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Mart?n Virginia - - 2010
Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains intimately associated with cell signaling. These biochemical microstructures are characterized by their high contents of sphingolipids, cholesterol and saturated fatty acids and a reduced content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Here, we have purified lipid rafts of human frontal brain cortex from normal and Alzheimer's ...
McCarroll Joshua - - 2010
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have unique electronic, mechanical, and structural properties as well as chemical stability that make them ideal nanomaterials for applications in materials science and medicine. Here, we report the design and creation of a novel strategy for functionalizing SWNT to systemically silence a target gene in mice ...
Malek Goldis G Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. - - 2010
The pathophysiology of 'early' dry age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), characterized by the accumulation of lipid and protein-rich sub-retinal deposits remains largely unknown. Accumulation and dysregulated turnover of lipids as well as extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in sub-retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) deposits and Bruch's membrane, itself an ECM, play a role ...
Wang Jing - - 2010
Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) respond to CD1d-presented glycolipids from Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Although mouse and human iNKT cells respond to different antigens based on subtle differences in their fatty acids, the mechanism by which fatty acid structure determines antigenic potency is not ...
Radner Franz P W - - 2010
Comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58), also designated as alpha/beta-hydrolase domain containing-5 (ABHD-5), is a lipid droplet-associated protein that activates adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and acylates lysophosphatidic acid. Activation of ATGL initiates the hydrolytic catabolism of cellular triacylglycerol (TG) stores to glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids. Mutations in both ATGL and CGI-58 ...
Shakya Rashmi - - 2010
Spatial distribution and compositional analyses of the lipidic constituents in pollen and stigma of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Morden) were conducted using ultrastructural, histochemical, and biochemical analysis. Detection of secretions at the base of stigmatic papillae and neutral lipid accumulations on the surface of stigmatic papillae and between adjacent ...
Czesny Sergiusz - - 2009
The natural reproduction of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Michigan is thought to be compromised by nutritional deficiency associated with inadequate levels of thiamine (vitamin B1) in their eggs. However, mortality driven by thiamine deficiency (commonly referred to as early mortality syndrome [EMS]) is not the only significant cause ...
Laplante Mathieu - - 2009
Lipid biosynthesis is essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. The lipids produced by cells (glycerolipids, fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, and sphingolipids) are used as an energy source/reserve, as building blocks for membrane biosynthesis, as precursor molecules for the synthesis of various cellular products, and as signaling molecules. Defects in ...
Mika Adriana - - 2010
The main aim of this work was to assign the cuticular lipids identified in a parasitic nematode and to distinguish those originating from its host. The hypothesis that long-chained fatty acids and sterols are imported by the parasite in the absence of certain enzymes was also tested. The organisms (Anisakis ...
Kim Eun Ju - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Although fatty acids are known to be important in various skin functions, their roles on photoaging in human skin are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the alteration of lipid metabolism in the epidermis by photoaging and acute UV irradiation in human skin. METHODS: UV irradiated young volunteers (21-33 years, ...
Yang Yong - - 2010
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of developmental stage on lipids deposition, composition and oxidative stability of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and Longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) in Guizhou mini-pig. Pigs were raised in the same condition, and SAT and LDM were sampled on 90 d, 180 ...
Kenchegowda Sachidananda - - 2010
Corneal injury induces an inflammatory reaction and damages the sensory nerves that exert trophic influences in the corneal epithelium. Alterations in normal healing disrupt the integrity and function of the tissue with undesirable consequences, ranging from dry eye and loss of transparency to ulceration and perforation. Lipids play important roles ...
Perumal P - - 2009
Percentage composition of protein, lipid, carbohydrate and amino acids of copepods, Acartia spinicauda and Oithona similis collected from Parangipettai coastal waters were estimated following standard methodologies. Of the principal biochemical constituents, protein formed the major component followed bylipid and carbohydrate. Biochemical composition analysis of wild copepods indicated their nutritional rank. ...
