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Mandal Shovon - - 2011
Scenedesmus obliquus was cultivated in three types of waste discharges to couple waste treatment with biodiesel production. The lipid pool accumulation was boosted to 1.0 g liter(-1) against 0.1 g liter(-1) for the control. The waste-grown S. obliquus showed an increase in the content of the saturated fatty acid pool, ...
Kao Yung-Hsi - - 2010
This study was designed to examine the effect of thermal acclimation on the lipid composition of fat depot organs the liver and kidneys of larval sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. We found that 21 °C-acclimated larvae possessed lower total lipid amounts in the liver (39% lower) and kidneys (30% lower) than ...
Huynh Lien-Huong - - 2010
Activated sludge with its high lipid content is a potential raw material for producing biodiesel. Sub-critical water (SCW) treatment has been known to be a cheap and effective method for reducing organic compounds, especially carcinogenic aromatic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or polychlorobiphenyls in activated sludge as well as ...
Buduneli N N Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Ege University, ─░zmir, - - 2011
We hypothesized that tobacco smoke induces alterations to the 3-OH fatty acids present in lipid A in a manner consistent with a microflora of reduced inflammatory potential. Whole saliva samples and full-mouth clinical periodontal recordings were obtained from persons with (22 smokers; 15 non-smokers) and without (14 smokers; 15 non-smokers) ...
Groen Daniël - - 2011
The lipid organization in the stratum corneum (SC), plays an important role in the barrier function of the skin. SC lipids form two lamellar phases with a predominantly orthorhombic packing. In previous publications a lipid model was presented, referred to as the stratum corneum substitute (SCS), that closely mimics the ...
Wolny Daniel - - 2011
Lipopolysaccharides also called endotoxins are an integral component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. When released from the bacterial surface, they interact with a host immune system, triggering excessive inflammatory response. Lipid A is the biologically most active part of endotoxin, and its activity is modulated by the quantity, ...
Meng Xin - - 2011
Unlike many oleaginous microorganisms, E. coli only maintains a small amount of natural lipids in cells, impeding its utility to overproduce fatty acids. In this study, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus was expressed in E. coli to redirect the carbon flux to the generation of malonyl-CoA, which resulted in ...
Guschina Irina - - 2011
The well-documented link between α-synuclein and the pathology of common human neurodegenerative diseases has increased attention to the synuclein protein family. The involvement of α-synuclein in lipid metabolism in both normal and diseased nervous system has been shown by many research groups. However, the possible involvement of γ-synuclein, a closely-related ...
Erez Elinor - - 2010
The mechanism underlying the interaction of the Escherichia coli signal recognition particle receptor FtsY with the cytoplasmic membrane has been studied in detail. Recently, we proposed that FtsY requires functional interaction with inner membrane lipids at a late stage of the signal recognition particle pathway. In addition, an essential lipid-binding ...
Troncoso-Ponce M Adrián - - 2010
As opposed to other oilseeds, developing sunflower seeds do not accumulate starch initially. They rely on the sucrose that comes from the mother plant to synthesise lipid precursors. Glycolysis is the principal source of carbon skeletons and reducing power for lipid biosynthesis. In this work, glycolytic initial metabolites and enzyme ...
Solovchenko Alexei - - 2011
In order to develop a practical approach for fast and non-destructive assay of total fatty acid (TFA) and pigments in the biomass of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis sp. changes in TFA, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents were monitored in parallel with the cell suspension absorbance. The experiments were conducted with the ...
Yichoy M M Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, Texas 79968-0519, - - 2011
Giardia lamblia, a protozoan parasite, infects a wide variety of vertebrates, including humans. Studies indicate that this anaerobic protist possesses a limited ability to synthesize lipid molecules de novo and depends on supplies from its environment for growth and differentiation. It has been suggested that most lipids and fatty acids ...
Schie Iwan W - - 2011
The increased accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets within hepatocytes is a pathologic hallmark of liver injury of various etiologies, especially non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The dynamics, subcellular origin, and chemical composition of lipid droplets under various pathophysiologic conditions, however, remain poorly understood. We used coherent Raman microscopy and spontaneous Raman spectroscopy ...
