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Results 451 - 500 of 2350
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Sturmey R G - - 2006
The role of endogenous lipid in the provision of energy during in vitro maturation of immature porcine oocytes has been studied. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) acceptor bleaching methods have been used to examine mitochondrial:lipid droplet co-localisation in live oocytes. FRET experiments demonstrate whether organelles are within the FRET-distance (i.e. ...
King Matthew D - - 2006
Analysis of chlorinated fatty acids (CFA) in tissues can be difficult because of their low concentrations. This task becomes even more difficult when samples are from organisms living in remote locations with very little exposure to environmental contamination. Therefore, enrichment of CFA is necessary prior to analysis. In this study, ...
Schlegel Amnon - - 2006
Although the absorption, transport, and catabolism of dietary lipids have been studied extensively in great detail in mammals and other vertebrates, a tractable genetic system for identifying novel genes involved in these physiologic processes is not available. To establish such a model, we monitored neutral lipid by staining fixed zebrafish ...
Toppe Jogeir - - 2007
The chemical composition, content of minerals and the profiles of amino acids and fatty acids were analyzed in fish bones from eight different species of fish. Fish bones varied significantly in chemical composition. The main difference was lipid content ranging from 23 g/kg in cod (Gadus morhua) to 509 g/kg ...
Gutierrez Eugenio E Medical Research Council, National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, - - 2007
Lipid metabolism is essential for growth and generates much of the energy needed during periods of starvation. In Drosophila, fasting larvae release large quantities of lipid from the fat body but it is unclear how and where this is processed. Here we identify the oenocyte as the principal cell type ...
Kalscheuer Rainer - - 2007
Marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, like Alcanivorax borkumensis, play a globally important role in bioremediation of petroleum oil contamination in marine ecosystems. Accumulation of storage lipids, serving as endogenous carbon and energy sources during starvation periods, might be a potential adaptation mechanism for coping with nutrient limitation, which is a frequent stress ...
Pernet Fabrice - - 2006
Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using pre-packed Si (Si), manually packed silica hydrated with water (Si-H(2)O) and pre-packed aminopropyl-bonded silica (NH(2)), at various mass ratios of lipid to sorbent, on the recovery of polar lipids following the solid-phase extraction (SPE) of a standard mixture of ...
Turkish Aaron - - 2007
Esterification of sterols, fatty acids and other alcohols into biologically inert forms conserves lipid resources for many cellular functions. Paradoxically, the accumulation of neutral lipids such as cholesteryl ester or triglyceride, is linked to several major disease pathologies. In a remarkable example of genetic expansion, there are at least eleven ...
Gupta Neal S - - 2006
Modern arthropod cuticles consist of chitin fibres in a protein matrix, but those of fossil arthropods with an organic exoskeleton, particularly older than Tertiary, contain a dominant aliphatic component. This apparent contradiction was examined by subjecting modern cockroach, scorpion and shrimp cuticle to artificial maturation (350 degrees C/700 bars/24 h) ...
Fujimoto Yasuyuki - - 2006
Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular storage sites of neutral lipids, which accumulate in fatty liver disease. Here, we investigated the effects of fatty acids and glucose on LD formation in a cultured human hepatocyte, HuH7, by adding them to culture media. Fatty acids with carbohydrate chains C12-C18 efficiently induced LDs, ...
Fujita Takeshi - - 2006
Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been reported to be associated with atherosclerotic and inflammatory diseases, as they are the major components of cytoplasmic membranes and the precursor fatty acids for prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Nephrotic syndrome is associated with serum lipid disorders, such as hypercholesterolemia due to the increased production of lipoproteins ...
Pérez M J - - 2007
The lipid and fatty acid content of the gonads, liver and muscle of wild white seabream males and females was studied at different stages of the reproductive cycle. Samples were taken from mature white seabream at pre-spawning (November), mid-spawning (March) and post-spawning (June) stages. The results showed that lipid accumulates ...
Esch Steven Wynn - - 2007
Profiling of leaf extracts from mutants of Arabidopsis with defects in lipid desaturation demonstrates the utility of collision-induced dissociation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CID-TOF MS) for screening biological samples for fatty acid compositional alterations. CID-TOF MS uses the collision cell of a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer to simultaneously fragment all of ...
