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Results 251 - 300 of 2058
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Sugimoto Ken K Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, - - 2008
Telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker and selective modulator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma reported to increase energy expenditure and improve glucose and lipid metabolism compared with other angiotensin II receptor blockers. As muscle fatty acid oxidation is a major determinant of energy expenditure, we investigated the effects of telmisartan ...
Robaszkiewicz Agnieszka - - 2008
The increase in the amount of oxidatively modified proteins is a hallmark of ageing and age-related disorders. This paper is aimed at a verification of the hypothesis that N-chloroamino acids, products of reaction between hypochlorite generated in vivo under pathological conditions and free amino acids, may induce oxidative modifications of ...
Miyake Hiroto - - 2008
A mechanistic study of electrocatalytic oxidation of formic acid on Pd in sulfuric and perchloric acids is reported. Surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflection mode (ATR-SEIRAS) shows the adsorption of CO, bridge-bonded formate, bicarbonate, and supporting anions on the electrode surface. Poisoning of the Pd surface by ...
Rey Benjamin - - 2008
In endotherms, regulation of the degree of mitochondrial coupling affects cell metabolic efficiency. Thus it may be a key contributor to minimizing metabolic rate during long periods of fasting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether variation in mitochondrial avian uncoupling proteins (avUCP), as putative regulators of ...
Søvik O - - 2008
Wolcott-Rallison syndrome (WRS) (OMIM 226980) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder with infancy-onset diabetes mellitus, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, osteopenia, mental retardation or developmental delay, and hepatic and renal dysfunction as main clinical findings. Patients with WRS have mutations in the EIF2AK3 gene, which encodes the pancreatic eukaryotic translation initiation factor ...
Spiekerkoetter Ute - - 2008
Because of a switch in energy-producing substrate utilization from glucose in the fetal period to fatty acids postnatally, intrauterine morbidity of fatty acid oxidation defects has widely been denied. We report the intrauterine development of severe cardiomyopathy in a child with mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency after 27 weeks of gestation. ...
Morita M - - 2008
Recently, we reported that baicalein 5,6,7-trimethyl ether (BTM), a flavonoid, is capable of activating fatty acid beta-oxidation in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) fibroblasts (FEBS Lett. 2005; 579: 409-414). The objective of this study was to clarify whether BTM activates peroxisomal and/or mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. We first analysed the effect of ...
Santillo Alessandra - - 2008
Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) harderian gland (HG) is a dimorphic orbital gland producing a copious lipid secretion. Two cell-types are present in hamster HG, type I in both sexes, type II only in males. In hamster HGs, we found a marked sexual dichotomy in the expression of uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3), a ...
Atherton Helen J - - 2008
Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry based metabolomics has been used in conjunction with multivariate statistics to examine the metabolic changes in Caenorhabditis elegans following the deletion of nuclear hormone receptor-49 (nhr-49). Deletion of the receptor produced profound changes in fatty acid metabolism, in particular an ...
Franken Jaco - - 2008
To date, the only reported metabolic and physiological roles for carnitine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are related to the activity of the carnitine shuttle. In yeast, the shuttle transfers peroxisomal activated acetyl-residues to the mitochondria. However, acetyl-CoA can also be metabolised by the glyoxylate cycle to form succinate. The two pathways, ...
Wang Hongsen - - 2008
The electrocatalytic activities and mechanisms of PtPb and PtBi ordered intermetallic phases towards formic acid, formaldehyde and methanol oxidation have been studied by DEMS and FTIRS, and the results compared to those for a pure polycrystalline platinum electrode. While PtPb exhibits an enhanced electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of all ...
Horikawa Makoto - - 2008
Recently, it was reported that a deficit in the mouse stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 gene decreases biosynthesis and accumulation of fatty acid and revitalizes the beta-oxidation of fatty acid. To examine the physiological role of fatty acid desaturase (FAT) and elongase (ELO)-gene transduction in ontogeny, fatty acid accumulation and individual lifespan, ...
Roy Christian - - 2008
ASP-deficient mice (C3 KO) have delayed postprandial TG clearance, are hyperphagic, and display increased energy expenditure. Markers of carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism in the skeletal muscle and heart were examined to evaluate the mechanism. On a high-fat diet, compared with wild-type mice, C3 KO mice have increased energy expenditure, ...
