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Furuya Toshiki - - 2009
CYP199A2, a bacterial P450 monooxygenase from Rhodopseudomonas palustris, was previously reported to oxidize 2-naphthoic acid and 4-ethylbenzoic acid. In this study, we examined the substrate specificity and regioselectivity of CYP199A2 towards indole- and quinolinecarboxylic acids. The CYP199A2 gene was coexpressed with palustrisredoxin gene from R. palustris and putidaredoxin reductase gene ...
Bath Jennifer L - - 2009
Hp-FAR-1 is a major, secreted antigen of the parasitic nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus, a laboratory mouse model frequently used to study the cellular mechanisms of chronic helminth infections. The DNA encoding Hp-FAR-1 was recovered by screening a fourth larval (L(4)) H. polygyrus cDNA expression library using antibodies raised against L(4) stage ...
Kunz Hans-Henning - - 2009
Fatty acid beta-oxidation is essential for seedling establishment of oilseed plants, but little is known about its role in leaf metabolism of adult plants. Arabidopsis thaliana plants with loss-of-function mutations in the peroxisomal ABC-transporter1 (PXA1) or the core beta-oxidation enzyme keto-acyl-thiolase 2 (KAT2) have impaired peroxisomal beta-oxidation. pxa1 and kat2 ...
Schenk Simon - - 2009
Obesity is characterized by excessive rates of plasma fatty acid mobilization and uptake, which play a key role in mediating insulin resistance. While weight loss via diet-only or a diet + exercise program clearly improves insulin sensitivity, the precise mechanisms modulating this improvement are not completely understood. The purpose of ...
Patterson Andrew D - - 2009
Activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is associated with increased fatty acid catabolism and is commonly targeted for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. To identify latent, endogenous biomarkers of PPARalpha activation and hence increased fatty acid beta-oxidation, healthy human volunteers were given fenofibrate orally for 2 weeks and their ...
Downs Stephen M SM Department of Biological Sciences, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233, USA. - - 2009
We have examined the potential role of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-induced meiotic maturation. Etomoxir and malonyl CoA, two inhibitors of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT1), and thus FAO, blocked meiotic induction in dbcAMP-arrested cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO) and denuded oocytes (DO) by the AMPK activator, AICAR. ...
Rosca Mariana G MG Center for Mitochondrial Diseases and Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, - - 2009
Endogenous acetylcarnitine is an indicator of acetyl-CoA synthesized by multiple metabolic pathways involving carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, sterols, and ketone bodies, and utilized mainly by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Acetylcarnitine supplementation has beneficial effects in elderly animals and humans, including restoration of mitochondrial content and function. These effects appear ...
Rönicke Sabine - - 2009
Pristanic acid and phytanic acid are branched-chain fatty acids, which play an important role in diseases with peroxisomal impairment, like Refsum disease (MIM 266500), Zellwegers syndrome and alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency (MIM 604489). Several studies revealed that the toxic activity of phytanic acid is mediated by multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions. However, the ...
Schuck Patr??cia Fernanda - - 2009
Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is an inherited metabolic disorder of fatty acid oxidation in which the affected patients predominantly present high levels of octanoic (OA) and decanoic (DA) acids and their glycine and carnitine by-products in tissues and body fluids. It is clinically characterized by episodic encephalopathic crises with ...
Jung Changhoon - - 2009
The electrochemical oxidation of formic acid was studied by the tip generation-substrate collection (TG-SC) mode of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), extending the number of applications of SECM in electrocatalysis. Formic acid was generated at a Hg on Au ultramicroelectrode (UME) tip by reduction of CO(2) in a 0.1 M KHCO(3) ...
Nakano Mariko - - 2009
Bietti's crystalline dystrophy is an ocular disease that is strongly associated with polymorphisms in the CYP4V2 gene. CYP4 enzymes are typically microsomal fatty acid omega-hydroxylases that function together with mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes to degrade cellular lipids. Indeed, ocular and peripheral cells cultured from patients with Bietti's have been ...
