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Lipińska Lidia L Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Lodz University of Technology, - - 2014
 The present paper deals with the structure, occurrence and biological activity of ellagitannins. Ellagitannins belong to the class of hydrolysable tannins, they are esters of hexahydroxydiphenoic acid and monosaccharide (most commonly glucose). Ellagitannins are slowly hydrolysed in the digestive tract, releasing the ellagic acid molecule. Their chemical structure determines physical ...
Cheng Yu-Ting YT Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Road, Taichung 40227, - - 2014
Ketoprofen is widely used to alleviate pain and inflammation in clinical medicine; however, this drug may cause oxidative stress and lead to gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers. We previously reported that nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in protecting cells against reactive oxygen species, and it facilitates ...
Salentinig Stefan - - 2014
Free fatty acids play a vital role as fuel for cells and in lipid metabolism. During lipid digestion in the gastrointestinal tract, triglycerides are hydrolyzed resulting in the amphiphilic products free fatty acids and monoglycerides. These components, together with bile salts, are responsible for the transport of lipids and poorly ...
Yin Liangjie L *Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Shands Cancer Center, Cancer and Genetics Research Complex, 2033 Mowry Road, Box 103633, Gainesville, FL - - 2014
Electrolyte and nutrient absorption occur in villous epithelial cells. Radiation often results in reduced electrolyte and nutrient absorption, which leads to gastrointestinal toxicity. Therefore, the authors studied: (1) radiation-induced changes in glucose and amino acid absorption across ileal tissues and (2) the effect of amino acid mixtures on absorptive capacity. ...
Goodarzi Boroojeni F F Institute of Animal Nutrition, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, Königin-Luise-Str. 49, 14195 Berlin, Germany - - 2014
Thermal treatments of feed and organic acids are known to affect the gastrointestinal microbiota in chickens. The present study evaluated the effect of different thermal processes including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), expanding at 110°C (E110), and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) as well ...
Egan Muireann M School of Microbiology and Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork, - - 2014
Bifidobacteria constitute a specific group of commensal bacteria, which inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other mammals. Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 has previously been shown to utilize several plant-derived carbohydrates that include cellodextrins, starch and galactan. In the current study, we investigated the ability of this strain to utilize the ...
de Lima Ana Cristina Silva AC Departamento de Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Av. Mister Hull, 2977, Campus Universitário do Pici, Fortaleza, Ceara 60356-000, Brazil. Electronic address: - - 2014
Considering the lack of research studies about nutrients' bioaccessibility in cashew apple, in this study the whole cashew apple juice and the cashew apple fibre were submitted to simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The samples were analysed before and after digestion and had their copper, iron, zinc, ascorbic acid, total ...
Gregory Katherine E KE W.F. Connell School of Nursing, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA; Department of Nursing, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA; Department of Newborn Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Necrotizing enterocolitis, characterized by sudden onset and rapid progression, remains the most significant gastrointestinal disorder among premature infants. In seeking a predictive biomarker, we found intestinal fatty acid binding protein, an indicator of enterocyte damage, was substantially increased within three and seven days before the diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis.
Metcalfe Emma Louise EL Health Services Research Unit, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK; Department of Gastroenterology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZN, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Branched-chain amino acid supplementation in porto-systemic encephalopathy remains controversial. Here, we examined the systematic review evidence for their effect on encephalopathy, hepatic decompensation, survival, infection, hospital stay and quality of life, and review data on adherence, side-effects and cost/economic evaluation. Four electronic databases were searched from 1980 to June 2011, ...
Chen Tao T Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100101, China; Center for Tuberculosis Control of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510630, - - 2014
To overcome the undesirable side-effects of metronidazole (MTZ), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate is used as the cross-linker, and a series of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) nanogels were prepared to load the MTZ. We investigated the morphology, size, in vitro release property in the simulated gastrointestinal medium, long-term antibacterial performance against Bacteroides fragilis, ...
Varsha Kontham Kulangara KK Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), CSIR, Trivandrum, 695 019, Kerala, - - 2014
Thirty-six lactic acid bacteria belong to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Pediococcus were isolated, and the spectrum of antifungal activity was verified against Fusarium oxysporum (KACC 42109), Aspergillus niger (KACC 42589), Fusarium moniliforme (KACC 08141), Penicillium chrysogenum (NII 08137), and the yeast Candida albicans (MTCC 3017). Three isolates, identified as Pediococcus ...
