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Results 201 - 250 of 2058
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Küpper Frithjof C - - 2009
Arachidonic acid, linolenic acid and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were found to be strong triggers of an oxidative burst in the kelp Laminaria digitata. These findings constitute the first report of an oxidative burst in an algal system induced by free fatty acids. The source of reactive oxygen species can be ...
Joseph Ajay - - 2009
Usnic acid is a lichen metabolite used as a weight-loss dietary supplement due to its uncoupling action on mitochondria. However, its use has been associated with severe liver disorders in some individuals. Animal studies conducted thus far evaluated the effects of usnic acid on mitochondria primarily by measuring the rate ...
Ide Takashi - - 2009
The impact of sesamin, episesamin and sesamolin (sesame lignans) on hepatic gene expression profiles was compared with a DNA microarray. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed experimental diets containing 0.2% sesamin, episesamin or sesamolin, and a control diet free of lignans for 15 d. Compared to a lignan-free diet, a diet ...
Mackie John T - - 2009
Phytanic acid is a branched-chain, saturated fatty acid present in high concentrations in dairy products and ruminant fat. Some other dietary fats contain lower levels of phytol, which is readily converted to phytanic acid after absorption. Phytanic acid is a peroxisome proliferator binding the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ...
Meyer C - - 2009
Individual carbon nanotubes are filled with fullerene molecules directly on the substrate. Two different oxidation techniques for opening the tubes prior to the filling, annealing in air, and acid treatment, are compared. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images indicate that both methods induce defects on the sidewalls of the nanotubes. In ...
Holloway Graham P - - 2009
Intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTG) accumulation in obesity has been attributed to increased fatty acid transport and/or to alterations in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Alternatively, an imbalance in these two processes may channel fatty acids into storage. Therefore, in red and white muscles of lean and obese Zucker rats, we examined whether ...
Pellieux Corinne - - 2009
AIMS: Advanced heart failure is often associated with reduced myocardial fatty acid oxidation capacity. We have previously observed that failing hearts of mice with overexpression of angiotensinogen in the myocardium exhibit marked reduction of key regulatory proteins of fatty acid oxidation. In the present study, we determined whether exposure of ...
Modre-Osprian Robert - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria plays an important role in energy metabolism and genetic disorders of this pathway may cause metabolic diseases. Enzyme deficiencies can block the metabolism at defined reactions in the mitochondrion and lead to accumulation of specific substrates causing severe clinical manifestations. Ten of ...
Wheeler Paul Robert - - 2009
There is massive gene replication predicted for the activation of fatty acids and their entry into the beta-oxidation cycle for fatty acid oxidation. These two steps in fatty acid metabolism are catalyzed by FadD and FadE enzymes with 36 genes predicted for each of these respective activities in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...
Hardwick James P - - 2009
Fatty liver disease is a common lipid metabolism disorder influenced by the combination of individual genetic makeup, drug exposure, and life-style choices that are frequently associated with metabolic syndrome, which encompasses obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistant diabetes. Common to obesity related dyslipidemia is the excessive storage of hepatic ...
Nanci Gabriella N - - 2009
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is an X-linked recessive disorder affecting approximately 1 in 21,000 males, and is estimated to be the cause of adrenal insufficiency in approximately 35% of patients with idiopathic Addison's disease. The disease is caused by defective beta-oxidation of fatty acids in peroxisomes that leads to elevated serum concentrations ...
Ide Takashi - - 2009
The impact of sesamin, episesamin and sesamolin (sesame lignans) on hepatic gene expression profiles was compared with a DNA microarray. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed experimental diets containing 0.2% sesamin, episesamin or sesamolin, and a control diet free of lignans for 15 days. Compared to a lignan-free diet, a diet ...
Sharma Shruti - - 2009
Carnitines are involved in mitochondrial transport of fatty acids and are of critical importance for maintaining normal mitochondrial function. This review summarizes recent experimental and clinical studies showing that mitochondrial dysfunction secondary to a disruption of carnitine homeostasis may play a role in decreased NO signaling and the development of ...
