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Results 451 - 500 of 2058
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Zhang Bo - - 2006
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) have received considerable interest as renewable-resource-based, biodegradable, and biocompatible plastics with a wide range of potential applications. We have engineered the synthesis of PHA polymers composed of monomers ranging from 4 to 14 carbon atoms in either the cytosol or the peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by harnessing intermediates ...
Guo Wen - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Octanoate is a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) that is rich in milk and tropical dietary lipids. It also accounts for 70% of the fatty acids in commercial medium chain triglycerides (MCT). Use of MCT for weight control tracks back to early 1950s and is highlighted by recent clinical trials. ...
Küpper Frithjof C - - 2006
This study provides evidence that bacterial lipopolysaccharides can be strong triggers of early events of defence reactions in the brown algal kelp Laminaria digitata, constituting the first report of a biological activity of this class of macromolecules in a marine alga. The early events include an oxidative burst, release of ...
Thiruvenkatachari Ramesh - - 2006
Terephthalic acid (TPA) wastewater is traditionally being treated by biological method. This study investigates the degradation of three major toxic target organic species, namely terephthalic acid (TPA), isophthalic acid (IPA), benzoic acid (BA), present in the TPA wastewater, by several advanced oxidation processes. The performance of three main oxidation processes ...
Scalia D - - 2006
An in vitro study was conducted to examine the influence of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) on bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Eight healthy, midlactating Holstein cows were used as blood donors. Blood PMN were isolated and incubated with a mixture of NEFA, reflecting composition of bovine plasma NEFA at concentrations that ...
DeGrado Timothy R - - 2006
Fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is the predominant energy-producing pathway in the healthy heart. Abnormalities in FAO are associated with many ischemic and nonischemic disease states. The aim of the present study was to further validate 16-[(18)F]-fluoro-4-thia-palmitate ((18)F-FTP) as a metabolically trapped FAO probe in the isolated perfused rat heart model ...
Simon Philippe - - 2006
5-Hydroxyuracil is a major oxidized nucleobase that can be generated by the action of (*)OH radical and one-electron oxidants. The latter modified base that exhibits a low ionization potential is highly susceptible to further degradation upon exposure to various oxidants. Emphasis was placed in this work on the formation and ...
Smith Jennifer J JJ Institute for Systems Biology, Yeast Group, Seattle, WA 98103-8904, - - 2006
Cells respond to fatty acid exposure by metabolic reorganization and proliferation of peroxisomes. Described here is the development and application of a genome-wide screen to identify nonessential yeast genes necessary for efficient metabolism of myristic and oleic acids. Comparison of the resultant fitness data set with an integrated data set ...
Lee Woo Je - - 2006
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation increases fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle by decreasing malonyl CoA concentrations. However, this may not explain the long-term effects of AMPK activation. Here we show that AMPK activation by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) increases mRNA expression of PPARalpha target genes and PGC-1 in cultured muscle ...
Schrauwen Patrick - - 2006
The discovery of the human homologue of the thermogenic protein UCP1, named uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), boosted research on the role of this skeletal muscle protein in energy metabolism and body weight regulation. Nowadays, 9 years after its discovery emerging data indicate that the primary physiological role of UCP3 may ...
Ericksen S S - - 2005
Cytochrome P450 1A1 oxidizes a diverse range of substrates, including the procarcinogenic xenobiotic benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and endogenous fatty acid precursors of prostaglandins, such as arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EA). We have investigated the extent to which enzyme-substrate interactions govern regio- and stereoselectivity of oxidation of these compounds by ...
De Marco Vincent G - - 2005
We recently demonstrated that lipoic acid suppresses endotoxin-stimulated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production in mouse macrophages. In this study, we tested whether lipoic acid suppresses these inflammatory mediators in the lungs of rats. Rats were assigned to receive either no special treatment, endotoxin alone, or ...
Jump Donald B - - 2005
Dietary fat regulates gene expression by controlling the activity or abundance of key transcription factors. In vitro binding and cell culture studies have identified many transcription factors as prospective targets for fatty acid regulation, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARalpha, beta, gamma1, and gamma2), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), hepatic ...