Ko Kerry W S - - 2009
Mouse esterase-x/carboxylesterase 1 (Es-x/Ces1) is a close homolog of triacylglycerol hydrolase/carboxylesterase 3 (TGH/Ces3). Es-x possesses a conserved esterase/lipase active site motif, suggesting that like TGH it could play a role in hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) metabolism. McArdle-RH7777 cells stably transfected with Es-x cDNA accumulated significantly less TG and had increased production ...
Yu Ji Hoon - - 2009
Oxidative stress plays a critical role in apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells. Omega-3 fatty acids show anti-inflammatory and/or anticancer effects and regulate apoptosis in various cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether omega-3 fatty acids inhibit oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells. The cells received oxidative stress ...
Rosenson Robert S - - 2009
Angiotensin II increases activation of oxidative signaling and vascular inflammatory gene expression, and interruption of the renin-angiotensin system has been considered more vasculoprotective than use of calcium channel antagonists and other anti-hypertensive therapies. Despite these putative mechanisms, amlodipine is equally efficacious as other therapies in reducing cardiovascular events. Double-blind, controlled ...
Kalonia Harikesh - - 2009
Oxidative stress has long been implicated in the neurotoxic effects of glutamate acting through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Therefore, present study has been designed to explore the effect of rofecoxib and caffeic acid on the involvement of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal linked with NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity. Caffeic acid, is ...
Giroud Sylvain - - 2009
This study investigated the extent to which the increase in torpor expression in the grey mouse lemur, due to graded food restriction, is modulated by a trade-off between a whole body sparing of polyunsaturated dietary fatty acids and the related oxidative stress generated during daily torpor. We measured changes in ...
Holloway Graham P - - 2009
The plasma membrane fatty acid transport protein FAT/CD36 is also present at the mitochondria, where it may contribute to the regulation of fatty acid oxidation, although this has been challenged. Therefore, we have compared enzyme activities and rates of mitochondrial palmitate oxidation in muscles of wild-type (WT) and FAT/CD36 knockout ...
Vaillancourt Eric - - 2009
This study characterizes the effects of shivering thermogenesis on metabolic fuel selection in Wistar rats. Because lipids account for most of the heat produced, we have investigated: (1) whether the rate of appearance of non-esterified fatty acids (R(a) NEFAs) is stimulated by shivering, (2) whether mono-unsaturated (oleate) and saturated fatty ...
Kondo Tomoo - - 2009
We investigated the effect of acetic acid (AcOH) on the prevention of obesity in high-fat-fed mice. The mice were intragastrically administrated with water or 0.3 or 1.5% AcOH for 6 weeks. AcOH administration inhibited the accumulation of body fat and hepatic lipids without changing food consumption or skeletal muscle weight. ...
Gutgesell Anke - - 2009
Previous studies have shown that genes involved in fatty acid uptake, fatty acid oxidation, and thermogenesis are downregulated in liver and skeletal muscle of rats during lactation. However, biochemical mechanisms underlying these important metabolic adaptations during lactation have not yet been elucidated. As all these genes are transcriptionally regulated by ...
Røst Therese H - - 2009
Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a hypolipidemic modified fatty acid and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ligand. The mechanisms of TTA-mediated effects seem to involve the PPARs, but the effects have not been assigned to any specific PPAR subtype. PPARalpha-/- mice were employed to study the role of PPARalpha after TTA ...
Miinalainen Ilkka J - - 2009
The mitochondrial beta-oxidation system is one of the central metabolic pathways of energy metabolism in mammals. Enzyme defects in this pathway cause fatty acid oxidation disorders. To elucidate the role of 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (DECR) as an auxiliary enzyme in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, we created a DECR-deficient ...
Potthoff Matthew J - - 2009
The liver plays a crucial role in mobilizing energy during nutritional deprivation. During the early stages of fasting, hepatic glycogenolysis is a primary energy source. As fasting progresses and glycogen stores are depleted, hepatic gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis become major energy sources. Here, we show that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), ...
Hue Louis - - 2009
In 1963, Lancet published a paper by Randle et al. that proposed a "glucose-fatty acid cycle" to describe fuel flux between and fuel selection by tissues. The original biochemical mechanism explained the inhibition of glucose oxidation by fatty acids. Since then, the principle has been confirmed by many investigators. At ...