Fujitani Kango - - 2009
Adipic acid and glutaric acid were obtained from 1-hydroxy-2- acetoxycyclohexane by oxidation cleavage using molecular oxygen in the presence of cobalt acetate, manganese acetate and hydrobromic acid in acetic acid solution. Applying this method to prepare dicarboxylic acids from unsaturated fatty acids, we proposed an efficient method where reaction mixture ...
Magdaleno Anahí - - 2009
It is well established that L-proline has several roles in the biology of trypanosomatids. In Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, this amino acid is involved in energy metabolism, differentiation processes and resistance to osmotic stress. In this study, we analyzed the effects of interfering with L-proline metabolism ...
Marsollier Nicolas - - 2009
Deregulation of hypothalamic fatty acid sensing lead to hepatic insulin-resistance which may partly contribute to further impairment of glucose homeostasis. We investigated here whether hypothalamic nitric oxide (NO) could mediate deleterious peripheral effect of central lipid overload. Thus we infused rats for 24 hours into carotid artery towards brain, either ...
Mosblech Alina - - 2009
Oxylipins are lipophilic signaling molecules derived from the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Initial fatty acid oxidation occurs mainly by the enzymatic or chemical formation of fatty acid hydroperoxides. An array of alternative reactions further converting fatty acid hydroperoxides gives rise to a multitude of oxylipin classes, many with reported ...
Tian Jingwei - - 2009
SMND-309, a novel compound (2E)-2-[6-[(E)-2-carboxyvinyl]-2,3-dihydroxyphenyl]-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) acrylic acid, is a new derivate of salvianolic acid B. The present study elucidates the effects of SMND-309 on the cultured rat cortical neuron damage induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation. The results show that SMND-309 treatment obviously attenuates apoptosis and ameliorates mitochondrial energy metabolism in rat ...
Wensaas Andreas J - - 2009
Increased availability of fatty acids is important for accumulation of intracellular lipids and development of insulin resistance in human myotubes. It is unknown whether different types of fatty acids like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) influence these processes. We examined fatty acid and glucose metabolism and gene expression ...
Thakur Jitendra K JK Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center and the Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, - - 2009
The yeast zinc cluster transcription factor Oaf1p activates transcription of target genes in response to direct binding of fatty acids in a manner analogous to the vertebrate nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptoralpha (PPARalpha). PPARs and other metazoan nuclear receptors productively engage several distinct LXXLL motif-containing co-activators, including p160 family members ...
Goh Denise L M - - 2008
Fatty acid oxidation defects (FAODs) are a group of inborn errors of metabolism that carry a risk for morbidity and mortality. Successful management of these conditions involves early diagnosis, proper management of clinical situations that predisposes to metabolic crisis as well as adequate treatment of a metabolic crisis. The advent ...
Shoyama Yoshinari - - 2008
Cannabis sativa is well known to produce unique secondary metabolites called cannabinoids. We recently discovered that Cannabis leaves induce cell death by secreting tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into leaf tissues. Examinations using isolated Cannabis mitochondria demonstrated that THCA causes mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) though opening of MPT pores, resulting in mitochondrial ...
Caro Pilar - - 2009
Previous studies have shown that the decrease in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mitROS) generation and oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that occurs during life extending dietary restriction also occurs during protein or methionine restriction, whereas it does not take place during carbohydrate or lipid restriction. In order to study ...
Hiltunen J Kalervo - - 2009
Eukaryotes harbor a highly conserved mitochondrial pathway for fatty acid synthesis (FAS), which is completely independent of the eukaryotic cytosolic FAS apparatus. The activities of the mitochondrial FAS system are catalyzed by soluble enzymes, and the pathway thus resembles its prokaryotic counterparts. Except for octanoic acid, which is the direct ...
Brites Pedro - - 2009
Peroxisomes are organelles responsible for multiple metabolic pathways including, the biosynthesis of plasmalogens, a class of phospholipids, and the beta-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA). Lack of peroxisomes or dysfunction in any of their normal functions is the cellular basis for human peroxisomal disorders. Here we used mouse models to ...
Casas-Agustench P - - 2009
BACKGROUND & AIMS: To compare the acute effects of three fatty meals with different fat quality on postprandial thermogenesis, substrate oxidation and satiety. METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy men aged between 18 and 30 years participated in a randomised crossover trial comparing the thermogenic effects of three isocaloric meals: high in polyunsaturated ...
