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McCue M D - - 2010
Clinicians commonly measure the (13)CO(2) in exhaled breath samples following administration of a metabolic tracer (breath testing) to diagnose certain infections and metabolic disorders. We believe that breath testing can become a powerful tool to investigate novel questions about the influence of ecological and physiological factors on the oxidative fates ...
Hellgren Lars I - - 2010
Phytanic acid is a multibranched fatty acid with reported retinoid X receptor (RXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) agonist activity, which have been suggested to have preventive effects on metabolic dysfunctions. Serum level in man is strongly correlated to the intake of red meat and dairy products and the concentration ...
Lowes Damon A DA Division of Applied Medicine, School of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Aberdeen, - - 2010
Oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is a common consequence of severe sepsis. However, oxidative stress also activates signalling cascades which enable protection of cells against subsequent oxidative damage. This study hypothesized that cellular uptake of vitamin C as dehydroascorbic acid rather than ascorbic acid would up-regulate antioxidant enzyme systems and impart ...
Kalonia Harikesh - - 2010
Objective of the present study was to explore the possible role of oxidative stress in the malonic acid induced behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial alterations in rats. In the present study, unilateral single injections of malonic acid at different doses (1.5, 3 and 6 micromol) were made into the ipsilateral striatum ...
Gregersen Niels - - 2010
In fatty acid oxidation defects, the majority of gene variations are of the missense type and, therefore, prone to inducing misfolding in the resulting mutant protein. The fate of the mutant protein depends on the nature of the gene variation and other genetic factors as well as cellular and environmental ...
Ito Masayoshi - - 2010
In the neonatal heart the transition from using carbohydrates to using fatty acids has not fully matured and oxidative metabolism/ATP generation may be limiting contractile function after ischemia. This study tested the hypothesis that increasing fatty acid availability increases recovery of left ventricular (LV) work by increasing palmitate oxidation, tricarboxylic ...
Robaszkiewicz Agnieszka - - 2010
Hypochlorous acid, a chlorinating and oxidative agent, has been reported to be implicated in many pathologies. Its markers were found under inflammatory conditions and, at least some of it reveals biological activity. Thus, in this paper we examined whether N-chloroamino acids may act as mediators of the action of hypochlorous ...
Wang Xiaojuan - - 2010
Effects of dexamethasone (DEX) and mild feed restriction on the uptake and utilization of fatty acids in skeletal muscle of broiler chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were investigated. Male Arbor Acres chicks (7-days old, n=30) were injected with DEX or saline for 3days, and a feed restriction group was included. DEX ...
Adhikari Prashanta Dhoj - - 2010
Surface functionalization of carbon micro coils (CMCs) was performed by acid treatment at different times. Nitric acid oxidation produced CMC with acidic functional groups, although morphology of CMCs was modified after the oxidation. The selective immobilization of as-prepared CMC from an aqueous dispersion was examined on differently surface-modified silicon substrates. ...
Fukasawa Motoaki - - 2010
The testis consists of two types of tissues, the interstitial tissue and the seminiferous tubule, which have different functions and are assumed to have different nutritional metabolism. The localization of enzymes of the mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation system in the testis was investigated to obtain a better understanding of nutrient ...
Carvalho Rui A - - 2010
Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is a potent and broad-spectrum antineoplastic agent, the clinical utility of which is restricted by a cumulative and progressive cardiomyopathy that develops with repeated dosing. Fundamental to the cardiac failure is an interference with mitochondrial respiration and inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation. Global gene expression arrays in cardiac tissue ...
Furuya Toshiki - - 2010
CYP199A2, a bacterial P450 monooxygenase from Rhodopseudomonas palustris, was previously reported to oxidize 2-naphthoic acid and 4-ethylbenzoic acid. In this study, we examined the substrate specificity and regioselectivity of CYP199A2 towards indole- and quinolinecarboxylic acids. The CYP199A2 gene was coexpressed with palustrisredoxin gene from R. palustris and putidaredoxin reductase gene ...
Yoshida Toyokazu - - 2010
Alkane-assimilating microorganisms were isolated from enrichment cultures using n-octane, n-dodecane, n-hexadecane, or pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) as a sole carbon source to find microbial catalysts oxidizing methyl groups of 2,6-dimethylpyridine. The cells of Exophiala dermatitidis (Kano) de Hoog DA5501, an n-dodecane-assimilating fungus, oxidized a single methyl group of 2,6-dimethylpyridine to produce 6-methylpicolinic ...
Smith Emily H - - 2010
Carnitine plays an essential role in fatty acid metabolism, as well as modulation of intracellular concentrations of free coenzyme A by esterification of acyl residues. Acylcarnitine analysis of various biological fluids is a sensitive method to detect >20 inborn errors of metabolism that result in abnormal accumulation of acylcarnitine species ...
Jones Patricia M - - 2010
The mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation is integral to normal cellular metabolism and maintenance of cellular energy supplies. Disorders of this pathway interrupt the body's ability to deal with fasting states, as well as compromising the functioning of organs and systems whose high-energy requirements utilize fats for a continuous energy source, ...
Hlavica Peter - - 2010
In view of the pivotal role played by the diversity of fatty acid-derived oxy-products in a vast array of physiological processes, precise knowledge about the molecular principles dictating substrate specificity and regioselectivity in P450-catalyzed oxidative attack on the distinctly structured carbon chains of the monocarboxylic acids is of paramount importance. ...
Lopaschuk Gary D - - 2010
There is a constant high demand for energy to sustain the continuous contractile activity of the heart, which is met primarily by the beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. The control of fatty acid beta-oxidation is complex and is aimed at ensuring that the supply and oxidation of the fatty acids ...
Gfeller Aur?lie - - 2010
Plants possess a family of potent fatty acid-derived wound-response and developmental regulators: the jasmonates. These compounds are derived from the tri-unsaturated fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid (18:3) and, in plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato, 7(Z)-, 10(Z)-, and 13(Z)-hexadecatrienoic acid (16:3). The lipoxygenase-catalyzed addition of molecular oxygen to alpha-linolenic acid ...
Je┼żek J - - 2010
Homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiomyocytes is critical for elucidation of normal heart physiology and pathology. Mitochondrial phospholipases A2 (mt-PLA2) have been previously suggested to be activated by ROS. Therefore, we have attempted to elucidate physiological role of such activation. We have found that function of a specific ...
Natarajan Sathish Kumar - - 2010
Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is a rare disorder which is fatal if not recognized and treated early. Delivery of the feto-placental unit results in dramatic improvement in maternal liver function, suggesting a role for the placenta. However, the mechanisms by which defects in the fetus or placenta lead ...
Banni Sebastiano - - 2010
In this study we aimed to assess lipid peroxidation during carotid endarterectomy by the formation of PUFA hydroperoxides (PUFAHP) and isoprostanes (IP) and concomitant peroxisomal beta-oxidation as a physiological mechanism to limit their concentration. Two markers of peroxisomal beta oxidation have been evaluated, formation of 2,3 dinor from IP and ...
Seifert Erin L - - 2010
Incomplete or limited long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) combustion in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance. Signals that are responsive to shifts in LCFA beta-oxidation rate or degree of intramitochondrial catabolism are hypothesized to regulate second messenger systems downstream of the insulin receptor. Recent evidence supports a causal link ...
Moszner Norbert - - 2010
Because of the poor solubility of the commercially available bisacylphosphine oxides in dental acidic aqueous primer formulations, bis(3-{[2-(allyloxy)ethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)(phenyl)phosphine oxide (WBAPO) was synthesized starting from 3-(chloromethyl)-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid by the dichlorophosphine route. The substituent was introduced by etherification with 2-(allyloxy)ethanol. In the second step, 3-{[2-(allyloxy)ethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid was chlorinated. The formed acid chloride ...
Hoehn Kyle L - - 2010
Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is thought to convey many of the beneficial effects of exercise via its inhibitory effect on acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) and promotion of fatty acid oxidation. Hence, AMPK and ACC have become major drug targets for weight loss and improved insulin action. However, it ...
Watkins Paul A - - 2010
It has been proposed that anatomical differences in human and great ape guts arose in response to species-specific diets and energy demands. To investigate functional genomic consequences of these differences, we compared their physiological levels of phytanic acid, a branched chain fatty acid that can be derived from the microbial ...
