Search Results
Results 701 - 750 of 2058
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Ouali Fetta - - 2002
Regulatory effects of fatty acids on gene expression of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), a mitochondrial beta-oxidation enzyme, were investigated in rabbit kidney cell lines derived from proximal tubule (RC.SV1), thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (RC.SV2), or collecting duct (RC.SV3). Exposure to long-chain fatty acids led to significant increases (2-fold) ...
Liu Na - - 2002
Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and HIV neuroAIDS. In this study, we have investigated an agent, phenylbutyric acid, that ameliorates cell death in murine astrocytes infected with ts1 MoMuLV (ts1). Phenylbutyric acid, an aromatic short chain fatty acid, was ...
Tran Thien N - - 2002
The extent of mitochondrial and peroxisomal contribution to beta-oxidation of 18-, 20- and 24-carbon n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in intact rat hepatocytes is not fully clear. In this study, we analyzed radiolabeled acid soluble oxidation products by HPLC to identify mitochondrial and peroxisomal oxidation of 24:5n-3, 18- ...
Tyni Tiina - - 2002
Defects of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation are an important group of inherited metabolic disorders in children. Despite improved screening opportunities, diagnosis of these disorders is not often straightforward and requires enzyme analyses. Because therapy is effective in many of these disorders, rapid diagnosis is essential. We report a technique that ...
Stein T P - - 2002
In response to decreased usage skeletal muscle undergoes an adaptive reductive remodeling due to the decrease in tension on the weight bearing components of the musculo-skeletal system. Accompanying a shift in fiber type is an increased reliance of carbohydrate metabolism and decreased reliance on fat for energy. These responses have ...
Rottensteiner Hanspeter - - 2002
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ANT1/YPR128c encodes the peroxisomal adenine nucleotide transporter that provides ATP for intra-peroxisomal activation of medium-chain fatty acids. A lacZ reporter construct comprising the ANT1 promoter was shown to be comparatively more highly expressed in a wild-type strain grown on oleic acid, a long-chain fatty acid, than in pip2Delta(oaf1)Delta ...
Tabiri H Y - - 2002
The indicator amino acid oxidation technique has been widely used as a rapid and sensitive method to determine amino acid requirement. In this technique, the indicator 14C-amino acid is continuously infused and breath 14CO2 is collected to determine oxidation rate, which is used to predict requirement. However, a portion of ...
TeresiƄski Grzegorz - - 2002
Presently available possibilities of macro- and microscopic diagnosis of death from hypothermia are very limited as the changes observed are either weakly specific (ecchymoses in the mucous membrane of the stomach, histological features of haemorrhagic pancreatic necrosis, cardiomyocyte necrosis or decreased content of glycogen in hepatocytes) or represent only local ...
Thupari Jagan N - - 2002
C75, a known inhibitor of fatty acid synthase is postulated to cause significant weight loss through decreased hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) production. Peripherally, C75, an alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone, reduces adipose tissue and fatty liver, despite high levels of malonyl-CoA. To investigate this paradox, we studied the effect of C75 on fatty acid ...
Atkinson Laura L - - 2002
Leptin regulates fatty acid metabolism in liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas by partitioning fatty acids into oxidation rather than triacylglycerol (TG) storage. Although leptin receptors are present in the heart, it is not known whether leptin also regulates cardiac fatty acid metabolism. To determine whether leptin directly regulates cardiac fatty ...
Hasegawa Tomonobu - - 2002
We describe a patient with impairment of mitochondrial fatty acid P-oxidation. A Japanese baby boy was delivered in the 38th week of gestation by emergency cesarean section due to fetal asphyxia. His birth weight was 1,985 g (<10th percentile), length 44.8 cm (<10th percentile), and head circumference 31.0 cm (10th ...
Coker Mahmut - - 2002
In diabetes mellitus (DM), increased fatty acids have negative effects on pancreatic beta-cell functions, in addition to enhanced mitochondrial transportation of fatty acids related to decreased insulin levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate lipid metabolism in children with DM by measuring plasma fatty acids and carnitine fractions ...