Hur S J - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of various fiber additions on lipid digestion during the in vitro digestion of beef patties. The control patties were prepared with 90.5% lean meat and 9.5% tallow. Treatments consisted of 90% lean meat with 9.5% tallow and either 0.5% cellulose, ...
Yin Changjun - - 2009
Plasma concentrations of adiponectin have been shown to be decreased in patients with obesity, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have found that adiponectin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophage foam cells which may impact the development of atherosclerosis. However, it remains unclear whether adiponectin is involved in the ...
Romanowicz Lech - - 2010
Wharton's jelly is a myxomatous substance which surrounds the umbilical cord vessels protecting them against extension, bending, twisting and compression. Very low number of cells in this tissue produce high amounts of extracellular matrix; collagen, hyaluronate and proteoglycans which bind large quantities of peptide growth factors (PGFs). Preeclampsia (the most ...
Laczko-Dobos Hajnalka - - 2010
The phosphatidylglycerol deficient DeltapgsA mutant of Synechocystis PCC6803 provided a unique experimental system for investigating in vivo retailoring of exogenously added dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol in phosphatidylglycerol-depleted cells. Gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid composition suggested that diacyl-phosphatidylglycerols were synthesized from the artificial synthetic precursor. The formation of new, retailored lipid species was ...
Martín Virginia - - 2009
Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains intimately associated with cell signaling. These biochemical microstructures are characterized by their high contents of sphingolipids, cholesterol and saturated fatty acids and a reduced content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Here, we have purified lipid rafts of human frontal brain cortex from normal and Alzheimer's ...
Hardy Gil - - 2009
Intravenous lipid emulsions (IVLE) are an important source of energy and essential fatty acids and their incorporation into pediatric and adult parenteral nutrition (PN) regimens has revolutionized nutrition therapy. However, their clinical use has not been without risk, and will continue to remain so because of the intravenous route of ...
Lavoie Stacey M - - 2009
The objective of this study was to determine if children with phenylketonuria (PKU) have lower fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid due to the phenylalanine restricted diet therapy compared to healthy control subjects. Dietary intake and fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid were measured in twenty-one subjects (</=6 ...
Fameau Anne-Laure - - 2010
There is a growing interest for constructing supramolecular hollow tubes from amphiphilic molecules. Aqueous solutions of the ethanolamine salt of 12-hydroxystearic acid are known to form tubes of several tens of micrometers in length with a temperature-tunable diameter. However, the phase behavior of this system has not been fully studied. ...
Sturmey R G - - 2009
While much is known about the metabolism of exogenous nutrients such as glucose, lactate, pyruvate, amino acids by oocytes and pre-implantation mammalian embryos, the role of endogenous stores, particularly lipid, has been largely overlooked. The presence of lipid within oocytes and early embryos has been long known, and comparisons between ...
Kim Minjeong - - 2010
Topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs) such as pimecrolimus and tacrolimus have recently been used for dermatologic diseases including atopic dermatitis instead of topical glucocorticoids, because they display comparable efficacy, but less-frequent side effects. Although even short-term topical glucocorticoid compromise epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis, the effects of TCI on barrier function have ...
Geiger Otto - - 2010
In the bacterial model organism Escherichia coli only the three major membrane lipids phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and cardiolipin occur, all of which belong to the glycerophospholipids. The amino acid-containing phosphatidylserine is a major lipid in eukaryotic membranes but in most bacteria it occurs only as a minor biosynthetic intermediate. In some ...
Goodman Joel M - - 2009
Cytosolic lipid droplets were considered until recently to be rather inert particles of stored neutral lipid. Largely through proteomics is it now known that droplets are dynamic organelles and that they participate in several important metabolic reactions as well as trafficking and interorganellar communication. In this review, the role of ...
