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Results 301 - 350 of 2058
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Khazanov V A - - 2007
In rats with experimental encephalopathy caused by intoxication with 4-pentenoic acid inhibiting beta-oxidation of medium- and long-chain fatty acids, hepatoprotector silimarin inhibited LPO, prevented deenergization and maintained high respiratory activity of brain mitochondria, and increased the rate and coupling of oxidation and phosphorylation. Succinic acid improved oxidation of substrates in ...
Komen J C - - 2007
Refsum disease is a rare, inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of the dietary branched-chain fatty acid phytanic acid in plasma and tissues caused by a defect in the alphaoxidation pathway. The accumulation of phytanic acid is believed to be the main pathophysiological cause of the disease. However, the exact ...
Hostetler Heather A HA Department of Physiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4467, - - 2008
The pathophysiology of diabetes is characterized not only by elevated glucose but also elevated long chain fatty acid levels. We show for the first time that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) binds glucose and glucose metabolites with high affinity, resulting in significantly altered PPARalpha secondary structure. Glucose decreased PPARalpha interaction ...
Shen W - - 2008
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to address the importance of mitochondrial function in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, and also to identify effective agents for ameliorating insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. We examined the effect of two mitochondrial nutrients, R-alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), as ...
Brown Nicholas F - - 2007
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a conserved serine-threonine kinase that regulates cell growth and metabolism in response to nutrient signals. However, the specific involvement of mTOR in regulation of energy metabolism is poorly understood. To determine if signaling via mTOR might be directly involved in regulation of fatty ...
Wanders R J A - - 2007
In the present paper, we describe the current state of knowledge regarding the enzymology of the phytanic acid alpha-oxidation pathway. The product of phytanic acid alpha-oxidation, i.e. pristanic acid, undergoes three cycles of beta-oxidation in peroxisomes after which the products, including 4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-CoA, propionyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA, are exported from the peroxisome ...
Wierzbicki A S - - 2007
Branched-chain fatty acids are common components of the human diet (phytanic acid) or are produced endogenously (bile acids), and are also used as medicines (ibuprofen). Owing to their branched-chain structure, they are metabolized in peroxisomes. In the case of phytanic acid, the presence of a 3-methyl group prevents beta-oxidation, and ...
Wierzbicki A S - - 2007
Peroxisomes are involved in the synthesis and degradation of complex fatty acids. They contain enzymes involved in the alpha-, beta- and omega-oxidation pathways for fatty acids. Investigation of these pathways and the diseases associated with mutations in enzymes involved in the degradation of phytanic acid have led to the clarification ...
Kanninen Petri - - 2008
The stability and oxidation of copper nanoparticles stabilized with various ligands have been studied. Lauric acid-capped copper nanoparticles were prepared by a modified Brust-Schiffrin method. Then, ligand exchange with an excess of different capping agents was performed. Oxidation and stability were studied by UV-vis, XRD, and TEM. Alkanethiols and oleic ...
Belanger Adam J - - 2007
In response to cellular hypoxia, cardiomyocytes adapt to consume less oxygen by shifting ATP production from mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation to glycolysis. The transcriptional activation of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes by hypoxia is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). In this study, we examined whether HIF-1 was involved in ...
Deon Marion - - 2008
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal disease biochemically characterized by the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), particularly hexacosanoic (C26:0) and tetracosanoic acids (C24:0) in different tissues and in biological fluids and clinically characterized by central and peripheral demyelination and adrenal insufficiency. A considerable number of heterozygotes (HTZ) ...
Landino Lisa M - - 2008
The modification of protein and non-protein thiols by oxidants including hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), peroxynitrite anion (ONOO(-)) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is well documented. Using an aromatic thiol, 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid, and biologically relevant oxidants, we have identified higher oxidation states of sulfur including the sulfonic acid derivative and the disulfide S-oxide, ...
Brooks Natasha L NL Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, - - 2007
Glucose metabolism is altered in long-lived people and mice. Although it is clear that there is an association between altered glucose metabolism and longevity, it is not known whether this link is causal or not. Our current hypothesis is that decreased fasting glucose utilization may increase longevity by reducing oxygen ...
