Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 2058
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >
Adhikari Sean - - 2007
Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is a major fatty acid-binding factor in skeletal muscles. Genetic lack of H-FABP severely impairs the esterification and oxidation of exogenous fatty acids in soleus muscles isolated from chow-fed mice (CHOW-solei) and high fat diet-fed mice (HFD-solei), and prevents the HFD-induced accumulation of muscle triacylglycerols ...
Abe Tomoki - - 2006
Little is known about the precise physiological roles of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) homologs (UCP2, UCP3, avian UCP) whose levels are up-regulated during fasting. UCPs in skeletal muscle are thought to play a role in the regulation of lipids as fuel substrates, and/or in controlling the production of reactive oxygen ...
Speers-Roesch Ben - - 2006
The metabolic organization of a holocephalan, the spotted ratfish (Hydrolagus colliei), was assessed using measurements of key enzymes of several metabolic pathways in four tissues and plasma concentrations of free amino acids (FAA) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) to ascertain if the Holocephali differ metabolically from the Elasmobranchii since these ...
Ronnett Gabriele V - - 2006
A potential role for fatty acid metabolism in the regulation of energy balance in the brain or in the periphery has been considered only recently. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) catalyzes the synthesis of long-chain fatty acids, whereas the breakdown of fatty acids by beta-oxidation is regulated by carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, the ...
Akagawa Mitsugu - - 2006
Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AAS) and gamma-glutamic semialdehyde (GGS) are identified as the major carbonyl products in oxidized proteins. To elucidate the formation pathway of AAS and GGS in vivo, we developed and validated a new quantification method. AAS and GGS in proteins were derivatized by reductive amination with NaCNBH(3) and p-aminobenzoic ...
van den Brink D M - - 2006
Phytanic acid is a branched-chain fatty acid that accumulates in a variety of metabolic disorders. High levels of phytanic acid found in patients can exceed the millimolar range and lead to severe symptoms. Degradation of phytanic acid takes place by alpha-oxidation inside the peroxisome. A deficiency of its breakdown, leading ...
Bridgewater Juma D - - 2006
Metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO) reactions and mass spectrometry (MS) can be used together to determine the amino acids bound to Cu in a metalloprotein. Selective oxidation of only amino acids bound to Cu during the MCO/MS approach relies on proper choice of the types and concentrations of the reducing and oxidizing ...
Jansen Gerbert A - - 2006
Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) is a branched chain fatty acid, which is a constituent of the human diet. The presence of the 3-methyl group of phytanic acid prevents degradation by beta-oxidation. Instead, the terminal carboxyl group is first removed by alpha-oxidation. The mechanism of the alpha-oxidation pathway and the enzymes ...
Gudbrandsen Oddrun Anita - - 2006
Tamoxifen can induce hepatic steatosis in women. In this study, we wanted to elucidate the mechanism behind the tamoxifen-induced accumulation of triacylglycerol in liver in female rats, and we hoped to prevent this development by combination treatment with the modified fatty acid tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA). The increased hepatic triacylglycerol level ...
Gerber Lamar K - - 2006
A number of reports indicate that a long-chain free fatty acid export system may be operating in mitochondria. In this study, we sought evidence of its existence in rat heart mitochondria. To determine its potential role, we also sought evidence of its activation or inhibition in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat ...
Bechara Etelvino J H - - 2007
Amino metabolites with potential prooxidant properties, particularly alpha-aminocarbonyls, are the focus of this review. Among them we emphasize 5-aminolevulinic acid (a heme precursor formed from succinyl-CoA and glycine), aminoacetone (a threonine and glycine metabolite), and hexosamines and hexosimines, formed by Schiff condensation of hexoses with basic amino acid residues of ...
Steinberg Gregory R - - 2006
CONTEXT: Leptin is thought to regulate whole-body adiposity and insulin sensitivity, at least in part, by stimulating fatty acid metabolism via activation of AMP-kinase (AMPK) in skeletal muscle. Human obesity is associated with leptin resistance, and recent studies have demonstrated that hypothalamic expression of the suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 ...
