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Results 301 - 350 of 2350
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Dekker Mark J - - 2009
Elevated postprandial lipemia is emerging as a risk factor for obesity-related chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and is associated with alterations in several metabolic biomarkers of disease. Our goal was to examine the effects of specific polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (P/S) ratios on postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) ...
Suhonen Marjukka - - 2008
The objective was to evaluate stratum corneum lipid liposomes (SCLLs) prepared from commercial lipids as a convenient model system for studying the mechanisms of chemical permeation enhancers. Liposomes prepared from extracted stratum corneum lipids (ESCLLs) were used as a control. Three different types of SCLLs were prepared by sonication or ...
Sharma Puneet - - 2009
Lipid nanoparticles of the cancer drug Chlorambucil (CLB) were prepared by ultrasonication, using stearic acid as the core lipid. Four types of lipid nanoparticle formulations were studied: (i) stearic acid solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN); (ii) sterically stabilized SLN with pegylated phospholipids as stabilizer; (iii) nanostructured lipid complexes with oleic acid ...
Fakas Stylianos - - 2008
Growth of two strains of Cunninghamella echinulata on various nitrogen containing raw materials (corn gluten, corn steep, whey concentrate,yeast extract and tomato waste hydrolysate) yielded important amounts of biomass containing various quantities of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) rich cellular lipids. Especially, growth on tomato waste hydrolysate (TWH) yielded 17.6 g/l of ...
Quehenberger Oswald O Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0601, - - 2008
The Lipid Metabolites and Pathway Strategy (LIPID MAPS) Consortium is a nationwide initiative that has taken on the task of employing lipidomics to advance our understanding of lipid metabolism at the molecular and mechanistic level in living organisms. An important step toward this goal is to craft enabling analytical procedures ...
Dreissig Isabell - - 2009
Brain tissue is characterized by high lipid content. Its content decreases and the lipid composition changes during transformation from normal brain tissue to tumors. Therefore, the analysis of brain lipids might complement the existing diagnostic tools to determine the tumor type and tumor grade. Objective of this work is to ...
Kruh Nicole A - - 2008
The fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) pathway in Mycobacterium tuberculosis generates long chain fatty acids that serve as the precursors to mycolic acids, essential components of the mycobacterial cell wall. Enzymes in the FAS-II pathway are thought to form one or more noncovalent multi-enzyme complexes within the cell, and a bacterial ...
Ho Sze-Yuen - - 2008
Effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the lipid and fatty acid profiles of the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-producing fungus, Mortierella alpina SC9, were investigated. The cells were cultivated in the medium with 4 different NaCl concentrations (0, 1, 2, 4%) for 6 days. The lipid and fatty acid profiles ...
Yaacoub Rita - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to quantify some nutritional and safety quality parameter changes that take place in nuts (roasting) and sesame seeds (dehulling, roasting, milling, and sterilization) during processing. Such evaluation was based on chemical analysis of various indicators of lipid alteration in raw and processed pistachios, ...
Leung James K JK Lung Biology Center and Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, - - 2008
Lipid droplets are complex and dynamic intracellular organelles that have an essential role in cholesterol and lipid homeostasis, and profoundly affect cellular structure and function. Variations in lipid-droplet composition exist between different cell types, but whether there are differences in the mechanisms of lipid-droplet accumulation remains to be elucidated. Here, ...
Zhang Yanghui Y Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, The University of Georgia, 315 Riverbend Road, Athens, GA 30602, - - 2008
Tetra-acylated lipid As derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS have been synthesized using a key disaccharide intermediate functionalized with levulinate (Lev), allyloxycarbonate (Alloc) and anomeric dimethylthexylsilyl (TDS) as orthogonal protecting groups and 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbamate (Fmoc) and azido as amino protecting groups. Furthermore, an efficient cross-metathesis has been employed for the preparation of ...
Pedneault Karine - - 2008
Neutral and polar lipid contents of ten species of edible mushrooms indigenous to Eastern Canada belonging to the families Agaricaceae, Amanitaceae, Boletaceae, Coprinaceae, Ganodermataceae, and Lycoperdaceae were analysed. The total lipid content of the species analysed ranged from 3.1% (Ganoderma applanatum) to 16% (w/w) d.w. (Amanita vaginata) and averaged 8.6% ...
