Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 2056
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Hodde Jason - - 2007
The impact of peracetic acid (PAA), lyophilization, and ethylene oxide (EO) sterilization on the composition and three dimensional matrix structure of small intestinal submucosa (SIS), a biologic scaffold used to stimulate the repair of damaged tissues and organs, was examined. Fibronectin and glycosaminoglycans are retained in SIS following oxidation by ...
Rigault C - - 2007
Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide secreted during starvation by gastric cells. Ghrelin physiologically induces food intake and seems to alter lipid and glucid metabolism in several tissues such as adipose tissue and liver. Liver has a key position in lipid metabolism as it allows the metabolic orientation of fatty acids ...
Pracharoenwattana Itsara - - 2007
The aim was to determine the function of peroxisomal NAD(+)-malate dehydrogenase (PMDH) in fatty acid beta-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle in Arabidopsis. Seeds in which both PMDH genes are disrupted by T-DNA insertions germinate, but seedling establishment is dependent on exogenous sugar. Mutant seedlings mobilize their triacylglycerol very slowly and ...
Khatib Soliman - - 2007
Oxidative stress (OS) and its consequences which promote alterations in biomolecules, to tissue damage and to the development of pathological conditions, continue to attract many investigators. The identification of reliable biomarker is essential for the characterization of OS and possibly for early discovery of OS-associated diseases. The aim of the ...
Kim Donghak - - 2007
Candida albicans contains 10 putative cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes coding for enzymes that appear to play important roles in fungal survival and virulence. Here, we report the characterization of CYP52A21, a putative alkane/fatty acid hydroxylase. The recombinant CYP52A21 protein containing a 6x(His)-tag was expressed in Escherichia coli and was purified. ...
Gerhart-Hines Zachary - - 2007
In mammals, maintenance of energy and nutrient homeostasis during food deprivation is accomplished through an increase in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in peripheral tissues. An important component that drives this cellular oxidative process is the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha. Here, we show that fasting induced PGC-1alpha deacetylation in skeletal muscle and ...
Stagos Dimitrios - - 2007
Surfactant protein-A (SP-A) is the best studied and most abundant of the protein components of lung surfactant and plays an important role in host defense of the lung. It has been shown that ozone-induced oxidation of SP-A protein changes its functional and biochemical properties. In the present study, eight plant ...
Tamura Sadaaki - - 2007
Salicylic acid slightly inhibited the oxidation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) catalyzed by mushroom tyrosinase noncompetitively without being oxidized. In contrast, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid did not inhibit this enzymatic oxidation if a longer reaction time was observed, although it suppressed the initial rate of the oxidation to a certain extent. Neither acid showed ...
Hong Jing - - 2007
BACKGROUND: While the effect of fatty acids and ectopic triglyceride storage in pancreatic beta cells has been well-defined, only limited information is available on alpha cells. This study evaluates the long-term impact of fatty acids on alpha cell function and proliferation as well as fatty acid oxidation. METHODS: Clonal alpha ...
Holloway Graham P - - 2007
A reduction in fatty acid oxidation has been associated with lipid accumulation and insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle of obese individuals. We examined whether this decrease in fatty acid oxidation was attributable to a reduction in muscle mitochondrial content and/or a dysfunction in fatty acid oxidation within mitochondria obtained ...
Uehara Tomoya - - 2007
The development of 99mTc-labeled fatty acid analogues metabolized by beta-oxidation in the myocardium constitutes an unsolved challenge. On the basis of our recent findings that [188Re]tricarbonyl(cyclopentadienylcarbonate)rhenium ([188Re]CpTR-COOH) was recognized as an aromatic compound and was metabolized as such in the body, [99mTc]cyclopentadienyltricarbonyltechnetium ([99mTc]CpTT) was conjugated at the omega-position of pentadecanoic ...
Zolman Bethany K - - 2007
Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is an endogenous auxin that acts in Arabidopsis primarily via its conversion to the principal auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Genetic and biochemical evidence indicates that this conversion is similar to peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation, but the specific enzymes catalyzing IBA beta-oxidation have not been identified. We identified ...