Arseneault Marjolaine - - 2007
The influence of cholesterol sulfate (CS) and calcium on the phase behavior of lipid mixtures mimicking the stratum corneum (SC) lipids was examined using vibrational spectroscopy. Raman microspectrocopy showed that equimolar mixtures of ceramide, palmitic acid, and cholesterol underwent a phase transition in which, at low temperatures, lipids formed mainly ...
Martin Olivier R - - 2006
Ndelta-L-Homoserinyl-D-ornithinol pseudodipeptides N-acylated with typical Escherichia coli lipid A fatty acid residues and mono-O- or bis-O-phosphorylated have been prepared and their properties investigated. The derivatives carrying two phosphate groups were found to be inducers of NO production. In addition, while they were unable to induce significantly the production of interleukin-6 ...
Wang Zhan - - 2006
The lipid A components of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida from strains A449, 80204-1 and an in vivo rough isolate were isolated by mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide. Structural studies carried out by a combination of fatty acid, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses confirmed that the structure ...
Karine Pedneault - - 2006
The non-polar lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of 11 mushroom species of the family Boletaceae were determined. The non-polar lipid content ranged from 2.0 (Leccinum aurantiacum and Boletus erythropus) to 5.4 % (w/w) d.w. (Suillus grevillei) with an average value of 2.9 %. More than 25 different FAs ...
Gussoni Maristella - - 2006
The effects of storage at 4 degrees C on the quantity and quality of chemical components in the caviar from farmed Acipenser transmontanus have been analyzed by SEM, chemical methods, and NMR and MRI techniques. Particular attention has been focused on the lipid components, the distribution and mobility of which ...
Xu Yan - - 2007
Lipids, especially essential fatty acids (EFAs), play critical roles in guiding proper fetal development. Exposure to xenobiotics that may alter the fetal supply of EFAs/lipids could potentially lead to fetotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the effects of the peroxisome proliferator chemical, di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), on the lipid metabolomic profile of ...
Ejsing Christer S - - 2006
We report a method for the identification and quantification of glycerophospholipid molecular species that is based on the simultaneous automated acquisition and processing of 41 precursor ion spectra, specific for acyl anions of common fatty acids moieties and several lipid class-specific fragment ions. Absolute quantification of identified species was linear ...
Park Jae-Ho - - 2006
Acid ceramidase (N-acylsphingosine deacylase, EC 3.5.1.23; AC) is the lipid hydrolase responsible for the degradation of ceramide into sphingosine and free fatty acids within lysosomes. The enzymatic activity was first identified over four decades ago, and is deficient in the inherited lipid storage disorder, Farber Lipogranulomatosis (Farber disease). Importantly, AC ...
Ollero Mario - - 2006
An association has been reported between alterations in fatty acid metabolism and cystic fibrosis (CF). We hypothesized that these alterations are specific for a particular lipid component(s) and are the result of a specific metabolic defect. The different lipid classes were examined for fatty acid changes by using pancreatic homogenates ...
Woodcock Steven R - - 2006
Unsaturated fatty acids are nitrated endogenously to produce nitrated lipids. Recent studies have shown that these nitrated lipids have high chemical reactivity and profound biological implications. We report an efficient, scalable synthesis which is regiospecific and stereoselective for all possible isomers of nitrated oleic acid: (E)- and (Z)-, 9- and ...
Schweitzer S C - - 2006
Although the immune system, inflammation, and cellular metabolism are linked to diseases associated with dyslipidemias, the mechanism(s) remain unclear. To determine whether there is a mechanistic link between lipid availability and inflammation/immune activation, we evaluated macrophage cell lines incubated under conditions of altered exogenous and endogenous lipid availability. Limiting exogenous ...
Poerschmann J - - 2006
A new preparation scheme is proposed to fractionate neutral lipids (acylglycerines, sterol esters, long-chain free fatty acids) from polar phospholipids in biological matrices. This fractionation is mandatory in the microbial community, for the control of bioremediation processes, in the study of phytoplankton growth in lakes and rivers, and in the ...