Bailo Elena - - 2009
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering was used as a spectroscopic tool to investigate the changes brought upon cytochrome P450BSss after fatty acid binding. Differences in the spectra of substrate-free and substrate-bound enzyme were observed indicating the potential for this method to be used in the screening of P450 substrates. In particular, the ...
Cuesta Angel - - 2009
We have used cyanide-modified Pt(111) electrodes, in combination with cyclic voltammetry (CV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS), and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS), to investigate the oxidation of formic acid and methanol on Pt electrodes. Since CO is the poison intermediate formed during the oxidation of both formic acid and ...
Holloway Graham P - - 2009
Fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) represents a novel flexible regulatory system, influencing rates of mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism in both human and rodent skeletal muscle. During exercise, the subcellular redistribution of FAT/CD36 provides a mechanism to increase not only plasma membrane fatty acid transport, but also mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. This ...
Chegary Malika - - 2009
Several mouse models for mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO) defects have been developed. So far, these models have contributed little to our current understanding of the pathophysiology. The objective of this study was to explore differences between murine and human FAO. Using a combination of analytical, biochemical and molecular methods, ...
McCully James D - - 2009
Cardioplegia is used to partially alleviate the effects of surgically induced global ischemia injury; however, the molecular mechanisms involved in this cardioprotection remain to be elucidated. To improve the understanding of the molecular processes modulating the effects of global ischemia and the cardioprotection afforded by cardioplegia, we constructed rabbit heart ...
Regazzoni Luca - - 2009
Glutathionylated hemoglobin (Hb-SSG) is now recognized as a promising biomarker of systemic oxidative stress. Aim of this study is to gain a mechanistic insight into its formation. The ability of GSSG to form Hb-SSG through a thiol-disulfide exchange mechanism was firstly examined. For this purpose, GSSG (ranging from 0.23 to ...
Feingold Kenneth R - - 2009
Respiratory failure is a major cause of mortality during septic shock and is due in part to decreased ventilatory muscle contraction. Ventilatory muscles have high energy demands; fatty acid (FA) oxidation is an important source of ATP. FA oxidation is regulated by nuclear hormone receptors; studies have shown that the ...
Sebastián David - - 2009
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) catalyzes the first step in long-chain fatty acid import into mitochondria, and it is believed to be rate limiting for beta-oxidation of fatty acids. However, in muscle, other proteins may collaborate with CPT1. Fatty acid translocase/CD36 (FAT/CD36) may interact with CPT1 and contribute to fatty acid ...
Folmes Clifford D L - - 2009
Activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may benefit the heart during ischemia-reperfusion by increasing energy production. While AMPK stimulates glycolysis, mitochondrial oxidative metabolism is the major source of ATP production during reperfusion of ischemic hearts. Stimulating AMPK increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, but this is usually accompanied by a decrease ...
Simmons Trevor J - - 2009
We have created stable dispersions of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in water by employing a noncovalent functionalization scheme that allows carboxylic acid moieties to be attached to the SWNT surface by a pi-pi stacking interaction. Pyrenecarboxylic acid (PCA) is noncovalently attached to the surface of SWNTs and affords highly ...
Vinaud Marina Clare - - 2009
Cysticerci metabolic studies demonstrate alternative pathways responsible for its survival, such as energy sources, fatty acids oxidation and excretion of beta-hydroxybutyrate, which indicates the capability of energy production from proteins. The aim of this study was to detect alternative metabolic pathways for energy production and its end products in Taenia ...
Bond T - - 2009
Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) can be controlled by removal of disinfection by-product precursors before disinfection. Variable success has been reported, depending on the treatment used and water tested. Chemical and biological oxidations are candidate technologies to control DBP formation. Given the uncertainty over the identity of DBP precursors, the ...
Houten S M - - 2009
Organs are flexible as to which substrates they will use to maintain energy homeostasis. Under well-fed conditions, glucose is a preferred substrate for oxidation. During fasting, fatty acid oxidation will become a more important energy source. Glucose oxidation is decreased by fatty acids, a process in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase ...
Tang Wen W - - 2009
Wet air oxidation (WAO) can effectively be used to treat high-concentration, non-biodegradable emulsification wastewater that contains nonionic matters. Gas chromatograph analysis of emulsification wastewater after oxidation indicated that a catalyst increased production of fatty acids but could not promote its oxidation between 160 and 180 degrees C. When the temperature ...