Faxén-Irving Gerd - - 2011
Old patients seldom reach their energy requirements. The effects of an oleic acid rich formula on energy intake and appetite were studied. Recently admitted geriatric patients (n = 71), likely to stay >1 week were randomised to receive 30 ml of a fat emulsion (Calogen(®)) 3 times daily, i.e., 420 kcal, at the regular ...
Seetapan Nispa - - 2010
To investigate dispersion consistency of solid lipid nanoparticles as functions of lipid types and concentrations. Viscoelastic measurement at an application of low stress was employed to characterize the internal microstructure developed within the dispersions. Pure triglycerides with different length of fatty acid chains, trimyristin (C14), tripalmitin (C16), and tristearin (C18) ...
Strandvik Birgitta - - 2010
Despite identification twenty years ago of the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the protein defective in cystic fibrosis (CF), research of this monogenetic disease has not provided an explanation for the divergent symptoms, and a treatment breakthrough is still awaited. This review discusses different aspects of ...
Renberg Linda - - 2010
Using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-time of flight technique, we determined major metabolite changes during induction of the carbon-concentrating mechanism in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In total, 128 metabolites with significant differences between high- and low-CO(2)-grown cells were detected, of which 82 were wholly or partially identified, including amino ...
Ho Shih-Hsin - - 2010
This study aimed to achieve higher CO(2) consumption ability and lipid productivity of an indigenous microalgal isolate Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N by a two-stage cultivation strategy. The microalga strain was first cultivated with 10% CO(2) using a nutrient-rich medium to promote cell growth, which was followed by a nutrient-deficient condition to ...
Rockenfeller Patrick - - 2010
Obesity is characterised by lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues, leading to organ degeneration and a wide range of diseases, including diabetes, heart attack and liver cirrhosis. Free fatty acids (FFA) are believed to be the principal toxic triggers mediating the adverse cellular effects of lipids. Here, we show that various ...
Liu Jin - - 2010
The lipid contents and fatty acid profiles of Chlorella zofingiensis cultured in the dark with various carbon sources were investigated. Glucose was found to be the best carbon source for the growth and lipid production. When cultivated with 50gL(-1) glucose, C. zofingiensis accumulated lipids up to 52% of the dry ...
Visscher Marty - - 2010
Regional differences in water-binding free amino acids (FAAs) in the stratum corneum (SC) may be expected, since differences in skin biophysical properties are well known. The objective was to determine whether differences in skin hydration as a function of body site may arise from differences in the chemical makeup of ...
Liu Jin - - 2011
The objective of this study was to document and compare the lipid class and fatty acid composition of the green microalga Chlorella zofingiensis cultivated under photoautotrophic and heterotrophic conditions. Compared with photoautotrophic cells, a 900% increase in lipid yield was achieved in heterotrophic cells fed with 30 g L(-1) of ...
Connerth Melanie - - 2010
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, neutral lipids can be synthesized by four acyltransferases, namely Dga1p and Lro1p producing triacylglycerols (TAG) and Are1p and Are2p forming steryl esters (SE). TAG and SE are stored in an organelle called lipid particles/droplet. Growth of yeast cells on oleate-supplemented media strongly induced proliferation of ...
Krohn Brian J - - 2011
This study demonstrates the production of algal biodiesel from Dunaliella tertiolecta, Nannochloropsis oculata, wild freshwater microalgae, and macroalgae lipids using a highly efficient continuous catalytic process. The heterogeneous catalytic process uses supercritical methanol and porous titania microspheres in a fixed bed reactor to catalyze the simultaneous transesterification and esterification of ...
Oresti Gerardo M - - 2010
When a single dose of X-rays is applied to the adult rat testis, stem spermatogonia are damaged, and spermatogenesis is interrupted. Supported by Sertoli cells, spermatogenic cells that endure irradiation complete their differentiation and gradually leave the testis as spermatozoa. In this study, the in vivo changes taking place a ...