Ukropec J - - 2002
We observed earlier that increased skeletal muscle lipid content in the hereditary hypertriglyceridemic (hHTg) rat is accompanied by a decline in plasma leptin. Leptin has recently been shown to enhance peripheral insulin sensitivity by decreasing the tissue triglyceride accumulation, possibly through regulation of fatty acid oxidation and lipogenesis. Thus, to ...
Tordjman Karen - - 2002
Fatty acids may promote type 2 diabetes by altering insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, a process known as lipotoxicity. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) has a direct effect on islet function, we treated INS-1 cells, an insulinoma cell ...
Berge Rolf K - - 2002
Thia substituted fatty acids are saturated fatty acids which are modified by insertion of a sulfur atom at specific positions in the carbon backbone. During the last few years pleiotropic effects of the 3-thia fatty acid tetradecylthioacetic acid have been revealed. The biological responses to tetradecylthioacetic acid include mitochondrial proliferation, ...
Kushiro Masayo - - 2002
Sesamin is one of the most abundant lignans in sesame seed. Episesamin, a geometrical isomer of sesamin, is not a naturally occurring compound and is formed during the refining process of non-roasted sesame seed oil. We compared the physiological activities of these compounds in affecting hepatic fatty acid metabolism in ...
Alvarez Héctor M - - 2002
Phenyldecane supported growth and lipid accumulation of Rhodococcus opacus PD630 during cultivation under nitrogen-limiting conditions. The results of this study suggested that the hydrocarbon phenyldecane was degraded by monoterminal oxidation, followed by beta-oxidation of the alkyl side-chain to phenylacetic acid, and by an additional degradative route for the oxidation of ...
Mueller Sebastian - - 2002
Peroxisomes are essential and ubiquitous cell organelles having a key role in mammalian lipid and oxygen metabolism. The presence of flavine oxidases makes them an important intracellular source of H(2)O(2): an obligate product of peroxisomal redox reactions and a key reactive oxygen species. Peroxisomes proliferate in response to external signals ...
Stanley William C - - 2002
Partial fatty acid oxidation inhibition is effective therapy for the treatment of chronic stable angina and is particularly useful in patients with persistent angina despite optimal traditional therapy. The heart derives most of its energy from the oxidation of fatty acids. Fatty acid oxidation strongly inhibits pyruvate oxidation in the ...
Ferdinandusse S - - 2002
In this report, we reinvestigate the only patient ever reported with a deficiency of peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (THIO). At the time when they were described, the abnormalities in this patient, which included accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids and the bile-acid intermediate trihydroxycholestanoic acid, were believed to be the logical consequence ...
Hagerman Ruth A - - 2002
The degree of severity of cardiomyopathy is inversely correlated with tissue levels of coenzyme Q (Q), suggesting that Q synthesis may impact the progression of the disease. It has been suggested that Q functions as an endogenously synthesized anti-oxidant, in addition to regenerating the potent anti-oxidants, vitamins E and C. ...
Kim Seong Chul - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about fat use during sepsis during the neonatal period. Intramitochondrial O(2) consumption is inhibited in isolated hepatocytes from suckling septic rats and this impairment is reversed by glutamine. We investigated the effect of neonatal sepsis on fat oxidation and whether glutamine can directly affect fatty acid ...
Wolff Andrew A - - 2002
This review article discusses pharmacological approaches to optimizing myocardial metabolism during ischemia. Fatty acids are the main fuel for the healthy heart, with a lesser contribution coming from the oxidation of glucose and lactate. Myocardial ischaemia dramatically alters fuel metabolism, causing an accelerated rate of glucose conversion to lactate and ...
Kuang Wenxing - - 2002
The structure and catalytic properties of silica-supported heteropoly acids promoted by the reduced Ce-Ni oxides are first studied by using chemical analysis XRD, FT-Raman, XPS, EPR, TG, surface area measurements, and microreactor test. It is found that silica-supported heteropoly acids have isomerization activity, but are very easy to deactivate by ...
Sambandam Nandakumar - - 2002
In response to a prolonged pressure- or volume-overload, alterations occur in myocardial fatty acid, glucose, and glycogen metabolism. Oxidation of long chain fatty acids has been found to be reduced in hypertrophied hearts compared to non-hypertrophied hearts. However, this observation depends upon the degree of cardiac hypertrophy, the severity of ...