Ramos-Pamplona Marilou - - 2006
In lower eukaryotes, beta-oxidation of fatty acids is restricted primarily to the peroxisomes and the resultant acetyl-CoA molecules (and the chain-shortened fatty acids) are transported via the cytosol into the mitochondria for further breakdown and usage. Using a loss-of-function mutation in the Magnaporthe grisea PEROXIN6 orthologue, we define an essential ...
Sniekers M - - 2006
The identification of 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase (2-HPCL), a thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)-dependent peroxisomal enzyme involved in the alpha-oxidation of phytanic acid and of 2-hydroxy straight chain fatty acids, pointed towards a role of TPP in these processes. Until then, TPP had not been implicated in mammalian peroxisomal metabolism. The effect of thiamine ...
Gaidhu Mandeep Pinky - - 2006
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR)-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose and fatty acid metabolism in isolated rat adipocytes. AICAR-induced AMPK activation profoundly inhibited basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, lipogenesis, glucose oxidation, and lactate production in fat cells. ...
Parng Chuenlei - - 2006
In this study, we developed an in vivo method to determine drug effects on oxidation-induced apoptosis in the zebrafish brain caused by treatment with L-hydroxyglutaric acid (LGA). We confirmed that LGA-induced apoptosis was caused by oxidation by examining the presence of an oxidative product, nitrotyrosine. Next, we examined the effects ...
Stowe Kimberly A - - 2006
Triglyceride turnover in the isolated C57/BL6 mouse heart was measured by dynamic 13C edit-(1)H observe NMR and the rate of fatty acid oxidation was determined by 13C NMR isotopomer analysis. In the presence of a physiological mixture of substrates, energy was produced in the citric acid cycle by oxidation of ...
Komen J C - - 2006
Patients suffering from Refsum disease have a defect in the alpha-oxidation pathway which results in the accumulation of phytanic acid in plasma and tissues. Our previous studies have shown that phytanic acid is also a substrate for the omega-oxidation pathway. With the use of specific inhibitors we now show that ...
Binns Derk - - 2006
Although peroxisomes oxidize lipids, the metabolism of lipid bodies and peroxisomes is thought to be largely uncoupled from one another. In this study, using oleic acid-cultured Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, we provide evidence that lipid bodies and peroxisomes have a close physiological relationship. Peroxisomes adhere stably to lipid ...
Gorczynski Michael J - - 2006
[reaction: see text] Nitrated fatty acids act as endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligands and nitric oxide (NO) donors. We describe the first specific preparation of the two regioisomers of nitrooleic acid, (E)-9-nitrooctadec-9-enoic acid (1) and (E)-10-nitrooctadec-9-enoic acid (2), from cis-cyclooctene and monomethyl azelate, respectively. These syntheses rely upon ...
Xu Fengyun - - 2006
The saturated C20 isoprenoid phytanic acid is physiologically derived from phytol released in the degradation of chlorophyll. The presence of a C-3 methyl group in this substrate blocks normal beta-oxidation, so phytanic acid degradation primarily occurs by initial peroxisomal alpha-oxidation to shift the register of the methyl group. However, individuals ...
Ivandini Tribidasari A - - 2006
Electrochemical oxidation of oxalic acid has been investigated at bare, highly boron-doped diamond electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and flow injection analysis with amperometric detection were used to study the electrochemical reaction. Hydrogen-terminated diamonds exhibited well-defined peaks of oxalic acid oxidation in a wide pH range. A good linear response was observed ...
Hack Alexandra - - 2006
The ketogenic diet (KD) provides ketones from the degradation of free fatty acids for energy metabolism. It is a therapeutic option for pharmacoresistant epilepsies. Carnitine is the carrier molecule that transports fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane for degradation into ketones. The integrity of this transport system is a prerequisite ...
Onay-Besikci Arzu - - 2006
Energy in the form of ATP is supplied from the oxidation of fatty acids and glucose in the adult heart in most species. In the fetal heart, carbohydrates, primarily glucose and lactate, are the preferred sources for ATP production. As the newborn matures the contribution of fatty acid oxidation to ...
Burgess Shawn C SC Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235-9085, - - 2006
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is a highly inducible transcriptional coactivator implicated in the coordinate regulation of genes encoding enzymes involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, and gluconeogenesis. The present study sought to assess the effects of chronic PGC-1alpha deficiency on metabolic flux through ...