Schmidt Joann - - 2008
We previously described an unidentified lipid purified from calf small intestine that inhibits the in vitro adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites to host cells [Johnson JK, Schmidt J, Gelberg HB, Kuhlenschmidt MS. Microbial adhesion of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites: purification of an inhibitory lipid from bovine mucosa. J Parasitol 2004;90:980-90]. Intestinal ...
Badiu Diana L - - 2008
Black Sea molluscs and gastropods are the most studied organisms from the Romanian littoral zone. In particular, those from the Mytilidae species are of great interest because biochemical investigations have shown that they can be sources of biological active substances which can have different applications (e.g. food additives). We report ...
Baier Jürgen - - 2008
Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation has been known to generate reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen, in skin, leading to the oxidation of lipids and proteins. This oxidation influences cellular metabolism and can trigger cellular signaling cascades, since cellular membranes and the stratum corneum contain a substantial amount of fatty ...
Löfke Christian - - 2008
PtdIns is an important precursor for inositol-containing lipids, including polyphosphoinositides, which have multiple essential functions in eukaryotic cells. It was previously proposed that different regulatory functions of inositol-containing lipids may be performed by independent lipid pools; however, it remains unclear how such subcellular pools are established and maintained. In the ...
Ahmed Syed Ubaid - - 2008
The fatty acid profile study was undertaken to study the effect of impeller tip speed-associated shear stress and dissolved oxygen saturation (DO) on the fatty acid composition variation and on total lipid content of the cells. The study was undertaken in a 5-l stirred tank bioreactor using Mucor sp. RRL001. ...
Kalogeropoulos Nick - - 2008
Crude composition, lipid composition, and tocopherols, ascorbic acid, cholesterol, phytosterols, and squalene content together with fatty acids and antiplatelet activities of total, neutral, and polar lipids of avgotaracho (wax-covered, dried, and salted Mugil cephalus roe) were studied and compared with those of similar products. Wax and steryl esters accounted for ...
Molina Setefilla - - 2008
Different model lipids-alkanes, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, resin acids, free sterols, sterol esters, and triglycerides-were treated with Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccase in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole as mediator, and the products were analyzed by gas chromatography. The laccase alone decreased the concentration of some unsaturated lipids. However, the most extensive lipid ...
Jakobsen Anita N - - 2008
Aurantiochytrium sp. strain T66 was grown in batch bioreactor cultures in a defined glutamate- and glycerol-containing growth medium. Exponentially growing cells had a lipid content of 13% (w/w) of dry weight. A fattening of cells fed excess glycerol occurred in the post-exponential growth phase, after the medium was depleted of ...
Windbergs Maike - - 2009
Three monoacid triglycerides differing in their fatty acid chain lengths were extruded below their melting temperatures. Physical characterization was conducted on the powders as well as the extrudates with a combination of DSC, XRPD and vibrational spectroscopy to get a deeper insight into the complex solid-state behaviour of lipids and ...
Cequier-Sánchez Elena - - 2008
The usefulness of the solvent mixture dichloromethane/methanol for lipid extraction and the determination of lipid classes and fatty acids in samples of different natures was conducted. Two different extraction methods were compared, one containing chloroform/methanol, another containing dichloromethane/methanol. Total lipid extraction showed some minor differences but no variation in the ...
Fakas S - - 2008
AIMS: To investigate the effect of organic nitrogen on lipogenesis during growth of Cunninghamella echinulata on tomato waste hydrolysate (TWH) media. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cunninghamella echinulata grown on a TWH medium rapidly took up glucose and produced large amounts of lipids. However, when some quantities of the organic nitrogen were ...
Islam M Saiful - - 2008
The fish lipid was extracted from the body muscle (edible portion) of fresh Lepidocephalus guntea (Ham.) fish and the lipid content of the fish in size-1 (below 8.5 cm), size-2 (8.5-9.5 cm) and size-3 (above 9.5 cm) were found to be 2.515, 3.013 and 3.455%, respectively. The specific gravity and ...