Caspary F - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The dogma in psoriasis is that due to pathogen-induced inflammatory responses, an autoreactive immune response is induced that leads to tissue destruction. However, this model might be too simplistic. Literature data suggest that the expression of enzymes crucial for fatty acid oxidation is upregulated in the skin of patients ...
Sundh Ingvar - - 2005
The abundance and activity of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in the water column were investigated in three lakes with different contents of nutrients and humic substances. The abundance of MOB was determined by analysis of group-specific phospholipid fatty acids from type I and type II MOB, and in situ activity was ...
Napal Laura - - 2005
The liver plays a central role in the response to fasting. The hormonal profile in this condition, low insulin, and high concentrations of glucagon in plasma, induce the release of large amounts of fatty acids from adipose tissue. Prolonged starvation can therefore induce a dramatic change in the fatty acid ...
Obinata Hideru - - 2005
G2A is a G protein-coupled receptor that is predominantly expressed in lymphoid tissues and macrophages. G2A can be induced by diverse stimuli to cause cell cycle arrest in the G(2)/M phase in pro-B and T cells. G2A is also expressed in macrophages within atherosclerotic lesions, suggesting G2A involvement in atherosclerosis. ...
Jambor de Sousa Ulrike L - - 2005
To test the cellular response to an increased fatty acid oxidation, we generated a vector for an inducible expression of the rate-limiting enzyme carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1alpha (CPT1alpha). Human embryonic 293T kidney cells were transiently transfected and expression of the CPT1alpha transgene in the tet-on vector was activated with doxycycline. Fatty ...
Bezaire Veronic - - 2006
Fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) is a transport protein with a high affinity for long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). It was recently identified on rat skeletal muscle mitochondrial membranes and found to be required for palmitate uptake and oxidation. Our aim was to identify the presence and elucidate the role of FAT/CD36 ...
Bogacka Iwona - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: Mitochondrial biogenesis is a complex process, and several factors and signaling pathways regulate this process in muscle or brown adipocytes. The aim of the study was to explore pathways affecting mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in human white adipocytes. METHODS: Human preadipocytes obtained from liposuction samples were ...
KC Sagan - - 2005
Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced mitochondrial abnormalities may have important consequences in the pathogenesis of degenerative diseases and cancer. Vitamin C is an important antioxidant known to quench ROS, but its mitochondrial transport and functions are poorly understood. We found that the oxidized form of vitamin C, dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), enters ...
Thanka J - - 2005
Although the cause of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains unknown, extensive studies over the last 10 years have begun to shed some light on this family tragedy. 5% of all cases of SIDS are caused by fatty acid oxidation disorders. We report a case of fatty acid oxidation disorder ...
Nakamuta Makoto - - 2005
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequent causes of abnormal liver dysfunction, and its prevalence has markedly increased; however, the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD have not been thoroughly investigated in humans. In this study, we evaluated the expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes ...
Korman Stanley H - - 2005
Detection of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT IA) deficiency by metabolite screening may be problematic. The urine organic acid profile is generally said to be normal and no abnormal or increased acylcarnitine species are evident on bloodspot tandem MS examination. We diagnosed CPT IA deficiency presenting with acute encephalopathy +/- ...
Kuhajda Francis P - - 2005
Obesity and its attendant disorders, such as Type II diabetes, have reached epidemic proportions in the USA, and their prevalence is increasing globally. C75 is a small-molecule inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and a stimulator of carnitine palmitoyl 1 activity, which causes profound weight loss in mice. Although C75 ...
Hannon J B - - 2005
We describe a method to selectively position carbon nanotubes on Al2O3 and HfO2 surfaces. The method exploits the selective binding of alkylphosphonic acids to oxide surfaces with large isoelectric points (i.e. basic rather than acidic surfaces). We have patterned oxide surfaces with acids using both microcontact printing and conventional lithography. ...