Illsinger Sabine - - 2008
We report on a newborn male, born at term after an uneventful pregnancy presenting with a pathological acylcarnitine profile in routine newborn screening on the third day of life. The profile showed characteristic elevations of C14:0-, C16:0-, C16:1- and C18:1-acylcarnitines, while the ratio of (C16 + C18:1)/C2 was increased, suggesting ...
Ferdinandusse Sacha - - 2008
Refsum disease is caused by a deficiency of phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase (PHYH), the first enzyme of the peroxisomal alpha-oxidation system, resulting in the accumulation of the branched-chain fatty acid phytanic acid. The main clinical symptoms are polyneuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa. To study the pathogenesis of Refsum disease, we generated ...
Boisnard Stéphanie - - 2009
ATP-binding cassette transporters are ubiquitous proteins that facilitate transport of diverse substances across a membrane. However, their exact role remains poorly understood. In order to test their function in a fungus life cycle, we deleted the two Podospora anserina peroxisomal ABC transporter pABC1 and pABC2 genes as well as the ...
Oyanagi Eri - - 2008
Membrane permeability transition (MPT) of mitochondria has an important role in apoptosis of various cells. The classic type of MPT is characterized by increased Ca(2+) transport, membrane depolarization, swelling, and sensitivity to cyclosporin A. In this study, we investigated whether L-carnitine suppresses oleic acid-induced MPT using isolated mitochondria from rat ...
Gross Aaron - - 2009
Ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs) are primary alcohols commonly used as solvents in numerous household and industrial products. Exposure to EGEs has been correlated with delayed encephalopathy, metabolic acidosis, sub-fertility and spermatotoxicity in humans. In addition, they also cause teratogenesis, carcinogenesis, hemolysis, etc., in various animal models. Metabolism EGEs parallels ethanol ...
Kompare Michelle - - 2008
Inherited defects in mitochondrial fatty-acid beta-oxidation comprise a group of at least 12 diseases characterized by distinct enzyme or transporter deficiencies. Most of these diseases have a variable age of onset and clinical severity. Symptoms are often episodic and associated with mild viral illness, physiologic stress, or prolonged exercise that ...
Itoh Toshimasa - - 2008
The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) has important roles in adipogenesis and immune response as well as roles in both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Although synthetic agonists for PPARgamma are widely used as insulin sensitizers, the identity of the natural ligand(s) for PPARgamma is still not clear. Suggested natural ...
Camarero Susana - - 2008
The capabilities of p-coumaric acid (PCA), ferulic acid (FA), and sinapic acid (SA) as laccase mediators are compared in oxidation of industrial dyes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). SA behaved as highly efficient mediator in decolorization of dyes, including the recalcitrant Reactive Black 5. This mediating capacity was related to ...
Rup Sandrine - - 2009
Carboxylic acids and diacids were synthesized from monoenic fatty acids by using RuO4 catalysis, under ultrasonic irradiation, in various mixtures of solvents. Ultrasound associated with Aliquat 336 have promoted in water, the quantitative oxidative cleavage of the CH=CH bond of oleic acid. A design of experiment (DOE) shows that the ...
Te Braake Frans W J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The availability of glutathione, the main intracellular antioxidant, is compromised in preterm neonates. A possible explanation is the low availability of substrate for synthesis, because many neonatologists are reluctant to administer amino acids in the direct postnatal period for fear of intolerance. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was ...
Park Kyoung Sun - - 2008
TREK (TWIK-RElated K(+) channels) and TRAAK (TWIK-Related Arachidonic acid Activated K(+) channels) were expressed in COS-7 cells, and the channel activities were recorded from inside-out membrane patches using holding potential of -40 mV in symmetrical 150 mM K(+) solution. Intracellular application of an oxidizing agent, 5,5'-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), markedly ...
Zhou Lufang - - 2008
The role of anaerobic glycolysis and oxidative substrate selection on contractile function and mechanical efficiency during moderate severity myocardial ischemia is unclear. We hypothesize that 1) preventing anaerobic glycolysis worsens contractile function and mechanical efficiency and 2) increasing glycolysis and glucose oxidation while inhibiting free fatty acid oxidation improves contractile ...