Yoshikawa Takashi - - 2002
Tamoxifen is a potent antagonist of estrogen, and hepatic steatosis is a frequent complication in adjuvant tamoxifen for breast cancer. Recently, aromatase-deficient (ArKO, Ar-/-) mice lacking intrinsic estrogen was developed and the molecular mechanism involved in progression of massive hepatic steatosis in estrogen-deficiency was elucidated; impairment in hepatic fatty acid ...
Hagen Tory M - - 2002
Mitochondrial decay has been postulated to be a significant underlying part of the aging process. Decline in mitochondrial function may lead to cellular energy deficits, especially in times of greater energy demand, and compromise vital ATP-dependent cellular operations, including detoxification, repair systems, DNA replication, and osmotic balance. Mitochondrial decay may ...
Heim Manuel - - 2002
Phytanic acid, a metabolite of the chlorophyll molecule, is part of the human diet and is present in normal human serum at low micromolar concentrations. It was previously shown to be a ligand of the 9-cis-retinoic acid receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) a. PPAR agonists are widely used in ...
Janssen Uwe - - 2002
Cellular energy metabolism is largely sustained by mitochondrial beta-oxidation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. To study the role of unsaturated fatty acids in cellular lipid and energy metabolism we generated a null allelic mouse, deficient in 3,2-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase (ECI) (eci(-/-) mouse). ECI is the link in mitochondrial beta-oxidation of ...
Galland S - - 2002
The carnitine system plays a key role in beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids by permitting their transport into the mitochondrial matrix. The effects of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were studied on gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase (BBH), the enzyme responsible for carnitine biosynthesis in the rat. In rat liver, BBH activity was decreased in ...
Ferdinandusse S - - 2002
Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) is a branched-chain fatty acid derived from dietary sources and broken down in the peroxisome to pristanic acid (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecanoic acid) via alpha-oxidation. Pristanic acid then undergoes beta-oxidation in peroxisomes. Phytanic acid naturally occurs as a mixture of (3S,7R,11R)- and (3R,7R,11R)-diastereomers. In contrast to the alpha-oxidation system, ...
Sim Keow Giak - - 2002
Mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO) is coupled to the respiratory chain (RC). Functional defects of one pathway may lead to secondary alteration in flux through the other. We investigated the acylcarnitine profiles in cultured fibroblasts obtained from 14 healthy subjects, 31 patients with 8 different primary enzyme deficiencies of FAO, ...
Graham Ian A IA Centre for Novel Agricultural Products, Department of Biology, University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, York, UK. - - 2002
Significant advances in our knowledge of fatty acid breakdown in plants have been made since the subject was last comprehensively reviewed in the early 1990s. Many of the genes encoding the enzymes of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of straight chain fatty acids have now been identified. Biochemical genetic approaches in the model ...
Schlüter Agatha - - 2002
Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) is a phytol-derived branched-chain fatty acid present in dietary products. Phytanic acid increased uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) mRNA expression in brown adipocytes differentiated in culture. Phytanic acid induced the expression of the UCP1 gene promoter, which was enhanced by co-transfection with a retinoid X receptor (RXR) expression ...
Infante Juan P - - 2002
Extremely long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ELCPs) with >24 carbons and four or more double bonds are normally found in excitatory tissues but have no known function, and are greatly increased in brain and other tissues of humans with peroxisomal disorders. Straight-chain acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) catalyzes the first, rate-limiting step ...
Kong Jennifer Y - - 2002
To test the hypothesis that regulation of palmitate metabolism, through carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) or through alterations of glycolysis, was involved in the pathway of palmitate-mediated cell death, cardiomyocytes were cultured from 7-day-old chick embryos. Palmitate-induced cell death, assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, was enhanced by carnitine, a ...
Lewandowski E Douglas - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Reduced fatty acid oxidation in hypoperfused myocardium is believed to result from impaired oxidation in mitochondria. This study suggests another mechanism, that oxidative capacity exceeds regulated entry of long chain fatty acid (LCFA). The ability of myocardium to oxidize fatty acids and metabolize glucose during stenosis was examined in ...