Hadzhiyska Hristina - - 2006
Cotton cellulose was dyed "in situ" with a polymeric dye generated by oxidative coupling of colourless 2,5-diaminobenzenesulfonic acid and 1-hydroxyphenol (catechol) with laccase. Up to 70% dye fixation was obtained increasing the concentration of catechol less soluble upon oxidation from 1 to 10 mmol, while 1 mmol of diamine was ...
Dlasková Andrea - - 2006
Thermogenic uncoupling has been proven only for UCP1 in brown adipose tissue. All other isoforms of UCPs are potentially acting in suppression of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In this contribution we show that BAT mitochondria can be uncoupled by lauric acid in the range of approximately 100 nM ...
Hynes Michael J - - 2006
The catabolism of fatty acids is important in the lifestyle of many fungi, including plant and animal pathogens. This has been investigated in Aspergillus nidulans, which can grow on acetate and fatty acids as sources of carbon, resulting in the production of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA). Acetyl-CoA is metabolized via ...
Majiene Daiva - - 2006
The effect of propolis water solution (PWS) on the respiration of rat heart mitochondria with NAD-linked (pyruvate + malate), FAD-linked (succinate) substrates and fatty acids (palmitoyl-L-carnitine) was investigated in this study. PWS at the lowest concentration of 4 microg mL(-1) of phenolic compounds (PC) had no effect on mitochondrial respiration ...
Schönfeld Peter - - 2006
Phytanic acid, a saturated fatty acid of 20-carbon-atoms with isoprenoic structure, is formed from the phytol-side chain of chlorophyll in ruminants. Degradation of phytanic acid is blocked in Refsum disease by several enzymatic defects of peroxisomal degradation of branched-chain fatty acids. Refsum disease is an inherited neurological disorder progressively developing ...
Qi Dake - - 2006
Glucocorticoid therapy is often associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular disease. The present study was designed to evaluate cardiac fatty acid (FA) composition and metabolism following acute dexamethasone (Dex) treatment. Using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, rats injected with Dex demonstrated a reduced glucose infusion rate. This whole body insulin ...
Belosludtsev Konstantin - - 2006
Palmitic acid (Pal) is known to promote apoptosis (Sparagna G et al (2000) Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 279: H2124-H2132) and its amount in blood and mitochondria increases under some pathological conditions. Yet, the mechanism of the proapoptotic action of Pal has not been elucidated. We present evidence for ...
Rosewich H - - 2006
We present a rare case of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency that was not detected by the common metabolic screening program for peroxisomal disorders. The patient presented with a typical MRI pattern showing pachygyria, perisylvian polymicrogyria, cerebral and cerebellar white matter abnormalities, and facial dysmorphia, progressive psychomotor retardation, deafness, retinopathy, peripheral ...
Hoeks Joris - - 2006
Although vital to life, mitochondria are also the major source of ROS production, which may have unwanted detrimental effects on DNA, RNA and protein structures Therefore, mitochondria must exhibit well-developed mechanisms to regulate its ROS production. One such mechanism might be mild uncoupling of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, thereby lowering ...
Sanders Robert-Jan - - 2006
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder biochemically characterized by elevated levels of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA). Excess levels of VLCFAs are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of X-ALD. Therefore, therapeutic approaches for X-ALD are focused on the reduction or normalization of VLCFAs. In ...
Gomez Anthony L - - 2006
Oxidation of thin multilayered films of undecylenic (10-undecenoic) acid by gaseous ozone was investigated using a combination of spectroscopic and mass spectrometric techniques. The UV absorption spectrum of the oxidized undecylenic acid film is significantly red-shifted compared to that of the initial film. Photolysis of the oxidized film in the ...
Bretillon Lionel - - 2006
Heating oils and fats may lead to cyclization of polyunsaturated fatty acids, as for example linolenic acid. Cyclohexenyl and cyclopentenyl fatty acids are subsequently present in some edible oils and these are suspected to induce metabolic disorders. In a previous experiment using [1-14C] labeled molecules, we published that these cyclic ...
Planavila Anna - - 2006
Cardiac hypertrophy is a response of the heart to a wide range of extrinsic stimuli, such as arterial hypertension, valvular heart disease, myocardial infarction, and cardiomyopathy. Although this process is initially compensatory for an increase workload, its prolongation frequently results in congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, and sudden death. Cardiac hypertrophy ...
