malic enzyme and, therefore, are unable to form pyruvate from succinate-derived malate for net synthesis of acetyl-CoA. Dimethyl-[2,3-(14)C]succinate is metabolized ...
Mehall John R - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether acidification of formula with citric acid is equally protective against bacterial translocation and gut colonization but better tolerated than acidification with hydrochloric acid in neonatal rabbits. DESIGN: Paired animal model with control. SETTING: Animal laboratory. SUBJECTS: Premature neonatal New Zealand rabbit pups. INTERVENTIONS: A standard neonatal ...
Lin Weihong - - 2002
Sour taste is mediated by acids with the degree of sourness a function of proton concentration. Recently, several members of the acid-sensing ion channel subfamily (ASICs) were cloned from taste cells and proposed to mediate sour taste. However, it is not known whether sour responses in taste cells resemble the ...
Lynch A - - 2002
Heifers (n=10) were randomly selected from the slaughter line of a local factory each month for a period of 21 months. Rib steak (sampled at the 10th rib) from the left side of each carcass was taken for analysis. The cattle breeds selected during this study were Friesian, Hereford and ...
Piñeros Miguel A - - 2002
Al-induced release of Al-chelating ligands (primarily organic acids) into the rhizosphere from the root apex has been identified as a major Al tolerance mechanism in a number of plant species. In the present study, we conducted physiological investigations to study the spatial and temporal characteristics of Al-activated root organic acid ...
Jena Bhabani S - - 2002
Organic acids in fresh leaves, fruits, and dried rinds of Garcinia cowa (G. cowa) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Fresh leaves, fruits, and dried rinds were extracted with water at 120 degrees C for 20-30 min under 15 lbs/in(2) pressure. Also, dried rinds were extracted with solvents (acetone and ...
Choi Man Yee - - 2002
Water-soluble organic compounds have recently received much attention because of their ability to absorb water and alter the hygroscopic properties of inorganic aerosols. The effects of glycerol, succinic acid, malonic acid, citric acid, and glutaric acid on the water cycles (water activities during particle evaporation and growth), crystallization relative humidities ...
Travers Susan P - - 2002
The present experiment investigated Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) after intraoral infusions of 0.1 M citric acid, 0.3 M NaCl, and 0.3-30 mM quinine monohydrochloride (QHCl) in awake, behaving rats. Increases in QHCl concentration produced increases in the numbers of FLI-labeled neurons in the ...
Hem Stanley L - - 2002
In vitro dissolution experiments although perhaps not at typical body concentrations and temperatures demonstrated that the alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids present in interstitial fluid (citric acid, lactic acid, and malic acid) are capable of dissolving aluminum-containing adjuvants. Amorphous aluminum phosphate adjuvant dissolved more rapidly than crystalline aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Intramuscular administration in ...
Shimada Atsumi - - 2002
Aspterric Acid, 6-Hydroxymellein, Arabidopsis thaliana, Aspergillus terreus Aspterric acid (1) and 6-hydroxymellein (2), inhibitors of pollen development in Arabidopsis thaliana, have been isolated from the fungus Aspergillus terreus. 1 and 2 inhibited the pollen development at concentrations of 38 and 52 microM, respectively. The microscopic examination of pollen development suggested ...
Shan Xiao-Quan - - 2002
Effect of citric, malic, tartaric and acetic acids on adsorption of La, Ce, Pr and Nd by and desorption from four typical Chinese soils was studied. Generally, adsorption capacities of rare earth elements (REEs) were significantly correlated with the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of soils. In the presence of acetic ...
Jayaprakasha G K - - 2002
Organic acids in leaves and rinds of Garcinia indica (Kokam) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The major organic acid in leaves and rinds has been found to be (-)-hydroxycitric acid present to the extent of 4.1-4.6 and 10.3-12.7%, respectively, by isocratic elution with 8 mM sulfuric acid as mobile ...
Fu Yuzhu - - 2002
Aspergillus niger is capable of removing dyes from an aqueous solution. In the study, the roles played by three major functional groups: carboxyl, amino and phosphate, and the lipid fraction in the biomass of A. niger in biosorption of four dyes, Basic Blue 9, Acid Blue 29, Congo Red and ...
Lee S C - - 2002
Endotheline-1 (ET-1) has been shown to enhance tachykinin-induced airway constriction. This study was designed to test whether ET-1 is involved in citric acid-induced bronchoconstriction. Forty-eight anesthetized-paralyzed guinea pigs were divided into six groups of 8 animals each: saline control; citric acid; ET-1; ET-1 + citric acid; BQ123 + ET-1 + ...
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