Nematollahi Davood - - 2008
The mechanism of the electrochemical oxidation of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde in the presence of 3-hydroxy-1H-phenalene-1-one as a nucleophile has been studied in water/acetonitrile (80/20 v/v) solution using cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential coulometry methods. The results indicate that the quinones derived from oxidation of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde participate in ...
Gan Seng Khee - - 2008
The physiological response to starvation involves increased muscle proteolysis and adipose tissue lipolysis that supply amino acids and non-esterified fatty acids ('free fatty acids') for gluconeogenesis, oxidation and ketogenesis. In the present issue of Clinical Science, Moller and co-workers show that, in humans, IHL (intrahepatic lipid) content, measured using (1)H-magnetic ...
Stefanovic-Racic Maja - - 2008
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hypertriglyceridemia, and elevated free fatty acids are present in the majority of patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus and are strongly associated with hepatic insulin resistance. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that an increased rate of fatty acid oxidation ...
Hardwick James P - - 2008
The cytochrome P450 gene 4 family (CYP4) consists of a group of over 63 members that omega-hydroxylate the terminal carbon of fatty acids. In mammals, six subfamilies have been identified and three of these subfamily members show a preference in the metabolism of short (C7-C10)-CYP4B, medium (C10-C16)-CYP4A, and long (C16-C26)-CYP4F, ...
Chess David J - - 2008
Under physiological conditions, the human heart derives energy from glucose, fatty acids, and/or lactate depending upon substrate availability, circulating hormone levels, and nutritional status. Circulating free fatty acid and glucose levels often exceed the normal range, as observed with type 2 diabetes, obesity, or physical inactivity. Chronic exposure of the ...
Hein Sabine - - 2008
Saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs; > or =C22:0) accumulate in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD, OMIM 300100), a severe hereditary neurodegenerative disease, due to peroxisomal impairment. Previous studies analysed the development of X-ALD in humans and gene knockout animal models. However, the toxic effect of VLCFA leading to severe symptoms ...
Westin M A K - - 2008
Peroxisomes metabolize a variety of lipids, acting as a chain-shortening system that produces acyl-CoAs of varying chain lengths, including acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA. It is, however, still largely unknown how beta-oxidation products exit peroxisomes and where they are further metabolized. Peroxisomes contain carnitine acetyltransferase (CRAT) and carnitine octanoyltransferase (CROT) that produce ...
Chegary Malika - - 2008
The pathogenesis of hypoketotic hypoglycemia and cardiomyopathy in patients with fatty acid oxidation (FAO) disorders is still poorly understood. In vitro studies are hampered by the lack of natural mutants to asses the effect of FAO inhibition. In addition, only a few inhibitors of FAO are known. Furthermore, most inhibitors ...
Garelnabi Mahdi - - 2008
Previously we have shown that intestinal cells efficiently take up oxidized fatty acids (OxFAs) and that atherosclerosis is increased when animals are fed a high cholesterol diet in the presence of oxidized linoleic acid. Interestingly, we found that in the absence of dietary cholesterol, the oxidized fatty acid fed low-density ...
Subhramannia Mahima - - 2008
We here demonstrate a remarkable potential-dependent morphological evolution of platinum mesostructures in the form of multipods, discs, and hexagons using a porous anodic alumina membrane (PAAM). These structures prepared potentiostatically at -0.7, -0.5 and -0.3 V, respectively, reveal unique shape-dependent electrocatalytic activity toward both formic acid and ethanol oxidation reactions. ...
Schrader Michael - - 2008
More than half a century of research on peroxisomes has revealed unique features of this ubiquitous subcellular organelle, which have often been in disagreement with existing dogmas in cell biology. About 50 peroxisomal enzymes have so far been identified, which contribute to several crucial metabolic processes such as beta-oxidation of ...
Strijbis Karin - - 2008
In eukaryotes, acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) produced during peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation needs to be transported to mitochondria for further metabolism. Two parallel pathways for acetyl-CoA transport have been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; one is dependent on peroxisomal citrate synthase (Cit), while the other requires peroxisomal and mitochondrial carnitine acetyltransferase ...