Peebles E D - - 2006
Commercial laying hens maintained under controlled conditions were experimentally inoculated with the S6 strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (S6MG) at 45 wk of age. This resulted in depressed liver lipid concentration, and inoculations at 20 and 45 wk affected the size of various portions of the reproductive tract. In 2 consecutive ...
Chambrier C - - 2006
Over the past 3 decades, various concepts for IV fat emulsions (IVFE) have been developed. A randomized, structured-lipid emulsion based on an old technology has recently become available. This structured-lipid emulsion is produced by mixing medium-chain triglycerides and long-chain triglycerides, then allowing hydrolysis to form free fatty acids, followed by ...
Saghatelian Alan A Department of Cell Biology, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, - - 2006
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an integral membrane enzyme that catabolizes several bioactive lipids in vivo. Most of the physiological substrates of FAAH characterized to date belong to the N-acyl ethanolamine (NAE) class of fatty acid amides, including the endocannabinoid anandamide, the anti-inflammatory lipid N-palmitoyl ethanolamine, and the satiating ...
Fakas Stylianos - - 2006
Changes in lipid composition of the oleaginous fungus Cunninghamella echinulata were monitored during growth. Lipid fractions and individual lipid classes varied in amount, relative proportions, and fatty acid profile depending on the developmental stage. Neutral lipids (N), comprised mainly of triacylglycerol, were accumulated in the fungal mycelium during both the ...
Devaiah Shivakumar Pattada - - 2006
Lipid profiling is a targeted metabolomics platform that provides a comprehensive analysis of lipid species with high sensitivity. Profiling based on electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) provides quantitative data and is adaptable to high throughput analyses. Here we report the profiling of 140 apparent molecular species of polar glycerolipids ...
Buseman Christen M - - 2006
Although oxylipins can be synthesized from free fatty acids, recent evidence suggests that oxylipins are components of plastid-localized polar complex lipids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using a combination of electrospray ionization (ESI) collisionally induced dissociation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) to identify acyl chains, ESI triple-quadrupole (Q) MS in the precursor ...
Akamatsu Masao - - 2006
For elucidation of the structural and conformational requirements on the endotoxic and antagonistic activity of lipid A derivatives, we designed and synthesized lipid A analogues containing acidic amino acid residues in place of the non-reducing end phosphorylated glucosamine. Definite switching of the endotoxic or antagonistic activity was observed depending on ...
Osborne Shona L - - 2006
Exocytosis of neurotransmitter containing vesicles supports neuronal communication. The importance of molecular interactions involving specific lipids has become progressively more evident and the lipid composition of both the synaptic vesicle and the pre-synaptic plasma membrane at the active zone has significant functional consequences for neurotransmitter release. Several classes of lipids ...
Räber M - - 2006
The pads of the bovine digital cushion, which serves as a shock absorber, have specific anatomical structures to cope with the substantial forces acting within the claw. To gain more information on the lipid composition and content of the pads, horn shoes from 12 slaughtered heifers and cows were removed ...
Buenestado Amparo - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Infection remains a drawback of parenteral nutrition (PN), probably related, among other factors, to immunosuppressive effects of its lipid component. Newer preparations may have lesser immunosuppressive impact. This study examines the effects of an olive oil-based lipid emulsion (long-chain triacylglycerols-monounsaturated fatty acids [LCT-MUFA]; ClinOleic) on various functions of human ...
Salles Heliana C - - 2006
The capture web of N. clavipes presents viscous droplets, which play important roles in web mechanics and prey capture. By using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, it was demonstrated that the web droplets are constituted of different chemical environments, provided by the existence both of an aqueous and a lipid ...
Human Hannelie - - 2006
Aloe greatheadii var. davyana is the most important indigenous South African bee plant. Fresh, bee-collected and stored pollen of this aloe was collected and analysed for its nutritional content, including amino acid and fatty acid composition. Highly significant differences were found between the three types of pollen. Collection and storage ...