Wang Jianfeng - - 2009
The high concentration of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in neurons of the central nervous system and its growing clinical use as an indicator of neuronal viability has intensified interest in the biological function of this amino acid derivative. The biomedical relevance of such inquiries is highlighted by the myelin-associated pathology of Canavan ...
Amusquivar E - - 2008
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) studies in human babies of very-low-birth-weight suggest that the lipid emulsions currently available are not optimum for neonatal nutrition. Since fatty acid metabolism in human and pigs is very similar, the present study examines how lipid emulsions used in clinical TPN (i.e. ClinOleic, Intralipid, Lipofundin or ...
Bainbridge Brian W - - 2008
Porphyromonas gingivalis lipid A is heterogeneous with regard to the number, type, and placement of fatty acids. Analysis of lipid A by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry reveals clusters of peaks differing by 14 mass units indicative of an altered distribution of the fatty acids generating different ...
Tesiram Yasvir A - - 2008
A method for identifying fatty acid species based on the number of double bonds contained in a lipid molecule is presented. Common to all polyunsaturated fatty acids are two signature resonances at approximately 5.3 and 2.8 ppm in the proton chemical-shift spectrum of NMR. These resonances are from the vinyl ...
Nyblom H K - - 2008
Raised concentrations of glucose for extended periods of time have detrimental effects on the insulin-producing beta-cell. As de novo synthesis of lipids has been observed under such conditions, it was hypothesized that newly formed lipids may preferentially contain saturated fatty acids, which in particular have been associated with impaired beta-cell ...
Pratic?? Domenico - - 2008
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vasculature that is influenced by multiple factors and involves a complex interplay between some components of the bloodstream and the arterial wall. Among different circulating factors implicated in atherogenesis there is a large group of bioactive lipids called prostanoids and isoprostanoids. Prostanoids ...
Jakobik Viktória - - 2009
The fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane lipids may better reflect the fatty acid status of the organism than the fatty acid composition of plasma lipids. The present study aimed to provide normal values for erythrocyte fatty acid composition in a sizeable group of healthy subjects throughout the paediatric age ...
Czabany Tibor - - 2008
The two most prominent neutral lipids of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, triacylglycerols (TAG) and steryl esters (SE), are synthesized by the two TAG synthases Dga1p and Lro1p and the two SE synthases Are1p and Are2p. In this study, we made use of a set of triple mutants with only one ...
Chimote G - - 2008
In this study, the effect of mycobacterial lipids on the surface activity of lung surfactant was evaluated. Mycolic acid and cord factor, the most abundant surface active lipids of the mycobacterial cell wall when combined with Curosurf led to alteration of its surface properties. Addition of graded amounts of mycolic ...
Richter Grit - - 2008
Phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) and phosphatidylglycerols (PGs) are abundant lipid constituents of the membranes of Escherichia coli. The reaction between these lipids and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), an important constituent of disinfectants, was investigated by combined thin-layer chromatography (TLC), mass spectrometry (MS), UV and fluorescence spectroscopy. Primuline is a common dye in lipid ...
Ganuza E - - 2008
Thraustochytrids, in particular Schizochytrium spp., are used for the production of the valuable polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3). Growth of Schizochytrium sp. G13/2S in a defined medium was initially made in shake-flask cultures to determine the optimum concentrations of glucose (100-200 g l(-1)) and ammonia ( approximately ...
Zhu L Y - - 2008
Effects of medium components and culture conditions on biomass and lipid production of Trichosporon fermentans were studied. The optimal nitrogen source, carbon source and C/N molar ratio were peptone, glucose and 163, respectively. The favorable initial pH of the medium and temperature were 6.5 and 25 degrees C. Under the ...
Rattray Jayne E - - 2008
Intact ladderane phospholipids and core lipids were studied in four species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, each representing one of the four known genera. Each species of anammox bacteria contained C18 and C20 ladderane fatty acids with either 3 or 5 linearly condensed cyclobutane rings and a ladderane monoether ...