Vega Gloria Lena - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Several studies suggest that increased nonesterified fatty acid flux and increased de novo lipogenesis may contribute to hypertriglyceridemia, but few studies have examined fatty acid oxidation as a factor. RATIONALE: Endogenous hypertriglyceridemia (increased very low density lipoprotein triglyceride) could result from (a) re-esterification of excess nonesterified fatty acids entering ...
L??v??s K - - 2009
AIM: We previously demonstrated that a modified fatty acid, tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA), improves transport and utilization of lipids and increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in animal and cell studies. We conducted an exploratory study of safety and effects of this novel drug in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and ...
Purushotham Aparna - - 2009
Hepatic metabolic derangements are key components in the development of fatty liver, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. SIRT1, a NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase, is an important regulator of energy homeostasis in response to nutrient availability. Here we demonstrate that hepatic SIRT1 regulates lipid homeostasis by positively regulating peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), ...
Sapiro Jessica M - - 2009
Recent evidence suggests that fatty acids generated from intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis may have important roles in intracellular signaling. This study was conducted to determine if fatty acids liberated from TAG hydrolysis regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Primary rat hepatocyte cultures were treated with adenoviruses overexpressing adipose differentiation-related protein ...
Hasanzadeh Mohammad - - 2009
The electrochemical behavior of some amino acids was investigated on cobalt hydroxide nanoparticles modified glassy carbon (CHM-GC) electrode in alkaline solution. The process of oxidation and its kinetics were established by using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry techniques, and steady-state polarization measurements. The results revealed that cobalt hydroxide promotes the rate of ...
Katragadda D - - 2009
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are polyunsaturated fatty acids synthesized from arachidonic acid by CYP2J2 epoxygenase and inactivated by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH or Ephx2) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. Mitochondrial function following ischemic insult is a critical determinant of reperfusion-induced cell death in the myocardium. The objectives of the current study were to ...
Samudio Ismael I Section of Molecular Hematology and Therapy, Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, - - 2009
The precise mitochondrial alterations that underlie the increased dependence of cancer cells on aerobic glycolysis for energy generation have remained a mystery. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondrial uncoupling-the abrogation of ATP synthesis in response to mitochondrial membrane potential-promotes the Warburg effect in leukemia cells, and may contribute to chemoresistance. Intriguingly, ...
Palanker Laura - - 2009
Drosophila HNF4 (dHNF4) is the single ancestral ortholog of a highly conserved subfamily of nuclear receptors that includes two mammalian receptors, HNFalpha and HNFgamma, and 269 members in C. elegans. We show here that dHNF4 null mutant larvae are sensitive to starvation. Starved mutant larvae consume glycogen normally but retain ...
Jorgensen Michael R - - 2009
Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) 1 is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist found to improve insulin sensitivity, lower blood lipid levels, enhance fatty acid oxidation, and promote anti-inflammation in vivo. In an attempt to enhance these properties, two key thioether fatty acid (Thefa) lipids, ditetradecylthioacetyl phosphatidylcholine 2 and tritetradecylthioacetyl glycerol 3, ...
Heli H - - 2009
The electrocatalytic oxidation of five amino acids-glycine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, and tyrosine-on two copper-based electrodes comprising copper microparticle-modified carbon paste electrode (m-CPE) and copper nanoparticle-modified CPE (n-CPE) was investigated. In the voltammograms recorded using m-CPE, a single anodic peak related to the oxidation of amino acids appeared and ...
Schuck Patrícia F - - 2009
Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is the most frequent disorder of fatty acid oxidation with a similar prevalence to that of phenylketonuria. Affected patients present tissue accumulation of the medium-chain fatty acids octanoate (OA), decanoate (DA) and cis-4-decenoate. Clinical presentation is characterized by neurological symptoms, such as convulsions and lethargy ...
Boudina Sihem - - 2009
Diabetes-associated cardiac dysfunction is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, which may contribute to left ventricular dysfunction. The contribution of altered myocardial insulin action, independent of associated changes in systemic metabolism, is incompletely understood. The present study tested the hypothesis that perinatal loss of insulin signaling in the heart ...
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