Qian Lian L Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, 600 16th Street, San Francisco, California 94143-2280, - - 2006
Thiacetazone (TAZ) and ethionamide (ETA) are, respectively, thiourea- and thioamide-containing second line antitubercular prodrugs for which there is an extensive clinical history of cross-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. EtaA, a recently identified flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO), is responsible for the oxidative activation of ETA in M. tuberculosis. We report here that EtaA ...
Nagasawa Tatsuya - - 2006
We evaluated the effects of bezafibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) pan-agonist, and GW501516, a PPARdelta agonist, on mice fed a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet, a model of non-alcholic steatohepatitis (NASH), to investigate (a) the efficacy of bezafibrate against non-alcholic steatohepatitis and (b) the relation between non-alcholic steatohepatitis and ...
Asai Toru - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are ligand-activated transcription factors that belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and are key regulators of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in the heart. Systemic carnitine deficiency (SCD) causes disorders of FAO and induces hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with lipid accumulation. We hypothesized that activation of PPARalpha ...
Baker Alison - - 2006
Peroxisomal beta-oxidation is involved not only in fatty acid catabolism and lipid housekeeping but also in metabolism of hormones and amino acids in plants. Recent research in model species has led to new insights into the roles of this pathway in signalling and development, in particular regarding the involvement of ...
Varga Dénes - - 2006
It has been clearly shown that not only tetrathionate but also pentathionate or even higher polythionates is formed in the oxidation of thiosulfate by hypochlorous acid in a slightly acidic medium. In thiosulfate excess, the absorbance-time curves registered at 250 nm may go through a maximum followed by a minimum, ...
Huong Doan Thi Thanh - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the physiologic activity of citrus flavonoids, naringenin, and hesperetin in affecting the activity and mRNA levels of enzymes involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation and serum and liver lipid levels in male ICR mice. METHODS: Six-week-old male ICR mice were fed experimental diets containing 1% naringenin or ...
Wolfrum Christian - - 2006
Forkhead transcription factor Foxa2 activates genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and is regulated by insulin. Activation of Foxa2 in the liver leads to increased oxidation and secretion of fatty acids in the form of triacylglycerols (TAGs), a process impaired in type 2 diabetes. Here, we demonstrate that Foxa2 is ...
Gambert Ségolène - - 2006
The mechanisms of the adverse effects of free fatty acids on the ischemic-reperfused myocardium are not fully understood. Long-chain fatty acids, including palmitate, uncouple oxidative phosphorylation and should therefore promote the formation of oxygen-derived free radicals, with consequent adverse effects. Conversely, the antianginal agent trimetazidine (TMZ), known to inhibit cardiac ...
Nissim Itzhak - - 2006
We demonstrated previously in a liver perfusion system that agmatine increases oxygen consumption as well as the synthesis of N-acetylglutamate and urea by an undefined mechanism. In this study our aim was to identify the mechanism(s) by which agmatine up-regulates ureagenesis. We hypothesized that increased oxygen consumption and N-acetylglutamate and ...
Reiser Georg - - 2006
Phytanic acid is a saturated branched-chain fatty acid, which is formed by bacterial degradation of chlorophyll in the intestinal tract of ruminants. The methyl group in beta-position prevents degradation of phytanic acid by the beta-oxidation pathway. Therefore, degradation of phytanic acid is initiated by alpha-oxidation in peroxisomes. The inherited peroxisomal ...
Broderick Tom L - - 2006
Carnitine is a naturally occurring compound that is essential in energy metabolism of the mammalian heart. In addition to its essential role in facilitating beta-oxidation, carnitine eliminates excess toxic acyl residues and regulates the mitochondrial acetyl coenzyme A (CoA)/CoA ratio. Thus, it is not surprising that patients with carnitine deficiency ...
Menes R J - - 2006
A new 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe, specific for the cluster of fatty acid beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria of the family Syntrophomonadaceae was designed for fluorescence in situ hybridization. This probe was evaluated with target as well as non-target cultures. Moreover this probe was assessed with butyrate and oleate degrading enrichment cultures ...
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >