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Zeng Huawu - - 2011
AIM OF THE STUDY: Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT) is a traditional Chinese medicine with anti-inflammatory use. In the present study, the effects of its component herbs and pure components were observed on eicosanoid generation to find out the contributory components and their precise targets on arachidonic acid (AA) cascade. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ...
Hardin-Fanning Frances - - 2011
The immune system tends to become less efficient as people age, and nutrition plays a significant role in older adults' immune responses. In particular, dietary fatty acids are precursors to important immune system components. Certain fatty acids, predominantly those that are polyunsaturated, also tend to decrease the risk of certain ...
Büyükgüzel Ender - - 2011
Eicosanoids are oxygenated metabolites of three C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6), but also 20:3n-6 and 20:5n-3. Aside from their importance in biomedicine, eicosanoids act in invertebrate biology. Prostaglandins (PGs) influence salt and water transport physiology in insect rectal epithelia and in Malpighian tubules. PGs also influence ...
Cygan-Szczegielniak Dorota - - 2011
Meat is an important source of animal protein but, at the same time, it includes saturated fatty acids, which makes it a potential cause of different cardiovascular diseases and still little is known about influence of age and sex on these parameters in roe deer muscles. The aim of this ...
Hursthouse Nicola A - - 2011
Primary prevention of most folate-responsive neural tube defects (NTDs) may not require 400 μg folic acid/day but may be achieved by attaining a high maternal folate status. Using RBC folate ≥906 nmol/L as a marker for NTD risk reduction, the study aimed to determine the change in blood folate concentrations ...
Kawabata Terue - - 2011
We reported that the compositions of arachidonic acid (ARA) in erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids (PL) in the elderly were lower than those in the young, though the ARA intake was nearly identical. We further analyzed data in four study groups with different ages and sexes, and determined that the blood ...
Sun Peng - - 2010
This study investigated the effect of a duodenal infusion of a C18:3 free fatty acid on the immune function of lactating dairy cows. Four primiparous Chinese Holstein cows fitted with duodenal cannulas received 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 g/d of alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) in a two-treatment crossover design. Blood ...
Atsuzawa Kimie - - 2010
The presence of a mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation system in the retina was shown by immunohistochemistry. Fatty acids are considered to serve as a major energy source metabolized by fatty acid β-oxidation together with glucose metabolized by glycolysis in the organs of the entire body, but almost nothing is known ...
Bauer Sabrina - - 2011
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by increased oxidative stress contributing to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Monocytes are critically important in the pathogenesis of CVD and antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD2) protect these cells from excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS). Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived protein with atheroprotective ...
Brahmbhatt Viral V - - 2010
Myeloperoxidase-derived HOCl targets tissue- and lipoprotein-associated plasmalogens to generate α-chlorinated fatty aldehydes, including 2-chlorohexadecanal. Under physiological conditions, 2-chlorohexadecanal is oxidized to 2-chlorohexadecanoic acid (2-ClHA). This study demonstrates the catabolism of 2-ClHA by ω-oxidation and subsequent β-oxidation from the ω-end. Mass spectrometric analyses revealed that 2-ClHA is ω-oxidized in the presence ...
Son Ni-Huiping NH Division of Preventive Medicine and Nutrition, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, - - 2010
Excess lipid accumulation in the heart is associated with decreased cardiac function in humans and in animal models. The reasons are unclear, but this is generally believed to result from either toxic effects of intracellular lipids or excessive fatty acid oxidation (FAO). PPARγ expression is increased in the hearts of ...
Henique Carole - - 2010
The mechanisms underlying the protective effect of monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g. oleate) against the lipotoxic action of saturated fatty acids (e.g. palmitate) in skeletal muscle cells remain poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the role of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation in mediating oleate's protective effect against palmitate-induced ...
Wang Lianguo - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Myocardial energy metabolism is a strong predictor of postoperative cardiac function. This study profiled the metabolites and metabolic changes in the myocardium exposed to sevoflurane, propofol, and Intralipid and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Sevoflurane (2 vol%) and propofol (10 and 100 microM) in the formulation of 1% ...