Vilekar Prachi P Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 1110 N. Stonewall Avenue, Oklahoma City, OK, 73117, - - 2014
Curcumin is well known for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. However, since systemic absorption and bioavailability of curcumin from gastrointestinal tract is considerably poor, synthetic curcuminoids are being developed as better alternatives. Two curcumin derivatives: 3,5-bis(benzylidene)-4-piperidone (EF24) and EF24-dimer linked via diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid (EF2DTPA), were included in this study. We ...
Xu Duoxia D College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Functional Food from Plant Resources, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China; Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA; School of Food & Chemical Engineering, Beijing Technology & Business University, Beijing, - - 2014
The impact of a whey protein isolate (WPI)-beet pectin (BP) conjugate (formed by dry-heating) on the physical properties and digestibilities of β-carotene and carrier oil in oil-in-water emulsions was studied when they passed through a model gastrointestinal system. β-Carotene emulsions were stabilized by WPI, unconjugated and conjugated WPI-BP, separately. The ...
Wachira John K JK Department of Internal Medicine, Sanford School of Medicine, Health Science Center, The University of South Dakota, 1400 West 22nd Street, Sioux Falls, SD 57105, - - 2014
n-3 Fatty acids (EPA and DHA, from fish oil) are essential fatty acids that are approved for the treatment of severe hypertriacylglycerolaemia and, in some countries, used for reducing the risk of CVD. Because of their inhibitory effects on platelet function, some practitioners have, perhaps unnecessarily, discontinued their use in ...
Gahan Cormac G M CG Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork Cork, Ireland ; School of Microbiology, University College Cork Cork, Ireland ; School of Pharmacy, University College Cork Cork, - - 2014
The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has the capacity to survive and grow in a diverse range of natural environments. The transition from a food environment to the gastrointestinal tract begins a process of adaptation that may culminate in invasive systemic disease. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of ...
Agarwal Ankit A Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Institute of Medical Sciences, BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, - - 2014
Corrosive acid poisoning commonly results in chemical injuries to respiratory and upper gastrointestinal tract. Corrosive mucosal erosion of the larynx and trachea may occur if the patient aspirates acid. We successfully used local anti-inflammatory action of dexamethasone instilled through a fiber-optic bronchoscope for regression of mucosal edema and prevention of ...
Milašinović Nikola N Department of Forensics, The Academy of Criminalistic and Police Studies, Cara Dušana 196, 11080 Belgrade, - - 2014
Stimuli responsive pH- and temperature-sensitive hydrogel drug delivery systems, as those based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NiPAAm) and itaconic acid (IA), have been attracting much of the attention of the scientific community nowadays, especially in the field of drug release. By adjusting comonomer composition, the matrix is enabled to protect the incorporated ...
Crane John K JK Deparment of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University at Buffalo , Buffalo, New York , - - 2013
Uric acid can be generated in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract from the breakdown of nucleotides ingested in the diet or from purines released from host cells as a result of pathogen-induced cell damage. Xanthine oxidase (XO) is the enzyme that converts hypoxanthine or xanthine into uric acid, a reaction that ...
Yu Lin L State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science, Advanced Materials Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, - - 2013
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a clinical therapy for early stage neoplastic lesions in gastrointestinal tract. It is, however, faced with a crucial problem of perforation with high frequency. Formation of a submucosal fluid cushion (SFC) via a fluid injection is the best way to avoid perforation, and thus an ...
Bottesini Chiara C Department of Food Science, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze, 17/a, 43124, Parma, - - 2013
Gamma-glutamyl-amino acids, lactoyl-amino acids and pyroglutamyl-amino acids, collectively named Non-Proteolytic Aminoacyl Derivatives (NPADs) are unusual aminoacyl derivatives of non-proteolytic origins found in consistent amount in several cheeses. Although their enzymatic origin arising from lactic acid bacteria has been demonstrated, the exact enzymes originating them, the ones eventually degrading them and ...
Tadrous M - - 2013
We completed a network meta-analysis of published papers to compare bisphosphonate gastrointestinal safety. We found that zoledronic acid had the highest chance of causing gastrointestinal adverse events. Etidronate had the highest chance of discontinuation due to an adverse event. No difference was found for serious adverse events. Bisphosphonates are first-line ...
Detopoulou Paraskevi - - 2013
Omega-3 fatty acids exert a plethora of physiological actions including triglycerides lowering, reduction of inflammatory indices, immunomodulation, anti-thrombotic effects and possibly promotion of exercise performance. Their use is widespread and for commonly ingested doses their side- effects are minimal. We report a case of a 60y amateur athlete who consumed ...
Sasaki Risa - - 2013
Zearalenone (ZEA) mainly contaminates grains such as corn and wheat, causing damage to livestock through ingestion of contaminated feed. Recently, various clays have been added to the feed to adsorb mycotoxins and to prevent mycotoxicosis of animals fed contaminated feeds. However the adsorption mechanism of the mycotoxin to clay is ...
Zhang J - - 2013
Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2, also called GPR43) is reported to play a critical role in mediating the actions of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in humans and mice. However, little is known about the structure, functionality, and tissue expression of FFA2 in other mammalian species, including pigs. In the ...
Aarak Kristi Ekrann - - 2013
We hypothesize that the rate of release of lipids from salmon muscle during in vitro digestion is altered by additional meal components. In vitro digestion of salmon was performed using a mixture of porcine gastrointestinal enzymes and bile salts. Broccoli and barley were also added to the digestion simulating a ...
Kishino Shigenobu S Division of Applied Life Sciences and Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, - - 2013
In the representative gut bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum, we identified genes encoding the enzymes involved in a saturation metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed in detail the metabolic pathway that generates hydroxy fatty acids, oxo fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids, and partially saturated trans-fatty acids as intermediates. Furthermore, we observed ...
Zhang Yi - - 2013
Prebiotics such as oligosaccharides, fructans, and resistant starch (RS) stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in large bowel and modify the human gastrointestinal environment. In this study, compared with glucose (GLU) and high amylose maize starch (HAMS), the in vitro effects of LRS3 and P-LRS3 (RS3 and purified RS3 prepared ...
Xiao Zhu-Ping - - 2013
Inhibition of urease results in Helicobacter pylori growth arrest in the stomach, promoting urease as promising targets for gastrointestinal ulcer therapy. Twenty hybrid derivatives of flavonoid scaffold and hydroxamic acid, β-hydroxy-β-phenylpropionylhydroxamic acids, were therefore synthesized and evaluated against H. pylori urease. Biological evaluation of these compounds showed improved urease inhibition exhibiting ...
Akiba Yasutada - - 2013
Intestinal chemosensing of endogenous and exogenous luminal compounds, including acid, CO2, bile acids and nutrients is an emerging area of gastrointestinal research, since gut hormones, particularly including incretins and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) are released in response to luminal nutrients. Identification of luminal chemosensors such as nutrient-ligand G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) ...
Ker Katharine - - 2013
Intravenous tranexamic acid reduces bleeding in surgery, however, its effect on the risk of thromboembolic events is uncertain and an increased risk remains a theoretical concern. Because there is less systemic absorption following topical administration, the direct application of tranexamic acid to the bleeding surface has the potential to reduce ...
Soldavini Jessica J Nutrition and Food, Greater Los Angeles Veteran Affairs Healthcare System, WLAVA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, 90073, - - 2013
The lumen of the gastrointestinal tract contains many substances produced from the breakdown of foodstuffs, from salivary, esophageal, intestinal, hepatic, and pancreatic secretions, and from sloughed cells present in the gastrointestinal lumen. Although these substances were traditionally regarded as waste products, there is increasing realization that many can be biologically ...
- - 2013
Tranexamic acid, an antifibrinolytic agent, reduces postoperative transfusion requirements but carries a poorly documented risk of thrombosis. Does tranexamic acid reduce mortality among victims of severe traumatic bleeding? To answer this question, we conducted a review of the literature, using the standard Prescrire methodology. The Crash-2 trial compared the impact ...
Xie Guoxiang G Center for Translational Biomedical Research, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, North Carolina 28081, - - 2013
Chronic ethanol consumption is associated with not only the alteration of metabolic profiles in biofluids but also the composition of the gut microbiome. Our understanding of the importance of the intestinal microbiota as well as the disturbances elicited by ethanol intervention is limited by the fact that previous analyses have ...
Lee Jin Wook - - 2013
Hyaluronic acid solution injection can be an additional endoscopic modality for controlling bleeding in difficult cases when other techniques have failed. We evaluated 12 cases in which we used hyaluronic acid solution injection for stopping bleeding. Immediately following hyaluronic acid solution injection, bleeding was controlled in 11 out of 12 ...