Guo Lin L Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, - - 2010
Straight chain fatty acid alpha-oxidation increases during differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, leading to a marked accumulation of odd chain length fatty acyl moieties. Potential roles of this pathway in adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis are unknown. Mammalian fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) was recently identified and suggested to catalyze the initial step ...
Rizzi C - - 2010
A trial was done to study the chemical composition of meat and egg yolk of laying hens belonging to different genotypes reared using an organic production system. Two commercial hybrid hens (Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line White 36) and 2 Italian dual-purpose breed hens (Ermellinata di Rovigo and Robusta Maculata) were ...
Faleck D M - - 2010
The excess accumulation of lipids in islets is thought to contribute to the development of diabetes in obesity by impairing beta-cell function. However, lipids also serve a nutrient function in islets, and fatty acids acutely increase insulin secretion. A better understanding of lipid metabolism in islets will shed light on ...
Corpeleijn Eva - - 2010
Obesity and insulin resistance are related to both enlarged intramyocellular triacylglycerol stores and accumulation of lipid intermediates. We investigated how lipid overflow can change the oxidation of intramyocellular lipids (ICL(OX)) and intramyocellular lipid storage (ICL). These experiments were extended by comparing these processes in primary cultured myotubes established from healthy ...
Lahnsteiner Franz - - 2010
The present study investigated aspects of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in Sparus aurata semen and tested the effect of lipids, carbohydrates and related metabolites on sperm viability using in vitro incubation experiments. Sparus aurata semen contained enzyme systems to metabolize sugars and lipids. Also key enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid ...
Herdmann A - - 2010
This study investigated the effects of dietary linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) v. linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) on fatty acid composition and protein expression of key lipogenic enzymes, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and delta 6 desaturase (Δ6d) in longissimus muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue of bulls. Supplementation of the diet with ...
Casellas J - - 2010
Concern about pork quality has increased during last decades. Given the influence of fat content and composition on sensorial, nutritional, and technological variables of pork meat, an accurate knowledge about genetic control of pig lipid metabolism is required. This study focused on providing a broad characterization for serum and meat ...
Xu Changcheng - - 2010
The transfer of lipids between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plastid in Arabidopsis involves the TRIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL (TGD) proteins. Lipid exchange is thought to be bidirectional based on the presence of specific lipid molecular species in Arabidopsis mutants impaired in the desaturation of fatty acids of membrane lipids in the ...
Hojabri Leila - - 2010
An unsaturated terminal diol, 1,18-octadec-9-endiol (ODEDO), and a saturated terminal diol, 1,9-nonanediol (NDO), were synthesized from oleic acid. The feasibility of utilizing these new diols for the production of thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) was demonstrated by reacting them with a fatty acid-derived diisocyanate, 1,7-heptamethylene diisocyanate (HPMDI), and a commercially available petroleum-derived ...
Baird L G - - 2010
Previous research suggests that the digital cushion, a shock-absorbing structure in the claw, plays an important role in protecting cattle from lameness. This study aimed to assess the degree to which nutritional factors influence the composition of the digital cushion. This involved quantifying lipid content and fatty acid composition differences ...
Mastronicolis Sofia K - - 2010
This study provides a first approach to observe the effects on Listeria monocytogenes of cellular exposure to acid stress at low or neutral pH, notably how phospho- or neutral lipids are involved in this mechanism, besides the fatty acid profile alteration. A thorough investigation of the composition of polar and ...
Hadley K R KR Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235-1604, - - 2010
Fatty acids constitute one of the main components of the lipid lamellae in the top layer of the skin, known as the stratum corneum, which acts as a barrier to foreign substances entering the body and to water leaving the body. To better understand the mechanics of the skin, a ...
Garidel Patrick - - 2010
The current mid-infrared spectroscopic study is a systematic investigation of hydrated stratum corneum lipid barrier model systems composed of an equimolar mixture of a ceramide, free palmitic acid and cholesterol. Four different ceramide molecules (CER NS, CER NP, CER NP-18:1, CER AS) were investigated with regard to their microstructure arrangement ...