Wang Ting - - 2010
A previous study identified the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) activation biomarkers 21-steroid carboxylic acids 11beta-hydroxy-3,20-dioxopregn-4-en-21-oic acid (HDOPA) and 11beta,20-dihydroxy-3-oxo-pregn-4-en-21-oic acid (DHOPA). In the present study, the molecular mechanism and the metabolic pathway of their production were determined. The PPARalpha-specific time-dependent increases in HDOPA and 20alpha-DHOPA paralleled the development of ...
Kuppan Gokulakrishnan - - 2010
Increased inflammation/prooxidation has been linked not only to Type 2 diabetes but also in prediabetes state. In this study we investigated hyperglycemia-mediated proinflammatory/prooxidant effects in THP-1 monocytes and tested whether gallic acid could attenuate changes in gene expression induced by high-glucose. Cells were treated either with 5.5mM glucose or 25mM ...
Furuya Toshiki - - 2009
CYP199A2, a bacterial P450 monooxygenase from Rhodopseudomonas palustris, was found to exhibit oxidation activity towards three hydroxynaphthoic acids. Whole cells of the recombinant Escherichia coli strain expressing CYP199A2 efficiently catalyzed the regioselective oxidation of 1-, 3-, and 6-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acids to produce 1,7-, 3,7-, and 6,7-dihydroxynaphthoic acid respectively. These results suggest ...
Ravnskjaer Kim - - 2010
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta) is implicated in regulation of mitochondrial processes in a number of tissues, and PPARdelta activation is associated with decreased susceptibility to ectopic lipid deposition and metabolic disease. Here, we show that PPARdelta is the PPAR subtype expressed at the highest level in insulinoma cells ...
Depuydt Matthieu - - 2009
The thiol group of the amino acid cysteine can be modified to regulate protein activity. The Escherichia coli periplasm is an oxidizing environment in which most cysteine residues are involved in disulfide bonds. However, many periplasmic proteins contain single cysteine residues, which are vulnerable to oxidation to sulfenic acids and ...
Tang Zhongmei - - 2010
Human cytochrome P450 (P450) 4F11 is still considered an "orphan" because its function is not well characterized. A bacterial expression system was developed for human P450 4F11, producing approximately 230nmol P450 from a 3-l culture of Escherichia coli. P450 4F11 was purified and utilized for untargeted substrate searches in human ...
Frigerio F - - 2010
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pancreatic beta cells chronically exposed to fatty acids may lose specific functions and even undergo apoptosis. Generally, lipotoxicity is triggered by saturated fatty acids, whereas unsaturated fatty acids induce lipodysfunction, the latter being characterised by elevated basal insulin release and impaired glucose responses. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) ...
Guo Lei - - 2010
Plants produce and release large quantities of methanol, especially when attacked by herbivores. It seems that the herbivores may suffer from methanol intoxication. Here we reported the tolerance to and the metabolism of methanol by Ostrinia furnacalis third-instar larvae. When larvae were exposed to dietary methanol, formaldehyde and formic acid ...
Chapela S P - - 2009
Carnitine is well-known for its role in the transport of fatty acids to the mitochondrial matrix, where beta-oxidation takes place. This work describes novel functions for this compound and novel data on its pharmacokinetics.
Chapela S P - - 2009
Carnitine is well-known for its role in the transport of fatty acids to the mitochondrial matrix, where beta-oxidation takes place. This work describes novel functions for this compound and novel data on its pharmacokinetics.
Wang Jun - - 2009
This work characterizes the mitochondrial proteomic profile in the failing heart and elucidates the molecular basis of mitochondria in heart failure. Heart failure was induced in rats by myocardial infarction, and mitochondria were isolated from hearts by differential centrifugation. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass ...
Opie Lionel H - - 2009
The hypothesis proposed is that heart failure (HF) is associated with a reactive hyperadrenergic state that increases circulating plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), which leads to impaired glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. We propose that increased FFA-induced mitochondrial uncoupling and substantial oxygen wastage is closely associated with the generation of ...