Manini Paola - - 2007
Aberrant oxidation of norepinephrine (1) via the transient o-quinone has been implicated as a critical pathogenetic mechanism underlying the degeneration of noradrenergic cell bodies in the locus coeruleus in Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of noradrenergic nerve terminals in Alzheimer's disease and following transient cerebral ischemia, and the onset and progression ...
Pakhomov Alexey A - - 2007
The red fluorescence of a Discosoma coral protein is the result of an additional autocatalytic oxidation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like chromophore. This reaction creates an extra pi-electron conjugation by forming a C=N-C=O substituent. Here we show that the red fluorescence of a protein from Zoanthus sp. 2 (z2FP574) ...
Darlington L G - - 2007
Inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in brain damage following stroke, and tryptophan oxidation along the kynurenine pathway contributes to the modulation of oxidative stress partly via the glutamate receptor agonist quinolinic acid and antagonist kynurenic acid, and via redox-active compounds such as 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. We have confirmed that following ...
Carter Melissa D - - 2007
During the late stages of Schistosoma mansoni infection, adult schistosomes catabolize host erythrocytic hemoglobin. In order to evade the toxic effects of free heme, the blood fluke biomineralizes dimeric heme into an inert crystalline pigment called hemozoin. In the present study, the chemical reactivity of schistosomal hemozoin (SmHz) toward lipid ...
Rosenzweig Doron - - 2008
To survive extremely different environments, intracellular parasites require highly adaptable physiological and metabolic systems. Leishmania donovani extracellular promastigotes reside in a glucose-rich, slightly alkaline environment in the sand fly vector alimentary tract. On entry into human macrophage phagolysosomes, promastigotes differentiate into intracellular amastigotes. These cope with an acidic milieu, where ...
Shekhawat Prem S PS Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA. - - 2007
Carnitine is essential for transport of long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for their subsequent beta-oxidation, but its role in the gastrointestinal tract has not been well described. Recently several genetic epidemiologic studies have shown strong association between mutations in carnitine transporter genes OCTN1 and OCTN2 and a propensity to develop ...
Aasum Ellen - - 2008
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play an important role in the transcriptional regulation of lipid utilization and storage in several organs, including liver and heart. Our working hypothesis is that treatment of obesity/hyperlipedemia with the PPARalpha ligand fenofibrate leads to drainage of plasma lipids by the liver, resulting in reduced myocardial ...
Moreira Paula I - - 2007
In this study, we evaluated the effect of lipoic acid (LA) and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on oxidative [4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine and heme oxygenase-1] and apoptotic (caspase 9 and Bax) markers in fibroblasts from patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and age-matched and young controls. AD fibroblasts showed the highest levels of oxidative ...
Kohjima Motoyuki - - 2007
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequent causes of abnormal liver dysfunction, and its prevalence has markedly increased. We previously evaluated the expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes in NAFLD and reported changes in expression that could contribute to increased fatty acid synthesis. In the present ...
Anderson James E - - 2007
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was found to incompletely oxidize in chemical oxygen demand (COD) analysis, leading to incorrect COD values for water samples containing relatively large amounts of EDTA. The degree of oxidation depended on the oxidant used, its concentration, and the length of digestion. The COD concentrations measured using COD ...
King Kristen L - - 2007
Recent studies found that the plasma membrane fatty acid transport protein CD36 also resides in mitochondrial membranes in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Pharmacological studies suggest that CD36 may play an essential role in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We isolated cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondria from wild type and CD36 knock-out ...
Ilieva Ekaterina V - - 2007
The occurrence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the sporadic form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is unknown, despite it has been recently documented in experimental models of the familial form. Here we show that spinal cord from patients with sporadic ALS showed signs of ER stress, such as increased ...