Venkatachalam Mahesh - - 2006
Commercially important edible nut seeds were analyzed for chemical composition and moisture sorption. Moisture (1.47-9.51%), protein (7.50-21.56%), lipid (42.88-66.71%), ash (1.16-3.28%), total soluble sugars (0.55-3.96%), tannins (0.01-0.88%), and phytate (0.15-0.35%) contents varied considerably. Regardless of the seed type, lipids were mainly composed of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (>75% of ...
Poerschmann J - - 2006
A new approach using sequential pressurized liquid extraction described recently [J. Poerschmann, R. Carlson, J. Chromatogr. A, 1127 (2006) 18-25] was applied to determine lipid markers originating from central nervous system (CNS) tissue of cows in heat-processed sausages. These studies are very important in quality control as well as risk ...
Webster Lynda - - 2006
A method was developed for the determination of the major storage lipids, wax ester and triglycerides, in the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. A variation of the Folch method was used to extract the lipid. The method was scaled down to enable the extraction of either pooled (-1 mg) or individual (approximately ...
KapuĊ›niak J - - 2006
Short microwave heating of granular potato, waxy corn and tapioca starches with such lipids as cis-9-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid), cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (linoleic acid), octadecanoic acid (stearic acid), ethyl cis-9-octadecenoate, ethyl cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoate and methyl octadecanoate provided microcapsules in which encapsulated guest molecules did not interact with starch microcapsules. On the formation ...
Krohn Kathrin - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lipid emulsions are crucial for providing essential fatty acids and energy in infants and children requiring parenteral nutrition. There is ongoing debate about the optimal composition of lipid emulsions and the optimal timing for introducing lipids to the parenteral nutrition of premature infants in order to enhance ...
de Jager Miranda - - 2006
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of a stratum corneum substitute (SCS) as a novel in vitro percutaneous penetration model. The SCS consists of synthetic stratum corneum (SC) lipids (cholesterol, free fatty acids, and specific ceramides) applied onto a porous substrate. The composition, organization, and ...
Morita Eiko - - 2006
Schizochytrium limacinum SR21, a thraustochytrid (Labyrinturomycota), is a heterotrophic marine microorganism. SR21 has attracted recent attention because of the production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We obtained highly concentrated SR21 zoospores and successfully observed synchronous growth. We investigated changes of lipid content and fatty acid composition during the growth. The morphological ...
Rissmann Robert - - 2006
The upper layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), is very important for skin barrier function. During the last trimester of gestation, the SC of the fetus is protected by a cheesy, white biofilm called vernix caseosa (VC). VC consists of water-containing corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix and ...
de Jager Miranda - - 2006
The intercellular stratum corneum (SC) lipids form the main barrier for diffusion of substances through the skin. A porous substrate covered with synthetic SC lipids would be an attractive model to study percutaneous penetration, hereby replacing native human SC. Prerequisite is that this stratum corneum substitute (SCS) is prepared with ...
Chandra Binita - - 2006
In pursuit of designing photocleavable liposomes as drug delivery vehicles, we synthesized several amphiphilic lipids by connecting stearyl amine (as the non-polar tail) and charged amino acids (as polar heads) via the o-nitrobenzyl derivatives. The lipids containing Glu, Asp, and Lys amino acids were subjected to photocleavage reaction by UV ...
Gutiérrez Ana - - 2006
The chemical composition of lignin and lipids of bast fibers from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) used for high-quality paper pulp production was studied. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) of fibers showed a lignin with a p-hydroxyphenyl:guaiacyl:syringyl unit (H:G:S) molar proportion of 13:53:34 (S/G ratio of 0.64). p-Hydroxycinnamic acids, namely, p-coumaric and ...
Verdin Anthony - - 2006
The purpose of the present paper was to study the effect of the high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene, on the lipid [fatty acid (FA) and sterol] composition and content of the fungi Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, respectively recognized as good and poor PAH degraders. The major FAs and ...
Athenstaedt Karin - - 2006
Lipid particles (LP) of all types of cells are a depot of neutral lipids. The present investigation deals with the isolation of LP from the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica and the characterization of their lipid and protein composition. Properties of LP varied depending on the carbon source. LP from glucose-grown cells ...
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