Maggio-Hall Lori A - - 2005
Seed contamination with polyketide mycotoxins, including aflatoxin (AF) and sterigmatocystin (ST) produced by Aspergillus spp., is an agricultural, economic, and medical issue worldwide. Acetyl-CoA, the fundamental building block of all known fungal polyketides, is generated by a large number of biochemical pathways, including beta-oxidation of fatty acids and glycolysis of ...
Guo Wen - - 2005
The beneficial roles of dietary fish oil in lowering serum TAG levels in animals and humans have been attributed in part to the high content of two n-3 polyunsaturated very long-chain FA, EPA, and DHA. Recent studies show that EPA induces mitochondrial beta-oxidation in hepatocytes, which might contribute to the ...
Koh Eun H - - 2005
Triglyceride accumulation in skeletal muscle is increased in subjects with insulin resistance. Increased intracellular lipolysis from stored triglyceride may induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle by activating the glucose-fatty acid cycle. However, inconsistent with this hypothesis, intracellular lipolysis from skeletal muscle is decreased in high fat-fed, insulin resistant rats. Therefore, ...
Kim Min Sun - - 2005
Fatty acid oxidation provides energy in tissues with high metabolic demands. During the acute-phase response (APR) induced by infection and inflammation, fatty acid oxidation is decreased associated with hypertriglyceridemia. Little is known about the mechanism by which the APR decreases fatty acid oxidation. Therefore, we investigated whether the APR affects ...
Boldogh Istvan R - - 2005
Mitochondria are essential organelles that perform fundamental cellular functions including aerobic energy mobilization, fatty acid oxidation, amino acid metabolism, heme biosynthesis and apoptosis. Mitochondria cannot be synthesized de novo. Therefore, the inheritance of this organelle is an essential part of the cell cycle; that is, daughter cells that do not ...
Thottumkara Arun P - - 2005
[structure: see text] Catalytic use of o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) in the presence of Oxone as a co-oxidant is demonstrated for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols in user- and eco-friendly solvent mixtures. Also demonstrated is the in situ (re)oxidation of 2-iodosobenzoic acid (IBA) and even commercially available 2-iodobenzoic acid ...
Titov V N - - 2005
Oxidation of arachidonic acid by ROS in vitro can be evaluated by the formation of reaction products (conjugated dienes); this is preceded by a lag period caused by the action of antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and ascorbic acid). In case of ozone titration the oxidizer is consumed even during the lag ...
Anderson Joe R - - 2005
Ranolazine is a novel new antianginal agent currently under investigation as monotherapy and adjunct therapy for the treatment of chronic stable angina. While the mechanism of action of ranolazine is not completely understood, it is believed to involve a reduction in fatty acid oxidation, ultimately leading to a shift in ...
Angsten Gertrud - - 2005
METHODS: Anesthetized pigs were studied with [(11)C]-labeled fatty acids (FAs) with carbon chain length ranging from 8 to 16 carbon atoms, during control conditions and during inhibition of carnitine-palmitoyl transferase I (CPT I) with oxfenicine. The myocardial uptake of [(11)C]-FAs from blood was measured together with the relative distribution of ...
Gudbrandsen Oddrun Anita - - 2005
The effects on oxidation and composition of fatty acids in rat liver were compared after administration of fatty acids with sulfur substituted in different positions. It has been hypothesized that drugs with hydrophobic backbone have lipid-lowering effects because they are not easily catabolized by mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Thia fatty acids cannot ...
Oriani G - - 2005
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of age on lipid content and composition of lamb meat. Thirty suckling ram lambs of the Italian Merino breed, reared according to a traditional semi-extensive management, were slaughtered at 30, 50 and 70 days of age to evaluate total lipids and ...
Zhu Weifei - - 2005
Dietary free fatty acids have been reported to have various effects on the endothelium including the generation of nitric oxide. The goal of the current study was to determine the mechanism whereby free fatty acid causes an increase in nitric oxide synthesis. The specific hypothesis tested was that free fatty ...
Li Pipeng - - 2005
Chronic activation of adipocyte beta-adrenergic receptors induces remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT) that includes a transient inflammatory response followed by mitochondrial biogenesis, induction of fatty acid oxidation genes, and elevation of tissue oxidative metabolism. Gene profiling experiments of WAT during remodeling induced by the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor agonist CL-316,243 (CL) ...