Melanson Edward L - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to compare 24-h substrate oxidation in older (OM; 60-75 yr, n = 7) and younger (YM; 20-30 yr, n = 7) men studied on sedentary day (Con) and on a day with exercise (Ex; net energy expenditure = 300 kcal). Plasma glucose and free ...
Maassen J A - - 2007
Type 2 diabetes is associated with excessive food intake and a sedentary lifestyle. Local inflammation of white adipose tissue induces cytokine-mediated insulin resistance of adipocytes. This results in enhanced lipolysis within these cells. The fatty acids that are released into the cytosol can be removed by mitochondrial beta-oxidation. The flux ...
Yoshida Yasukazu - - 2009
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurological disorder that has a considerable impact on the health of the elderly. Although oxidative stress has been implicated in the early stage of this disease, its detailed pathogenesis and therapeutic targets remain unknown. The diagnosis, particularly at the early stage, is important. In the ...
Stetzer A J - - 2008
To identify and quantify selected flavor-active volatile compounds and relate them to sensory characteristics, the gluteus medius (round), rectus femoris (round), vastus lateralis (round), vatsus medialis (round), teres major (chuck), infraspinatus (chuck), complexus (chuck), serratus ventralis (chuck), psoas major (loin) and longissimus dorsi (loin) were removed from heifer carcasses, enhanced, ...
Arts Mariken J T J - - 2007
Although hardly any polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are present in the endproduct, the ingredients used for the production of beer contain a high concentration of PUFAs, such as linolic and linolenic acid. These compounds are readily oxidized, resulting in the formation of lipid-derived products that reduce the taste and quality ...
Boudina Sihem - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: In obesity and diabetes, myocardial fatty acid utilization and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVo(2)) are increased, and cardiac efficiency is reduced. Mitochondrial uncoupling has been proposed to contribute to these metabolic abnormalities but has not been directly demonstrated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Oxygen consumption and cardiac function were determined in ...
Westin Maria A K - - 2007
Phytanic acid and pristanic acid are derived from phytol, which enter the body via the diet. Phytanic acid contains a methyl group in position three and, therefore, cannot undergo beta-oxidation directly but instead must first undergo alpha-oxidation to pristanic acid, which then enters beta-oxidation. Both these pathways occur in peroxisomes, ...
Moreno T - - 2008
Our objective was to determine the effect of breed (B) and slaughter age/weight on the fatty acid composition, particularly the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration of beef. Two strains of a dairy breed [Holstein-Friesian (HF) (n=16 steers/strain)] and a late-maturing breed [Belgian Blue×Holstein-Friesian (BB) (n=16 steers)] were used. The HF ...
Oaxaca-Castillo David D INSERM, U866, Dijon F-21000, - - 2007
Human acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1) is a rate-limiting enzyme in peroxisomal fatty acids beta-oxidation and its deficiency is associated with a lethal, autosomal recessive disease, called pseudoneonatal-adrenoleukodystrophy. Two mRNA variants, transcribed from a single gene encode ACOX1a or ACOX1b isoforms, respectively. Recently, a mutation in a splice site has been ...
Garcia-Roves Pablo P Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Science, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, - - 2007
A number of studies have reported that a high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzymes in muscle. In contrast, in two recent studies raising plasma free fatty acids (FFA) resulted in a decrease in mitochondria. In this work, we reevaluated the effects of raising FFA on muscle ...
Taki Junichi - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: In normal condition, the heart obtains more than two-thirds of its energy from the oxidative metabolism of long chain fatty acids, although a wide variety of substrates such as glucose, lactate, ketone bodies and amino acids are also utilised. In ischaemic myocardium, on the other hand, oxidative metabolism of ...
Ashibe Bunichiro - - 2007
Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH, ALDH3A2) is thought to be involved in the degradation of phytanic acid, a saturated branched chain fatty acid derived from chlorophyll. However, the identity, subcellular distribution, and physiological roles of FALDH are unclear because several variants produced by alternative splicing are present in varying amounts at ...