Groen Daniel - - 2010
The lipid matrix present in the human stratum corneum (the thin, uppermost layer of the skin) is considered to play a crucial role in the skin barrier function. The lipid matrix consists of ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. The 13 nm lamellar phase present in the lipid matrix of ...
Combet Emilie - - 2010
Nitrite has long been considered a potential pre-carcinogen for gastric cancer. Acidification of salivary nitrite, derived from dietary nitrate, produces nitrosative species such as NOSCN, NO(+) and N(2)O(3), which can form potentially carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. Ascorbic acid inhibits nitrosation by converting the nitrosative species into nitric oxide (NO). However, NO ...
Hauff Simone - - 2010
Anteiso fatty acids (aFA) are substituted with a methyl group on the antepenultimate carbon of the straight acyl chain. This feature leads to a stereogenic center. The 12-methyltetradecanoic acid (a15:0) and the 14-methylhexadecanoic acid (a17:0) are the most common aFA found in food, although they occur only in very small ...
Tocher J A - - 2010
Sea lice are copepod ectoparasites that constitute a major barrier to the sustainability and economic viability of marine finfish aquaculture operations worldwide. In particular, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, poses a considerable problem for salmoniculture in the northern hemisphere. The free-swimming nauplii and infective copepodids of L. salmonis are lecithotrophic, ...
Yaqoob Parveen - - 2010
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lipid rafts are potentially modifiable by diet, particularly (but not exclusively) by dietary fatty acids. This review examines the potential for dietary modification of raft structure and function in the immune system, brain and retinal tissue, the gut, and in cancer cells. RECENT FINDINGS: In-vitro and ex-vivo ...
Komaniecka Iwona - - 2010
The chemical structure of the lipid A of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA 76 (a member of the group of slow-growing rhizobia) has been established. It differed considerably from lipids A of other Gram-negative bacteria, in that it completely lacks negatively charged groups (phosphate or uronic acid residues); ...
Li Qiang - - 2010
Ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment of lignocellulose materials is a promising process in biomass conversion to renewable biofuel. More in-depth research involving environment-friendly IL is much needed to explore pretreatment green route. In our case, IL 1-methyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphite ([Mmim]DMP) was chosen as an environment-friendly solvent to pretreat corn cob in view ...
Lima Maria - - 2010
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and advanced lipoxidation end-products (ALEs) form when proteins are heated with reducing sugar or lipid. N(epsilon)-(Carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) is the most commonly studied AGE/ALE in foods, but the relative importance of dietary sugar and lipid as its precursors is uncertain. The aim of this study was to ...
Damiani M Cecilia - - 2010
The lipid content and composition of Haematococcuspluvialis exposed to stress conditions were analyzed to assess the potential of this microalga as a biodiesel feedstock. The total lipid content of control cells was 15.61% dw, whereas that of cells exposed to continuous high light intensity with nitrogen-sufficient medium (A-stress condition) or ...
Hauff Simone - - 2010
Branched chain fatty acids (iso- and anteiso-fatty acids) are common minor compounds of the lipids found in dairy products and fish (<1-3%) and major fatty acids of Gram-positive bacteria. Their presence in food has been associated with bacterial sources. Bacterial lipids usually consist of polar lipids and virtually no triacylglycerides ...
Beck Sebastian - - 2010
Bdellovibrionales is a phylogenetically diverse group of predatory prokaryotes, which consists of the two families Bdellovibrionaceae and Bacteriovoracaceae. We describe LPS and lipid A of the type strain Bacteriovorax stolpii DSM 12778, representing the first characterized endotoxin of a Bacteriovoracaceae member. It has a smooth form LPS, which was identified ...
Wawrik Boris - - 2010
Algae have significant potential as a source of biomass for the production of biofuels, due to their high growth rates and high cellular lipid content. Studies that address the use of algae as biofuels often require the frequent measurement of algal lipid content. Traditional methods for the quantification of lipid ...
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