Hynes Michael J - - 2008
Peroxisomes are organelles containing a diverse array of enzymes. In fungi they are important for carbon source utilization, pathogenesis, development, and secondary metabolism. We have studied Aspergillus nidulans peroxin (pex) mutants isolated by virtue of their inability to grow on butyrate or by the inactivation of specific pex genes. While ...
Holloway Graham Paul - - 2008
This thesis is an investigation of the role of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), plasma membrane associated fatty acid binding protein (FABPpm), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPTI) in transporting long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) across mitochondrial membranes. Maximal CPTI activity, as well as the sensitivity of CPTI for its substrate palmitoyl-CoA (P-CoA) ...
Kim Hyun Young - - 2008
Methylglyoxal (MG), a reactive dicarbonyl compound, is a metabolic byproduct of glycolysis often found at high levels in blood from diabetic patients. The effect of lipoic acid on MG-induced oxidative stress was investigated using LLC-PK(1) renal tubular epithelial cells, which are susceptible to oxidative stress. MG (500 microM) treatment induced ...
Khabiri Faryar - - 2008
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Oxidation of proteins and amino acids is associated with generation of ultraweak photon emission (UPE), which may be used to assess oxidative processes in the skin in a non-invasive way. This first part of a series of reports addresses the physicochemical basis of oxidation-induced UPE in the skin, with ...
Benton Carley R - - 2008
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alter the expression of genes involved in regulating lipid metabolism. Rosiglitazone, a PPARgamma agonist, induces tissue-specific effects on lipid metabolism; however, its mode of action in skeletal muscle remains unclear. Since fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) was recently identified as a possible regulator of skeletal muscle fatty ...
Igoudjil Anissa - - 2008
The antiretroviral nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) stavudine (d4T) can induce mild to severe liver injuries such as steatosis (i.e. triglyceride accumulation), steatohepatitis and liver failure. NRTI-induced toxicity has been ascribed to the inhibition of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication causing mtDNA depletion and respiratory chain dysfunction. This can secondarily impair the ...
Sanders Robert-Jan - - 2008
Very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) have long been known to be degraded exclusively in peroxisomes via beta-oxidation. A defect in peroxisomal beta-oxidation results in elevated levels of VLCFAs and is associated with the most frequent inherited disorder of the central nervous system white matter, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Recently, we demonstrated that VLCFAs ...
Kim Junhwan J Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-4935, - - 2008
Singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) is a reactive oxygen species that may be generated in biological systems. Photodynamic therapy generates (1)O(2) by photoexcitation of sensitizers resulting in intracellular oxidative stress and induction of apoptosis. (1)O(2) oxidizes amino acid side chains of proteins and inactivates enzymes when generated in vitro. Among proteogenic amino ...
Rector R Scott - - 2008
Exercise training is commonly prescribed for treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We sought to determine whether exercise training prevents the development of NAFLD in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of exercise on hepatic steatosis. Four-week-old OLETF rats were ...
Marazzi Giuseppe - - 2008
During ischemia and heart failure, myocardial cells suffer for chronic energy starvation resulting in metabolic and contractile dysfunction. In normal conditions fatty acids, glucose, and lactate are the principal oxidative fuels in myocardium, while amino acids serve a minor role as an oxidative fuel. However, in pathological conditions, myocardial uptake ...
Jabbari Ali - - 2008
The electrocatalytic oxidation of acetylcholine (Ach) on copper microparticles modified carbon paste electrode (m-CPE) and copper nanoparticles-modified carbon paste electrode (n-CPE) was investigated. In the voltammogram recorded using m-CPE, a single anodic peak related to the oxidation of ACh was observed. Using n-CPE, however, two overlapped anodic peaks were observed. ...
Butt Yasmeen M - - 2008
Preeclampsia is a multifactorial pregnancy-specific disease. In some cases, severe preeclampsia and related disorders of acute fatty liver of pregnancy and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets syndrome are associated with inherited defects in mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids, especially a deficiency of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (LCHAD). Recently, ...