Castelfranco Paul A - - 2007
Peroxydicarbonic acid (Podca), a proposed intermediate in photosynthetic oxygen evolution, was synthesized electrochemically. Consistent with literature descriptions of this compound, it was shown to be a highly reactive molecule, spontaneously hydrolyzed to H2O2, as well as susceptible to oxidative and reductive decomposition. In the presence of Mn2+ or Co2+, Podca ...
Palaniappan A R - - 2007
Oxidative damage has been implicated to be a major causative factor in the decline in physiological functions that occur during the ageing process. Mitochondria are known to be a rich source for the production of free radicals and, consequently, mitochondrial components are susceptible to lipid peroxidation (LPO) that decreases respiratory ...
Wang Zheng-Yi - - 2007
The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea infects plants by means of specialized infection structures known as appressoria. Turgor generated in the appressorium provides the invasive force that allows the fungus to breach the leaf cuticle with a narrow-penetration hypha gaining entry to the underlying epidermal cell. Appressorium maturation in M. ...
Onay-Besikci Arzu - - 2007
Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that increased rates of fatty acid oxidation in the myocardium result in impaired contractile function in both normal and diabetic hearts. Glucose utilization is decreased in type 1 diabetes, and fatty acid oxidation dominates for energy production at the expense of an increase in oxygen ...
Kettawan Aikkarach - - 2007
The effects of simvastatin, an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), on oxidative stress resistance and the protective effects of coenzyme Q (CoQ) were investigated. When simvastatin was administered orally to mice, the levels of oxidized and reduced CoQ(9) and CoQ(10) in serum, liver, and heart, decreased significantly when ...
Sas Katalin - - 2007
The mitochondria have several important functions in the cell. A mitochondrial dysfunction causes an abatement in ATP production, oxidative damage and the induction of apoptosis, all of which are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous disorders. This review focuses on mitochondrial dysfunctions and discusses their consequences and potential roles in ...
Palanivel Rengasamy - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the regulation of glucose and fatty acid metabolism in cardiomyocytes by the globular (gAd) and full-length (fAd) forms of adiponectin. METHODS: We produced fAd (consisting of high, medium and low molecular weight oligomers) in a mammalian expression system and gAd in bacteria. These were ...
Goepfert Simon - - 2007
The degradation of fatty acids in plants occurs primarily in the peroxisomes through the beta-oxidation cycle. Enzymes that are involved in various aspects of beta-oxidation have been identified recently and shown to act biochemically on a diversity of fatty acids and derivatives. Analysis of several mutants has revealed essential roles ...
Steinberg Gregory R - - 2007
Over the past two decades increases in obesity, due to high caloric intakes and immobilizing technologies, has led to a surge in type 2 diabetes. In obesity elevated circulating fatty acids set-off a pro-inflammatory cascade that increases the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha(TNFalpha) from macrophages. Obesity is associated with blunted ...
Suzuki Atsushi - - 2007
Leptin stimulates fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the induction of gene expression, such as that for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). We now show that leptin stimulates fatty acid oxidation and PPARalpha gene expression in the C2C12 muscle cell line ...
Dirkx Ruud - - 2007
Beta-oxidation of carboxylates takes place both in mitochondria and peroxisomes and in each pathway parallel enzymes exist for each conversion step. In order to better define the substrate specificities of these enzymes and in particular the elusive role of peroxisomal MFP-1, hepatocyte cultures from mice with peroxisomal gene knockouts were ...
Park Ji-Yeon - - 2008
To improve the oxidation stability and the low temperature flow properties of a biodiesel mixture, the dependence of the oxidation stability and the cold filter plugging point (CFPP) on the fatty acid compositions was examined. Three different kinds of biodiesels, palm, rapeseed, and soybean biodiesels, were blended with the different ...
Sorokina Natalia - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Transport rates of long-chain free fatty acids into mitochondria via carnitine palmitoyltransferase I relative to overall oxidative rates in hypertrophied hearts remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the extent of glucose oxidation, despite increased glycolysis in hypertrophy, remains controversial. The present study explores potential compensatory mechanisms to sustain tricarboxylic acid cycle ...
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