Fang Xiangping - - 2010
Adiponectin promotes cardioprotection by various mechanisms, and this study used primary cardiomyocytes and the isolated working perfused heart to investigate cardiometabolic effects. We show in adult cardiomyocytes that adiponectin increased CD36 translocation and fatty acid uptake as well as insulin-stimulated glucose transport and Akt phosphorylation. Coimmunoprecipitation showed that adiponectin enhanced ...
Magliano Pasqualina - - 2010
The fungus Aspergillus nidulans contains both a mitochondrial and peroxisomal ß-oxidation pathway. This work was aimed at studying the influence of mutations in the foxA gene, encoding a peroxisomal multifunctional protein, or in the scdA/echA genes, encoding a mitochondrial short-chain dehydrogenase and an enoyl-CoA hydratase, respectively, on the carbon flux ...
Seybolt Sheila E J - - 2010
As sulfur containing thiols, alpha lipoic acid (ALA) and its reduced form dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) are powerful antioxidants and free radical scavengers capable of performing many of the same functions as glutathione (GSH). ALA supplementation may help protect mitochondria from oxidative stress, a possible mechanism contributing to certain forms of ...
Baltzer Claudia - - 2010
Mitochondria are abundant cellular organelles, and are required for the generation of energy through oxidative catabolism. Equally important, mitochondria also provide substrates for de novo synthesis of fatty acids and multiple amino acids. Mitochondrial functions must therefore be tightly linked to cellular nutrient availability. This review focuses on the current ...
Laforêt Pascal - - 2010
Disorders of muscle lipid metabolism may involve intramyocellular triglyceride degradation, carnitine uptake, long-chain fatty acids mitochondrial transport, or fatty acid β-oxidation. Three main diseases leading to permanent muscle weakness are associated with severe increased muscle lipid content (lipid storage myopathies): primary carnitine deficiency, neutral lipid storage disease and multiple acyl-CoA ...
Ding YuanYuan - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to examine the effects of cinnamaldehyde on coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced viral myocarditis (VMC) and underlying signaling, with a focus on the toll-like receptor (TLR)4-nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway. METHODS AND RESULTS: The antiviral and myocardial effects of cinnamaldehyde and its metabolite cinnamic acid were evaluated both ...
Koenitzer Jeffrey R - - 2010
Reactive species derived from oxygen and nitric oxide are produced during inflammation and promote oxidation and nitration of biomolecules, including unsaturated fatty acids. Among the products of these reactions are alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl and nitro derivatives of fatty acids, electrophilic species whose reactivity with nucleophilic amino acids provides a means of ...
Mito Márcio Shigueaki - - 2010
It has been proposed that in the heart, ranolazine shifts the energy source from fatty acids to glucose oxidation by inhibiting fatty acid oxidation. Up to now no mechanism for this inhibition has been proposed. The purpose of this study was to investigate if ranolazine also affects hepatic fatty acid ...
Li Qian - - 2010
Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) are the major end products of catecholamine metabolism. Abnoramally high levels in both plasma and urine may be indicative of a number of diseases including neuroblastoma and phaeochromocytoma. Commonly the VMA:HVA ratio is used as a disease marker, so that any measurement techniques ...
Iyer Vidya V - - 2010
Conazoles are a class of azole fungicides used to prevent fungal growth in agriculture, for treatment of fungal infections, and are found to be tumorigenic in rats and/or mice. In this study, cultured primary rat hepatocytes were treated to two different concentrations (0.3 and 0.15 mM) of triadimefon, which is ...
Feldstein Ariel E - - 2010
Oxidative stress is a core abnormality responsible for disease progression in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the pathways that contribute to oxidative damage in vivo are poorly understood. Our aims were to define the circulating profile of lipid oxidation products in NAFLD patients, the source of these products, and ...
Omata Kohji - - 2010
To study the synergistic effect on the acidity and activity of Si-Al-Zr ternary oxide system, the mixture design of experiments was applied to prepare the ternary oxides by a sol-gel method, and rapid screening on dehydration of isopropanol and Friedel-Crafts reaction was conducted to determine the activities. These activities, amount ...