Swida Aleksandra - - 2007
A profile of free fatty acid (FFA) specificity in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondrial uncoupling is described. The FFA uncoupling specificity was observed as different abilities to stimulate resting respiration, to decrease resting membrane potential, and to decrease oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. Tested unsaturated FFA (C18-20) were more effective as uncouplers and protonophores ...
Bonen Arend - - 2007
Fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36 is involved in regulating the uptake of long-chain fatty acids into muscle cells. However, the contribution of FAT/CD36 to fatty acid metabolism remains unknown. We examined the role of FAT/CD36 on fatty acid metabolism in perfused muscles (soleus and red and white gastrocnemius) of wild-type (WT) ...
Rontani Jean-François - - 2007
Cells of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi strain CS-57 grown under an atmosphere of air+0.5% CO(2) showed oxidative damage after 10 days growth with concomitant and major changes to the lipid composition. The fatty acid profile was strongly altered and lacked appreciable amounts of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA: C(18:5), C(18:3) ...
Marra Carlos A - - 2007
We studied lipid metabolism and the antioxidant defense system in plasma and liver of rats fed diets supplemented with L(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), isosorbide dinitrate (DIS), L-arginine (Arg), or the associations of these drugs. Liver hydroperoxide and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels were decreased by Arg and increased by L-NAME or ...
Ji Wen-Fang - - 2007
The amino acid oxidation mechanism has been a research focus in recent years. Although various experimental techniques have been employed to address the problem, it is still a great challenge to identify the oxidation intermediates of amino acids. To explore the potential of theoretical methods in helping elucidating amino acid ...
Luo Bai - - 2007
The hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) serves as a nutrient sensor and has been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. We previously demonstrated that fatty acid oxidation was enhanced in transgenic mouse adipocytes, wherein the rate-limiting enzyme of the HBP, glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFA), was overexpressed. To explore the molecular ...
Wriessnegger Tamara - - 2007
Highly purified peroxisomes from the yeast Pichia pastoris grown on methanol or oleic acid, respectively, were used to characterize the lipid composition of this organelle. For this purpose, an isolation procedure had to be adapted which yielded highly purified P. pastoris peroxisomes. When peroxisome proliferation was induced by growth on ...
Buono S - - 2007
The majority of environmental pollutants are potential peroxisomal proliferators which include a heterogeneous group of compounds known to determine massive peroxisomal proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis in rodents. Peroxisomal proliferation is accompanied by the induction of the peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway mediated by a class of transcription factors named peroxisome proliferators ...
Wang Peipei - - 2007
Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation has been reported to be cardioprotective against myocardial ischemic injury; however, recent studies have questioned whether the cardioprotection associated with putative fatty acid oxidation inhibitors, such as ranolazine and trimetazidine, are due to changes in substrate oxidation. Therefore, the goals of this study were to ...
Obajimi Oluwakemi - - 2007
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are increasingly finding use as treatments for a variety of medical conditions. PUFA supplementation can, however, result in increased oxidative stress causing elevated turnover rate of membrane phospholipids, impairment of membrane integrity and increased formation of inflammatory mediators. The aim of this study was to ...
Karnik Sheetal K - - 2007
Previously it has been shown that the endogenous Arabidopsis peroxin, AtPEX16, coexisted at steady state in membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and peroxisomes. Herein, an ER-to-peroxisome trafficking pathway and the requisite molecular targeting signals for mycAtPEX16 transiently expressed in Arabidopsis and tobacco BY-2 suspension cells are described. Immunofluorescent mycAtPEX16 ...
Lim Jin Seon - - 2007
Effects of sesamin and sesamolin (sesame lignans) on hepatic fatty acid metabolism were compared in rats. Rats were fed either a lignan-free diet, a diet containing 0.6 or 2 g/kg lignan (sesamin or sesamolin), or a diet containing both sesamin (1.4 g/kg) and sesamolin (0.6 g/kg) for 10 d. Sesamin ...
Bhandari Bharti - - 2007
Chronic Angina resistant to medical treatment with hemodynamically acting agents is a major problem in clinical setup. For such patients, large number of clinical trials have documented the beneficial effect of Ranolazine. It acts as an anti-anginal agent that controls myocardial ischemia through intracellular metabolic changes. Ranolazine is a partial ...