Norris Andrew W - - 2008
In the setting of insulin resistance, agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma restore insulin action in muscle and promote lipid redistribution. Mice with muscle-specific knockout of PPARgamma (MuPPARgammaKO) develop excess adiposity, despite reduced food intake and normal glucose disposal in muscle. To understand the relation between muscle PPARgamma and lipid ...
Lanza M - - 2009
The goal of the trial was to evaluate meat quality, with an emphasis on intramuscular fatty acid composition, of Sanfratellano foals, compared to that from Haflinger foals,both slaughtered at 18 months of age. Thirty foals, half of Sanfratellano breed and half of Haflinger breed, naturally weaned at 7-8 months, were ...
Seifert Erin L - - 2008
Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein expressed most abundantly in skeletal muscle and to a lesser extent in heart and brown adipose tissue. Evidence supports a role for UCP3 in fatty acid oxidation (FAO); however, the underlying mechanism has not been explored. In 2001 we proposed a ...
Holloway G P - - 2008
Long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are an important substrate for ATP production within the skeletal muscle. The process of LCFA delivery from adipose tissue to muscle mitochondria involves many regulatory steps. Recently, it has been recognized that LCFA oxidation is not only dependent on LCFA delivery to the muscle, but ...
Mincher Bruce J - - 2008
Higher oxidation states of americium have long been known; however, options for their preparation in acidic solution are limited. The conventional choice, silver-catalyzed peroxydisulfate, is not useful at nitric acid concentrations above about 0.3 M. We investigated the use of sodium bismuthate as an oxidant for Am (3+) in acidic ...
Kraemer William J - - 2008
Carnitine (L-3-hydroxytrimethylamminobutanoate) is a naturally occurring compound that can be synthesized in mammals from the essential amino acids lysine and methionine or ingested through diet. Primary sources of dietary carnitine are red meat and dairy products; however, commercially produced supplements also are available and have been shown to be safe ...
Steinberg Steven - - 2008
Peroxisomes play an important role in cellular metabolism. Defects in peroxisome assembly or of a single peroxisomal pathway are associated with a wide variety of inherited disorders, including X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, Zellweger spectrum disorders, rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata, and Refsum disease. A group of peroxisome-specific biomarkers has been shown to be characteristic ...
Kerner Janos - - 2008
Hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis increase during starvation. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) catalyses the rate-controlling step in the overall pathway and retains its control over beta-oxidation under fed, starved and diabetic conditions. To determine the factors contributing to the reported several-fold increase in fatty acid oxidation in perfused ...
Nguyen Su Duy - - 2008
Polyunsaturated fatty acids can be omega-oxidized to dicarboxylic polyunsaturated fatty acids (DC-PUFA), bioactive compounds which cause vasodilatation and activation of PPARalpha and gamma. DC-PUFA can be shortened by beta-oxidation, and to determine whether mitochondria and/or peroxisomes are responsible for this degradation 20-carboxy-[1-(14)C]-eicosatetraenoic acid (20-COOH-AA) was synthesized and given to hepatocytes ...
Szuchman-Sapir Andrea J - - 2008
After acute myocardial infarction (AMI), infiltrating proinflammatory cells generate two-electron oxidants such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Myoglobin (Mb) is present at approximately 0.3 mM in cardiomyocytes and, therefore, represents a significant target for oxidation. Exposure of horse Mb (50 microM) to reagent HOCl (0-500 microM) or activated human neutrophils (4-40x10(6) ...
Hyyti Outi M - - 2008
Dominant-negative thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) show elevated expression relative to ligand-binding TRs during cardiac hypertrophy. We tested the hypothesis that overexpression of a dominant-negative TR alters cardiac metabolism and contractile efficiency (CE). We used mice expressing the cardioselective dominant-negative TRbeta(1) mutation Delta337T. Isolated working Delta337T hearts and nontransgenic control (Con) ...
Maasen J A - - 2008
This review will consider the concept that the development of a mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes is an early step in the pathogenesis for type 2 diabetes. Upon expansion of the adipose mass it becomes gradually inflamed and hypoxic. TNF-alpha, locally produced, induces insulin resistance of adipocytes leading to enhanced lipolysis. ...
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