Kemp Stephan - - 2010
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most common peroxisomal disorder. The disease is characterized by the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA; >C22) in plasma and tissues. X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding ALDP, an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding-cassette (ABC) transporter located in the peroxisomal membrane. In ...
Yang Jae-Ho - - 2010
Widespread contamination of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the marine environment draws a great concern over its ecotoxicological impact on marine mammals and wildlife. In the present study, male Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) was adapted to seawater to mimic the marine environment and was then exposed to the nominal concentrations of ...
Van Veldhoven Paul P - - 2010
In humans, peroxisomes harbor a complex set of enzymes acting on various lipophilic carboxylic acids, organized in two basic pathways, alpha-oxidation and beta-oxidation; the latter pathway can also handle omega-oxidized compounds. Some oxidation products are crucial to human health (primary bile acids and polyunsaturated FAs), whereas other substrates have to ...
Spiekerkoetter Ute - - 2010
Mouse models have been designed for a number of fatty acid oxidation defects. Studies in these mouse models have demonstrated that different pathogenetic mechanisms play a role in the pathophysiology of defects of fatty acid oxidation. Supplementation with L-carnitine does not prevent low tissue carnitine levels and induces acylcarnitine production ...
Beadle Roger M - - 2010
Therapies that aim to modify cardiac substrate utilisation are designed to increase metabolic efficiency. Although the main energy supply for the heart is generally provided by the oxidation of fatty acids, the heart is a metabolic omnivore and able to consume glucose as well as lactate and amino acids in ...
Wanders Ronald J A - - 2010
Oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria is a key physiological process in higher eukaryotes including humans. The importance of the mitochondrial beta-oxidation system in humans is exemplified by the existence of a group of genetic diseases in man caused by an impairment in the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids. Identification ...
Yano Hiromi - - 2010
Mitochondrial beta-oxidation is an important system involved in the energy production of various cells. In this system, the function of L-carnitine is essential for the uptake of fatty acids to mitochondria. However, it is unclear whether or not endogenous respiration, ADP-induced O(2) consumption without substrates, is caused by L-carnitine treatment. ...
Zhang Dongyan D Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, - - 2010
Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation provides an important energy source for cellular metabolism, and decreased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Paradoxically, mice with an inherited deficiency of the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzyme, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD), were protected from high-fat ...
Kotal Atanu - - 2010
The discovery of ultrasound-induced in-situ formation of coordination organogels using various isobutyric acids (such as isobutyric acid or 2-methylisobutyric acid or 2-bromoisobutyric acid) and zinc oxide nanoparticles was described. FTIR and XRD results suggest that ultrasound irradiation triggers the quick dissolution of zinc oxide nanoparticles by isobutyric acids, resulting in ...
Kurita-Ochiai T - - 2010
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential for the induction of T-cell apoptosis by butyric acid, an extracellular metabolite of periodontopathic bacteria. To determine the involvement of oxidative stress in apoptosis pathways, we investigated the contribution of ROS in mitochondrial signaling pathways, death-receptor-initiated signaling pathway, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in butyric-acid-induced ...
Dean Jason T - - 2010
The liver plays a central role in maintaining whole body metabolic and energy homeostasis by consuming and producing glucose and fatty acids. Glucose and fatty acids compete for hepatic substrate oxidation with regulation ensuring glucose is oxidized preferentially. Increasing fatty acid oxidation is expected to decrease lipid storage in the ...
Tonin Anelise M - - 2010
We investigated the in vitro effects of 3-hydroxydodecanoic (3HDA), 3-hydroxytetradecanoic (3HTA) and 3-hydroxypalmitic (3HPA) acids, which accumulate in tissues of patients affected by mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) and isolated long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiencies, on various parameters of energy homeostasis in mitochondrial preparations from brain of young rats. We measured ...
Saleem Ramsey A - - 2010
Phosphorylation of proteins is a key posttranslational modification in cellular signaling, regulating many aspects of cellular responses. We used a quantitative, integrated, phosphoproteomics approach to characterize the cellular responses of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the fatty acid oleic acid, a molecule with broad human health implications and a potent ...