Filek Maria - - 2010
Selenium appears to be an important protective agent that decreases cadmium-induced toxic effects in animals and plants. The aim of these studies was to investigate the changes of properties of chloroplast membranes obtained from Cd-treated rape seedlings caused by Se additions. Chloroplasts were isolated from leaves of 3-week-old rape plants ...
Schroeter Annett - - 2009
This research paper provides direct evidence concerning the localisation of free fatty acids in stratum corneum lipid model membranes. We employed partially deuterated free fatty acids to gain further information about the assembly of a stratum corneum lipid model membrane based on a ceramide of the phytosphingosine-type (ceramide [AP]) with ...
Wong Scott W - - 2009
The saturated fatty acids acylated on Lipid A of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial lipoproteins play critical roles in ligand recognition and receptor activation for Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2. The results from our previous studies demonstrated that saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids reciprocally modulate the activation of TLR4. However, ...
Ramli Umi S - - 2009
* Oil crops are a very important commodity. Although many genes and enzymes involved in lipid accumulation have been identified, much less is known of regulation of the overall process. To address the latter we have applied metabolic control analysis to lipid synthesis in the important crop, oilpalm (Elaeis guineensis). ...
Li Jianjian - - 2009
Changes in the level of lipid composition in a single zebrafish egg have been involved in biological responses to chemical exposures. In this paper, an one-step transmethylation of lipids and simultaneous extraction of resultant fatty acid methyl esters followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis was developed for the identification of ...
Scandellari Francesca - - 2009
Six position-specific (13)C-labelled isotopomers of glucose were supplied to the ectomycorrhizal fungi Suillus pungens and Tricholoma flavovirens. From the resulting distribution of (13)C among fungal PLFAs, the overall order and contribution of each glucose atom to fatty acid (13)C enrichment was: C6 (approximately 31%) > C5 (approximately 25%) > C1 ...
Bravi Elisabetta - - 2009
Knowledge of lipid content and composition in the brewing process enables the quality control of the final product. Lipids have a beneficial effect on yeast growth during fermentation as well as deleterious effects on end-product quality. The lipid content of a beer affects its ability to form a stable head ...
Hidalgo Alyssa - - 2009
To evaluate the effect of genotype, year, and location on protein, lipid, tocol, and lutein content and on fatty acids composition of wholemeal flour, five einkorns (Triticum monococcum L. ssp. monococcum) and one control bread wheat were cropped in Italy for two years in four different locations. Genotype and year ...
Nonomura Yoshimune - - 2009
Dietary lipids are solubilized in bile acid micelles in the small intestine. In the present study, we investigate the phase behavior of bile acid/model rapeseed oil (or model beef tallow)/water systems to predict interfacial phenomena during consumption of a variety of foods. The structures of molecular assemblies are identified based ...
Fakas Stylianos - - 2009
This paper investigates the correlation between mycelial age and fatty acid biosynthesis. The correlation was investigated by analyzing the lipid composition lengthwise the mycelium of the oleaginous fungus Mortierella isabellina, a potential producer of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). Young mycelia were rich in polar lipids (glycolipids plus sphingolipids and phospholipids), while ...
Reina-Pinto José J - - 2009
Lipids produced by the epidermis serve a number of protective functions, and also act as messengers which activate plant defense responses. The fatty acid elongases which catalyze the formation of very long-chain fatty acids, may be instrumental in the remodeling of the various classes of epidermal lipids, and they also ...
Brookheart Rita T - - 2009
Excess fatty acid accumulation in nonadipose tissues is a hallmark of metabolic disease. When elevated lipid levels exceed the cell's capacity to store or utilize fatty acids, a lipotoxic-response is elicited, characterized by destruction of organelle membranes, activation of stress pathways, and apoptosis. This Minireview focuses on the mechanisms by ...
Huwiler Andrea - - 2009
Lipids serve important functions as membrane constituents and also as energy storing molecules. Besides these functions certain lipid species have now been recognized as signalling molecules that regulate a multitude of cellular responses including cell growth and death, and also inflammatory reactions. Bioactive lipids are generated by hydrolysis from membrane ...