Ashibe Bunichiro - - 2009
Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH; also known as ALDH3A2 or ALDH10) oxidizes medium- or long-chain aliphatic aldehydes. FALDH deficiency in humans is known to be the cause of Sj?gren-Larsson syndrome, in which individuals display neurological symptoms and cutaneous abnormality. FALDH-V, a splice isoform of FALDH, is localized in the peroxisome and ...
Hayes J E - - 2010
The effects of lutein (100 and 200 microg/g muscle), sesamol (250 and 500 microg/g muscle), ellagic acid (300 and 600 microg/g muscle) and olive leaf extract (100 and 200 microg/g muscle) on total viable counts (TVCs), lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS), colour, oxymyoglobin oxidation, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), sensorial ...
Tan Xuesong - - 2009
Gold nanoparticles loaded on nitric acid-pretreated carbon nanotubes are efficient for the selective oxidation of cellobiose by molecular oxygen to gluconic acid in aqueous medium without pH control; a gluconic acid yield of 80% has been obtained at 145 degrees C.
Kumar Puneet - - 2009
AIM: The present study has been designed to investigate the involvement of the nitric oxide mechanism in the protective effect of lycopene against 3-nitropropionic acid-induced Huntington's disease-like symptoms in rats. MAIN METHODS: The present experimental protocol design includes systemic 3-nitropropionic acid (10mg/kg i.p) treatment for 14 days. Lycopene (2.5, 5 ...
Bennett M J - - 2010
Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation represents an important pathway for energy generation during periods of increased energy demand such as fasting, febrile illness and muscular exertion. In liver, the primary end products of the pathway are ketone bodies, which are released into the circulation and provide energy to tissues that are ...
Bennett M J - - 2009
Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation represents an important pathway for energy generation during periods of increased energy demand such as fasting, febrile illness and muscular exertion. In liver, the primary end products of the pathway are ketone bodies, which are released into the circulation and provide energy to tissues that are ...
Speers-Roesch Ben - - 2010
The unusual energy metabolism of elasmobranchs is characterized by limited or absent fatty acid oxidation in cardiac and skeletal muscle and a great reliance on ketone bodies and amino acids as oxidative fuels in these tissues. Other extrahepatic tissues in elasmobranchs rely on ketone bodies and amino acids for aerobic ...
Oosterveer Maaike H - - 2009
A growing body of evidence indicates that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) not merely serves as a transcriptional regulator of fatty acid catabolism but also exerts a much broader role in hepatic lipid metabolism. We determined adaptations in hepatic lipid metabolism and related aspects of carbohydrate metabolism upon treatment of ...
Zhang Liyan - - 2010
Fatty acids are a major fuel source used to sustain contractile function in heart and oxidative skeletal muscle. To meet the energy demands of these muscles, the uptake and beta-oxidation of fatty acids must be coordinately regulated in order to ensure an adequate, but not excessive, supply for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. ...
Cole Marsha P - - 2009
Fatty acid nitroalkenes are endogenously generated electrophilic byproducts of nitric oxide and nitrite-dependent oxidative inflammatory reactions. Existing evidence indicates nitroalkenes support posttranslational protein modifications and transcriptional activation that promote the resolution of inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess whether in vivo administration of a synthetic nitroalkene could ...
King Martin D - - 2009
The oxidation of organic films on cloud condensation nuclei has the potential to affect climate and precipitation events. In this work we present a study of the oxidation of a monolayer of deuterated oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid) at the air-water interface by ozone to determine if oxidation removes the organic ...
Schuck Patr?cia Fernanda - - 2010
High concentrations of ethylmalonic acid are found in tissues and biological fluids of patients affected by ethylmalonic encephalopathy, deficiency of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity and other illnesses characterized by developmental delay and neuromuscular symptoms. The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the brain damage in these patients are virtually unknown. Therefore, in ...
Januszewicz Elzbieta - - 2009
In the brain beta-oxidation, which takes place in astrocytes, is not a major process of energy supply. Astrocytes synthesize important lipid metabolites, mainly due to the processes taking place in peroxisomes. One of the compounds necessary in the process of mitochondrial beta-oxidation and export of acyl moieties from peroxisomes is ...
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