Rial Eduardo - - 2010
Diseases like obesity, diabetes or generalized lipodystrophy cause a chronic elevation of circulating fatty acids that can become cytotoxic, a condition known as lipotoxicity. Fatty acids cause oxidative stress and alterations in mitochondrial structure and function. The uncoupling of the oxidative phosphorylation is one of the most recognized deleterious fatty ...
Tonin Anelise M - - 2010
Accumulation of long-chain 3-hydroxy fatty acids is the biochemical hallmark of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) and mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) deficiencies. These disorders are clinically characterized by neurological symptoms, such as convulsions and lethargy, as well as by cardiomyopathy and muscle weakness. In the present work we investigated the in ...
Georgiadi Anastasia - - 2010
RATIONALE: Although dietary fatty acids are a major fuel for the heart, little is known about the direct effects of dietary fatty acids on gene regulation in the intact heart. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of dietary fatty acids on cardiac gene expression and explore the functional consequences. METHODS AND ...
Lombardi Assunta - - 2010
Although the literature contains many studies on the function of UCP3, its role is still being debated. It has been hypothesized that UCP3 may mediate lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane (MIM), thus protecting the mitochondrial matrix from this very aggressive molecule. However, no experiments on mitochondria ...
Permadi H - - 2010
1. Male mice were fed a diet containing perfluoro fatty acids of varying chain length (i.e. perfluoroacetic, -butyric, -octanoic and -decanoic acids) at different doses (0-02 or 0-1% w/w of diet) for different periods of time (2-10 days), and effects on liver weight, hepatic mitochondrial protein and hepatic peroxisomal palmitoyl-CoA ...
Khelifi Nadia - - 2010
Archaeoglobus fulgidus oxidizes fatty acids (C(4) to C(18)) and n-alk-1-enes (C(12:1) to C(21:1)) in the presence of thiosulfate as a terminal electron acceptor. End products of metabolism were CO(2) and sulfide. Growth on perdeuterated hexadecene yielded C(15)- to C(17)-labeled fatty acids as metabolites, thus confirming the ability of A. fulgidus ...
Hlavica Peter - - 2010
In view of the pivotal role played by the diversity of fatty acid-derived oxy-products in a vast array of physiological processes, precise knowledge about the molecular principles dictating substrate specificity and regioselectivity in P450-catalyzed oxidative attack on the distinctly structured carbon chains of the monocarboxylic acids is of paramount importance. ...
Hirschey Matthew D - - 2010
Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases. They mediate adaptive responses to a variety of stresses, including calorie restriction and metabolic stress. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is localized in the mitochondrial matrix, where it regulates the acetylation levels of metabolic enzymes, including acetyl coenzyme A synthetase 2 (refs 1, 2). Mice lacking both ...
Consitt Leslie A - - 2010
To determine whether the obesity-related decrement in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in primary human skeletal muscle cells (HSkMC) is linked with lower mitochondrial content and whether this deficit could be corrected via overexpression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha). FAO was studied in HSkMC from lean (BMI 22.4 +/- 0.9 ...
Houten Sander Michel - - 2010
Over the years, the mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) pathway has been characterised at the biochemical level as well as the molecular biological level. FAO plays a pivotal role in energy homoeostasis, but it competes with glucose as the primary oxidative substrate. The mechanisms behind this so-called glucose-fatty acid cycle ...
McCue M D - - 2010
Clinicians commonly measure the (13)CO(2) in exhaled breath samples following administration of a metabolic tracer (breath testing) to diagnose certain infections and metabolic disorders. We believe that breath testing can become a powerful tool to investigate novel questions about the influence of ecological and physiological factors on the oxidative fates ...
Hellgren Lars I - - 2010
Phytanic acid is a multibranched fatty acid with reported retinoid X receptor (RXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) agonist activity, which have been suggested to have preventive effects on metabolic dysfunctions. Serum level in man is strongly correlated to the intake of red meat and dairy products and the concentration ...
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