Akao Masaharu - - 2007
We previously identified a novel endogenous substance, serofendic acid, from a lipophilic extract of fetal calf serum. The compound, a low-molecular-weight sulfur-containing atisane-type diterpenoid, exhibited potent protective action against neurotoxicity induced by glutamate, nitric oxide, and oxidant stress. We investigated whether this substance has a cardioprotective effect. Primary cultures of ...
Gorman Bree A - - 2007
An investigation into the chemiluminescence of fourteen organic acids and tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) was undertaken. Particular emphasis was placed upon the method of production of the reagent, tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(III), with cerium(IV) sulfate, potassium permanganate, lead dioxide and electrochemical generation. Analytically useful chemiluminescence was observed when Ce(IV) or potassium permanganate were employed as oxidants. ...
Halldin M U - - 2007
An increasing number of fatty acid oxidation defects are being detected owing to diagnostic improvements and a greater awareness among clinicians. The metabolic block leads to energy disruption, fatty infiltration, and toxic effects on organ functions exerted by beta-oxidation metabolites. This investigation was undertaken to assess the influence of long-chain ...
Guo Wen - - 2007
Aging is associated with metabolic syndrome, tissue damage by cytotoxic lipids, and altered fatty acid handling. Fat tissue dysfunction may contribute to these processes. This could result, in part, from age-related changes in preadipocytes, since they give rise to new fat cells throughout life. To test this hypothesis, preadipocytes cultured ...
Sipula Ian J - - 2006
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays an important role in cell growth and metabolism. mTOR has been postulated as a nutrient sensor, but its role in the regulation of fatty acid and glucose metabolism is poorly understood. For the first time, we show that ...
Lopaschuk Gary D - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: During and following cardiac ischemia the levels of circulating fatty acids are elevated, resulting in fatty acid oxidation dominating as a source of oxidative metabolism at the expense of pyruvate oxidation. A decrease in the levels of myocardial malonyl-CoA (an endogenous inhibitor of mitochondrial fatty acid uptake) contributes to ...
Pulvera Zinna Marie - - 2006
The oxylipin metabolism was analyzed in soybean homogenates containing different sets of lipoxygenase isozymes (L-1, -2, and -3); namely, Suzuyutaka (containing L-1, -2, and -3), Yumeyutaka (containing only L-1), Kanto102 (containing L-2), Kyushu119 (containing L-3), and Ichihime (lacking all three isozymes). The amount of oxidized fatty acids in the esterified ...
DobrzyƄ A - - 2006
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleate (18:1) and palmitoleate (16:1), which are a major component of tissue lipids. SCD1 deficient mice reveal increased energy expenditure and decreased body adiposity due to the upregulation of genes of fatty acid oxidation and ...
Yogeeta Surinder Kumar - - 2006
Disruption of mitochondria and free radical mediated tissue injury have been reported during cardiotoxicity induced by isoproterenol (ISO), a beta-adrenergic catecholamine. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the combination of ferulic acid (FA) and ascorbic acid (AA) on the mitochondrial damage in ISO induced cardiotoxicity. Induction ...
de Lange Pieter - - 2006
Coping with reduced energy sources entails drastic morphological and functional changes in skeletal muscle, but the sequence of events required classification. We found that gastrocnemius muscle from food-deprived rats shows acute rises in peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator (PGC) -1alpha/PPAR delta nuclear protein and myosin heavy chain (MHC) ...
D'Argenio Giuseppe G Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University Federico II, Naples, - - 2006
Carnitine transporters have recently been implicated in susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Because carnitine is required for beta-oxidation, it was suggested that decreased carnitine transporters, and hence reduced carnitine uptake, could lead to impaired fatty acid oxidation in intestinal epithelial cells, and to cell injury. We investigated this issue ...
Bakan Bénédicte - - 2006
Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are ubiquitous plant lipid-binding proteins that have been associated with multiple developmental and stress responses. Although LTPs typically bind fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives in a non-covalent way, studies on the LTPs of barley seeds have identified an abundantly occurring covalently modified form, LTP1b, the ...
Gambert Ségolène - - 2007
We reported previously that glycerol is a substrate for energy production in cardiomyocytes. Increasing glycerol availability results in increased glycerol uptake and its involvement in complex lipid biosynthesis and energy production. This study evaluated the relationship between glycerol supply, energy demand, and intermediary metabolism leading to energy production. The work ...