Uto Takuhiro - - 2008
X-Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder characterized by accumulation of very-long-chain (VLC) fatty acids, which induces inflammatory disease and alterations in cellular redox, both of which are reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of the severe form of the disease (childhood cerebral ALD). Here, we report on the ...
Koves Timothy R - - 2008
Previous studies have suggested that insulin resistance develops secondary to diminished fat oxidation and resultant accumulation of cytosolic lipid molecules that impair insulin signaling. Contrary to this model, the present study used targeted metabolomics to find that obesity-related insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is characterized by excessive beta-oxidation, impaired switching ...
Saad Bahruddin - - 2008
A comparative study of oxidative decomposition behavior of a wide range of vegetable oils and its correlation to iodine value (IV) using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was described. The oxidative decomposition of saturated fatty acids shows weight loss before 385 degrees C while oxidative decomposition of unsaturated fatty acids shows lower ...
Watt Matthew J - - 2008
Elevated fatty acids promote inflammation and insulin resistance. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Koves et al. (2008) explore a novel paradigm suggesting that beta-oxidation of fatty acids exceeding the capacity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle yields incomplete fat oxidation and mitochondrial distress, obligatory events in the pathogenesis of insulin ...
Takahama Umeo - - 2008
Nitrate is secreted into the human oral cavity as a salivary component. The nitrate is transformed to nitrite and nitric oxide (NO) by oral bacteria. NO is oxidized by O(2) producing NO(2) and N(2)O(3) and also by O(2)(-) producing ONOO(-). Salivary peroxidase can oxidize nitrite and NO to NO(2) or ...
Vaya Jacob - - 2008
Oxidative stress (OS) is linked to the development of human diseases. Early identification of OS-associated diseases is essential in the control of their progression and treatment. Efforts have been undertaken to identify reliable endogenous markers, which correlate with the progression of a disease in an organ undergoing OS. An ideal ...
Romieu I - - 2008
The aim of the present review was to provide an up-to-date overview of the biological and epidemiological evidence of the role of oxidative stress as a major underlying feature of the toxic effect of air pollutants, and the potential role of dietary supplementation in enhancing antioxidant defences. A bibliographic search ...
Lemire Joseph - - 2008
Lactate has long been regarded as an end product of anaerobic energy production and its fate in cerebral metabolism has not been precisely delineated. In this report, we demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of a human astrocytic cell line (CCF-STTG1) to consume lactate and to generate ATP via ...
Frayn K N - - 2008
The release of fatty acids from white adipose tissue is regulated at several levels. We have examined the suggestion that fatty acid release might be diminished by upregulation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in the adipocyte, through increasing mitochondrial uncoupling. The intrinsic oxidative capacity of white adipose tissue is low, ...
Grechkin Alexander N - - 2007
The lipoxygenase pathway in sunflower roots was studied in vitro. A preliminary incubation of linoleic acid with 15 000 g supernatant of homogenate of sunflower roots (1.5-6 days after germination) revealed the predominant activity of 13-lipoxygenase. The exogenously added linoleic acid 13-hydroperoxide is further utilized through two competing pathways. One ...
Galbès O - - 2008
AIM: To determine whether endurance training can counterbalance the negative effects of hypoxia on mitochondrial phosphorylation and expression of the long chain mitochondrial fatty acid transporter muscle carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (mCPT-1). METHODS: Male Wistar rats were exposed either to hypobaric hypoxia (at a simulated altitude of approximately 4000 m, ...
Limketkai Berkeley N - - 2008
Carnitine is an essential co-factor in fatty acid metabolism. Carnitine deficiency can impair fatty acid oxidation, rarely leading to hyperammonemia and encephalopathy. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman who developed acute mental status changes, asterixis, and diffuse muscle weakness. Her ammonia level was elevated at 276 microg/dL. Traditional ...
Dhar Madhurima - - 2008
Long-chain 3-hydroxydicarboxylic acids (3-OHDCAs) are thought to arise via beta-oxidation of the corresponding dicarboxylic acids (DCAs), although long-chain DCAs are neither readily transported into nor beta-oxidized in mitochondria. We thus examined whether omega-hydroxylation of 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFAs), formed via incomplete mitochondrial oxidation, is a more likely pathway for 3-OHDCA ...
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