Bebernitz Gregory R - - 2002
Utilization of fat as a long-term energy storage vehicle is crucial for the maintenance of cellular metabolism and is under intricate and many times redundant control mechanisms. Aberrations in the control of energy metabolism is apparent in diseases such as diabetes and obesity and is evident early on in patients ...
Rinaldo Piero - - 2002
Genetic disorders of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation have been recognized within the last 20 years as important causes of morbidity and mortality, highlighting the physiological significance of fatty acids as an energy source. Although the mammalian mitochondrial fatty acid-oxidizing system was recognized at the beginning of the last century, our ...
Bernardi Paolo - - 2002
For most cell types, fatty acids are excellent respiratory substrates. After being transported across the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes they undergo beta-oxidation in the matrix and feed electrons into the mitochondrial energy-conserving respiratory chain. On the other hand, fatty acids also physically interact with mitochondrial membranes, and possess the ...
O'Donnell J Michael - - 2002
The coordination of long chain fatty acid (LCFA) transport across the mitochondrial membrane (V(PAL)) with subsequent oxidation rate through beta-oxidation and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (V(tca)) has been difficult to characterize in the intact heart. Kinetic analysis of dynamic (13)C-NMR distinguished these flux rates in isolated rabbit hearts. Hearts ...
Lin W F - - 2002
The adsorption and electro-oxidation of formaldehyde, formic acid and methanol at the Ru(0001) electrode in perchloric acid solution have been studied as a function of temperature, potential and time using in situ FTIR spectroscopy, and the results interpreted in terms of the surface chemistry of the Ru(000 1) electrode and ...
Hayashi Makoto - - 2002
Glyoxysomes, a group of specialized peroxisomes, are organelles that degrade fatty acids by the combination of fatty acid beta-oxidation and glyoxylate cycle. However, the mechanism underlying the transport of the fatty acids across the peroxisomal membrane is still obscure in higher plant cells. We identified and analyzed the PED3 gene ...
Treem William R - - 2002
Accumulation of micro- and macrovesicular fat in hepatocytes is the hallmark of several liver diseases of pregnancy, including acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) and severe pre-eclampsia. While the exact origin of AFLP is not known, this pathologic finding and its similarity to the hepatopathology found in infants and children ...
Toleikis A - - 2001
The present study on saponin-treated rat heart muscle fibers has revealed a new function of the fatty acid oxidation system in the regulation of the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) permeability for ADP. It is found that oxidation of palmitoyl-CoA+carnitine, palmitoyl-L-carnitine and octanoyl-L-carnitine (alone or in combination with pyruvate+malate) dramatically decreased ...
Owen K Q - - 2001
A trial was conducted to biochemically explain the decreased lipid deposition and increased protein accretion observed in pigs fed carnitine. Our hypothesis was that an increase in the ratio of acetyl CoA:CoA-SH produced by stimulation of fatty acid oxidation by supplemental L-carnitine may decrease branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase activity and ...
Reddy J K - - 2001
Peroxisomes are involved in the beta-oxidation chain shortening of long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs, long-chain dicarboxylyl-CoAs, the CoA esters of eicosanoids, 2-methyl-branched fatty acyl-CoAs, and the CoA esters of the bile acid intermediates, and in the process, they generate H(2)O(2). There are two complete sets of beta-oxidation enzymes present in ...
Ferdinandusse S - - 2001
DHA (C22:6n-3) is an important PUFA implicated in a number of (patho)physiological processes. For a long time, the exact mechanism of DHA formation has remained unclear, but now it is known that it involves the production of tetracosahexaenoic acid (C24:6n-3) from dietary linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) via a series of elongation ...
Sleboda J - - 2001
The rate of oxidation of fatty acids in mammals is minimal prior to birth. In this study, we have shown that foetal calf serum (FCS) inhibits oxidation of palmitate while serum from newborn calves is almost without effect. Foetal calf serum was also found to increase fatty acid synthesis from ...
Rinaldo P - - 2001
Inborn errors of fatty acid transport and mitochondrial oxidation (FATMO) represent a group of metabolic disorders that has brought forward many interesting developments in recent years, particularly the discovery of several new defects and the recognition of an ever-increasing spectrum of clinical phenotypes. The impact of newborn and postmortem screening ...
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