Kwak Sungjong - - 2009
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), an efficient transdermal enhancer, is proposed to alter the skin barrier by, at least partially, disturbing the lipid phase of the stratum corneum (SC). We have investigated, using differential scanning calorimetry and vibrational microspectroscopy, the effect of DMSO on the phase behavior of a lipid mixture formed ...
Paik Man-Jeong - - 2009
Microalgal lipids were separated into two fractions, triacylglycerols (TAGs) and free fatty acids (FFAs), by solid-phase extraction employing sodium carbonate as the sorbent and dichloromethane (20% by volume) in n-hexane as the extracting solvent. The TAG fraction was then saponified, followed by acidification, extraction and tert-butyldimethylsilyl esterification. The FFA fraction ...
Weston Anna - - 2009
The lipid-lowering agents bezafibrate and clofibric acid, which occur at concentrations up to 3.1 and 1.6 microg/L, respectively, are among the most frequently found human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. In contrast to knowledge about their environmental occurrence, little is known about their effects in the environment. The aim of ...
Kumar Adepu Kiran - - 2010
An Aspergillus terreus, isolated from oil contaminated soil, could degrade a wide range of petroleum hydrocarbons including the immediate oxidation products of hydrocarbons, like alkanols and alkanals. Among all the linear chain carbon substrates, highest growth of 39.1 + or - 3.8 g l(-1) (wet weight) was observed when n-hexadecane ...
Nanhuck Renata M - - 2009
BACKGROUND & AIMS: This study investigated the influence of four commercial lipid emulsions, Ivelip, ClinOleic, Omegaven and SMOFlipid((R)), on lipid body formation, fatty acid composition and eicosanoid production by cultured human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and mononuclear cells (PBMC). METHODS: PMN and PBMC were exposed to emulsions at concentrations ...
Hu Cuimin - - 2009
Lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis inevitably coproduces byproducts that may have various affects on downstream biotransformation. It is imperative to document the inhibitor tolerance ability of microbial strain in order to utilize biomass hydrolysate more effectively. To achieve better lipid production by Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4, we performed fermentation experiments in the presence ...
Hartman Corina - - 2009
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is an important component of the supportive care of children undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The study aimed to assess short-term safety and metabolic effects of an olive oil-based (OO) lipid emulsion compared with a MCT/LCT (M/L) emulsion in the clinical setting of pediatric ...
Diamond I R - - 2009
Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease is the most common complication of pediatric short bowel syndrome (SBS). There is emerging evidence that the disease may be reversed with the use of parenteral lipid emulsions derived from fish-oils, which contain significant concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids (w3FA). This paper will review the ...
Tanaka Tamotsu - - 2009
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator that plays a role in the process of wound healing in animal tissues, including the digestive tract. We determined LPA in several foodstuffs, and found that cabbage leaves were the richest source of LPA. We also found that, at 22 and 195 nmol/g ...
Pineau Ludovic - - 2009
Stress within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induces a coordinated response, namely the unfolded protein response (UPR), devoted to helping the ER cope with the accumulation of misfolded proteins. Failure of the UPR plays an important role in several human diseases. Recent studies report that intracellular accumulation of saturated fatty acids ...
Rabkin Simon W - - 2009
The objective of this study was to examine the potential of stearic acid to induce cardiomyocyte cell death and the hypothesis that the amount of cellular lipid is a determinant of cell death. In cardiomyocytes from embryonic chick heart, stearic acid (SA) produced a significant (P < 0.001) concentration-dependent increase ...
Quilo S A - - 2009
The effect of using potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, acidified sodium chlorite, or peroxyacetic acid as a single antimicrobial intervention on ground beef instrumental color, sensory color and odor characteristics, and lipid oxidation was evaluated. Prior to grinding, beef trimmings (90/10) were treated with 3% potassium lactate (KL), 4% sodium metasilicate ...
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