Murphy Cameron C - - 2008
Because X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is treated using erucic acid (22:1n-9), we assessed its metabolism in rat liver and heart following infusion of [14-(14)C]22:1n-9 (170 Ci/kg) under steady-state-like conditions. In liver, 2.3-fold more tracer was taken up as compared to heart, accounted entirely by increased incorporation into the organic fraction (4.2-fold). The ...
Trostchansky Andrés - - 2008
Nitrated derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids are formed under oxidative and nitrative stress conditions, and are detected and structurally characterized in cell membranes, cardiac tissue, human plasma, and urine. Nitro-fatty acids display pleiotropic activities, including modulation of macrophage activation, prevention of leukocyte and platelet activation, and promotion of blood vessel ...
Caussin Julia - - 2008
The conformational disordering and lateral packing of lipids in porcine and human isolated stratum corneum (SC) was compared using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was shown that SC of both species differ markedly, porcine SC lipids being arranged predominantly in a hexagonal lattice while lipids in human SC are ...
Uchida Yoshikazu - - 2008
The prevention of water loss through the skin is critical for terrestrial mammalian species. This function is served by the epidermal permeability barrier, which resides primarily in the extracellular domains of the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of skin, and its highly ordered lamellar membranes composed primarily of free fatty ...
Heredia-Guerrero José A - - 2008
Despite its biological importance, the mechanism of formation of cutin, the polymeric matrix of plant cuticles, has not yet been fully clarified. Here, for the first time, we show the participation in the process of lipid vesicles formed by the self-assembly of endogenous polyhydroxy fatty acids. The accumulation and fusion ...
Gertsch Jürg - - 2008
Since the discovery that endogenous lipid mediators show similar cannabimimetic effects as phytocannabinoids from CANNABIS SATIVA, our knowledge about the endocannabinoid system has rapidly expanded. Today, endocannabinoid action is known to be involved in various diseases, including inflammation and pain. As a consequence, the G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoid transport, ...
Park Young-Ki - - 2008
We investigated whether lipid extract from a blue-green alga, N commune, modulates proinflammatory gene expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The cells were incubated with N commune lipid extract (0-100 microg/mL) and subsequently activated by LPS (100 ng/mL). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that mRNA abundance of proinflammatory mediators, including TNF-alpha, ...
Puca Annibale A - - 2008
Offspring of long-lived individuals are a useful model to discover biomarkers of longevity. The lipid composition of erythrocyte membranes from 41 nonagenarian offspring was compared with 30 matched controls. Genetic loci were also tested in 280 centenarians and 280 controls to verify a potential genetic predisposition in determining unique lipid ...
Smit John J Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, - - 2008
Caulobacter crescentus CB15 is a dimorphic bacterium that is best known as a prokaryotic model for cell development. However, it is also being exploited in biotechnology, where the crystalline surface (S-layer) protein secretion system has been adapted for heterologous protein display or secretion. Because the S-layer attaches to the cell ...
Choma Adam - - 2008
The structure of lipid A from Azospirillum lipoferum, a plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium, was investigated. It was determined by chemical analysis, mass spectrometric methods, as well as 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Because of the presence of substituents, the investigated lipid A differs from typical enterobacterial lipid A molecules. Its backbone is ...
Roma Gislaine Cristina - - 2008
The ultrastructural cytochemistry study and the chemical analysis carried out to examine the fat body of workers of the basal Attini Cyphomyrmex rimosus and Mycetarotes parallelus and the derived Acromyrmex disciger and Atta laevigata revealed very electrondense protein granules of varied sizes and shapes distributed throughout the cytoplasm of parietal ...
Yunoki Keita - - 2008
It is well known that sphingolipids specifically exist in the terrestrial mammal epidermis and correlate with skin barrier functions. However, the lipid properties of the marine mammal epidermis have not been examined in detail. We thus investigated the chemical composition of lipid components, especially sphingolipids, in the black epidermis (outer ...
Pappinen Sari - - 2008
The present report is a part of our continuing efforts to explore the utility of the rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) as an alternative model to human skin in transdermal drug delivery and skin irritation studies of new chemical entities and formulations. The aim of the present study was ...
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