Zha Shan - - 2005
Overexpression of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), an enzyme involved in branched chain fatty acid beta-oxidation, in prostate cancer has been reported. Here, we report that an enzyme downstream from AMACR in the peroxisomal branched chain fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway-D-bifunctional protein (DBP)-is also upregulated in prostate cancer at both mRNA and protein ...
Keith Mary - - 2005
The healthy heart relies primarily upon the oxidation of fatty acids for energy, with the remaining coming from the oxidation of glucose and lactate. Changes in energy requirements are met by altering the balance of fuels depending upon the hormonal milieu as well as upon the availability of oxygen and ...
Wenzel Uwe - - 2005
Carnitine-dependent fatty acid import into mitochondria and beta-oxidation seem to be impaired in tumor cells. In the present study we show that a supply of palmitoylcarnitine together with L-carnitine potently induces apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells as a consequence of accelerated fatty acid oxidation. Caspase-3-like activities, measured by ...
Pracharoenwattana Itsara - - 2005
We tested the hypothesis that peroxisomal citrate synthase (CSY) is required for carbon transfer from peroxisomes to mitochondria during respiration of triacylglycerol in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Two genes encoding peroxisomal CSY are expressed in Arabidopsis seedlings, and seeds from plants with both CSY genes disrupted were dormant and did not ...
Zeller Klaus-Peter - - 2005
The product pattern found for the dimethyldioxirane-mediated oxidation of phenylethyne strongly depends on the reaction conditions. Dimethyldioxirane generated in situ from caroate (HSO(5)(-)) and acetone in acetonitrile-water furnishes phenylacetic acid as the main product. With solutions of dimethyldioxirane in acetone, mandelic acid and phenylacetic acid are mainly formed. The relative ...
Tissier Cindy - - 2005
Defining the substrate that influences the most favourably the myocardial post-ischemic recovery is subject of debates, due to dissociation between functional and biochemical benefits. Hence, we studied the effects of either glucose or different fatty acids on the functional and metabolic recovery of post-ischemic cardiomyocytes in a substrate-free hypoxia model ...
Rufián-Henares José Angel - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Enteral formulas can be stored for up to 2 years. Fat oxidation during storage can lead to the loss of nutritive value and generation of toxic products such as lipid peroxides. METHODS: Two standard enteral formulas were stored for short periods at high temperatures (1-4 weeks at 32-55 degrees ...
Fischer Klaus - - 2005
Carbohydrate-rich biomass residues, i.e. sugar beet molasses, whey powder, wine yeast, potato peel sludge, spent hops, malt dust and apple marc, were tested as starting materials for the generation of marketable chemicals, e.g. aliphatic acids, sugar acids and mono-/disaccharides. Residues were oxidized or hydrolyzed under acidic or alkaline conditions applying ...
He Xiang X Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, 94143, - - 2005
The fatty acid omega-hydroxylation regiospecificity of CYP4 enzymes may result from presentation of the terminal carbon to the oxidizing species via a narrow channel that restricts access to the other carbon atoms. To test this hypothesis, the oxidation of 12-iodo-, 12-bromo-, and 12-chlorododecanoic acids by recombinant CYP4A1 has been examined. ...
Xu Guozhong - - 2005
Protein footprinting based on hydroxyl radical-mediated modification and quantitative mass spectroscopic analysis is a proven technique for examining protein structure, protein-ligand interactions, and structural allostery upon protein complex formation. The reactive and solvent-accessible amino acid side chains function as structural probes; however, correct structural analysis depends on the identification and ...
Fickers P - - 2005
The alkane-assimilating yeast Yarrowia lipolytica degrades very efficiently hydrophobic substrates such as n-alkanes, fatty acids, fats and oils for which it has specific metabolic pathways. An overview of the oxidative degradation pathways for alkanes and triglycerides in Y. lipolytica is given, with new insights arising from the recent genome sequencing ...
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