Dyck Jason R B - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Acute pharmacological inhibition of cardiac malonyl coenzyme A decarboxylase (MCD) protects the heart from ischemic damage by inhibiting fatty acid oxidation and stimulating glucose oxidation. However, it is unknown whether chronic inhibition of MCD results in altered cardiac function, energy metabolism, or ischemic cardioprotection. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mcd-deficient mice ...
Voss Laura F - - 2006
Competition and oxidation of fatty acids spread at the air/water interface were investigated using surface-specific, broad-bandwidth, sum frequency generation spectroscopy. At the air/water interface, a monolayer of oleic acid replaced a monolayer of deuterated palmitic acid at equilibrium spreading pressure. Subsequent oxidation of the oleic acid monolayer with ozone resulted ...
Mingrone Geltrude - - 2006
Medium-chain dicarboxylic acids are produced by higher plants and animals via fatty acid omega-oxidation or by beta-oxidation of longer-chain dicarboxylic acids. In plants, dicarboxylic acids are components of the natural protective polymers cutin and suberin; in animals, dicarboxylic acids are mainly oxidized in mitochondria, where they are transported through four ...
Che Chi-Ming - - 2006
A protocol that adopts aqueous hydrogen peroxide as a terminal oxidant and [(Me3tacn)(CF3CO2)2Ru(III)(OH2)]CF3CO2 (1; Me3tacn = 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) as a catalyst for oxidation of alkenes, alkynes, and alcohols to organic acids in over 80% yield is presented. For the oxidation of cyclohexene to adipic acid, the loading of 1 can be ...
Brunmair B - - 2006
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: GW501516, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-delta), increases lipid combustion and exerts antidiabetic action in animals, effects which are attributed mainly to direct effects on skeletal muscle. We explored such actions further in isolated rat skeletal muscle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specimens of rat skeletal muscle were pretreated with ...
Weinberg J M - - 2006
Excess fatty acids accompanied by triglyceride accumulation in parenchymal cells of multiple tissues including skeletal and cardiac myocytes, hepatocytes, and pancreatic beta cells results in chronic cellular dysfunction and injury. The process, now termed lipotoxicity, can account for many manifestations of the 'metabolic syndrome'. Most data suggest that the triglycerides ...
Yin Peiyuan - - 2006
Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with Q-TOF mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) is an effective and sensitive analytical tool. A UPLC/Q-TOF MS-based metabonomics technique was employed to investigate sera from 40 patients with intestinal fistula and 17 healthy volunteers in an effort to find potential biomarkers of the disease and reveal their ...
Nyathi Yvonne - - 2006
Peroxisomes are pleiomorphic, metabolically plastic organelles. Their essentially oxidative function led to the adoption of the name 'peroxisome'. The dynamic and diverse nature of peroxisome metabolism has led to the realisation that peroxisomes are an important source of signalling molecules that can function to integrate cellular activity and multicellular development. ...
Samjeské Gabor - - 2006
Surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) combined with cyclic voltammetry or chronoamperometry has been utilized to examine kinetic and mechanistic aspects of the electrocatalytic oxidation of formic acid on a polycrystalline Pt surface at the molecular scale. Formate is adsorbed on the electrode in a bridge configuration in parallel to the ...
Allard Michael F - - 2007
Accelerated glycolysis in hypertrophied hearts may be a compensatory response to reduced energy production from long-chain fatty acid oxidation with 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functioning as a cellular signal. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that enhanced fatty acid oxidation improves energy status and normalizes AMPK activity and glycolysis in hypertrophied ...
Adhikari Sean - - 2007
Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is a major fatty acid-binding factor in skeletal muscles. Genetic lack of H-FABP severely impairs the esterification and oxidation of exogenous fatty acids in soleus muscles isolated from chow-fed mice (CHOW-solei) and high fat diet-fed mice (HFD-solei), and prevents the HFD-induced accumulation of muscle triacylglycerols ...
Abe Tomoki - - 2006
Little is known about the precise physiological roles of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) homologs (UCP2, UCP3, avian UCP) whose levels are up-regulated during fasting. UCPs in skeletal muscle are thought to play a role in the regulation of lipids as fuel substrates, and/or in controlling the production of reactive oxygen ...
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