Weiner Dror - - 2013
Valproic acid intoxication may be associated with cerebral, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and hematologic complications. We report a case of a 7-year-old girl, epilepsy-treated chronically with valproic acid, sulthiame, and clonazepam, who presented to the emergency room because of a global deterioration during the preceding 2 months, including poorer feeding and ...
Yang Ying - - 2013
Vitamin E is an essential micronutrient for humans and animals due to its antioxidant and non-antioxidant biological activities. In this study, an emulsion titration assay was used to quantify the kinetics and extent of vitamin E and vitamin E acetate solubilization in model mixed micelles. The composition of the mixed ...
Zhao Wei - - 2013
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and obesity is rapidly rising worldwide. Recently, there is increasing evidence that phytochemicals such as polyphenols in our diet could directly inhibit the activities of key digestive enzymes, representing a novel method of controlling and preventing diabetes mellitus and obesity. More research is required to ...
Sørdal Terje - - 2013
: To assess the efficacy of tranexamic acid or mefenamic acid in the management of the initial "nuisance" bleeding or spotting in the period immediately after placement of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. : Women were randomized after levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system placement to oral tranexamic acid (500 mg), mefenamic acid (500 ...
Hellwig Michael - - 2013
Food processing leads to a variety of chemical modifications of amino acids in food proteins. Recent studies have shown that some modified amino acids resulting from glycation reactions can pass the intestinal barrier when they are bound in dipeptides. In this study, we investigated as to what extent modified amino ...
Erk Thomas - - 2013
Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) from coffee have biological effects related to human health. Thus, specific data on their bioavailability in the upper gastrointestinal tract are of high interest, since some molecules are absorbed here and so are not metabolized by colonic microflora. Up to now, no data on structure-absorption relationships for ...
Chen Xiao X Division of Hematology/Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA. - - 2013
Damage to the gastrointestinal tract during graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. In the current study, we identified a critical role for the retinoic acid (RA) signaling pathway in the induction and propagation of gastrointestinal ...
Chibishev Andon - - 2013
Acetic acid is a widely used organic acid with corrosive properties that depend on its concentration. If acetic acid is ingested in concentrations above 30 % it may severely damage the upper gastrointestinal tract and cause intravascular haemolysis, which can result in severe kidney and liver disorders and disseminated intravascular ...
Quansah Joycelyn K - - 2013
The effect of thermal and ultrasonic treatment of cowpea proteins (CP) on amino acid composition, radical scavenging and reducing potential of hydrolysates (CPH) obtained from in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion of CP was evaluated. Hydrolysis of native and treated CP with gastrointestinal pepsin and pancreatin yielded CPH that displayed antioxidant ...
Reverón Inés - - 2013
Owing to its antimicrobial properties dietary tannins may alter the functional efficacy of probiotic lactobacilli in the gastrointestinal (GI)-tract influencing their growth, viability and molecular adaptation to the intestinal environment. The effects of tannic acid on Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 were studied by in vitro growth monitoring and visualizing the morphological ...
Strobel Sara - - 2013
The gastrointestinal tract of animals is adapted to their primary source of food to optimize resource use and energy intake. Temperate bat species mainly feed on arthropods. These contain the energy-rich carbohydrate chitin, which is indigestible for the endogenous enzymes of a typical mammalian gastrointestinal tract. However, the gastrointestinal tract ...
Ito Yasutoshi - - 2013
The development of an effective therapy for radiation-induced gastrointestinal damage is important, because it is currently a major complication of treatment and there are few effective therapies available. Although we have recently demonstrated that pretreatment with ascorbic acid attenuates lethal gastrointestinal damage in irradiated mice, more than half of mice ...
Pituch Aleksandra A Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Medical University of Warsaw, - - 2013
Butyric acid, a short-chain fatty acid, is a major energy source for colonocytes. It occurs in small quantities in some foods, and in the human body, it is produced in the large intestine by intestinalkacteria. This production can be reduced in some cases, for which butyric acid supplementation may be ...
Załęski Andrzej A Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Medical University of Warsaw, - - 2013
Butyric acid (butanoic acid) belongs to a group of short-chain fatty acids and is thought to play several beneficial roles in the gastrointestinal tract. Butyric anion is easily absorbed by enteric cells and used as a main source of energy. Moreover, butyric acid is an important regulator of colonocyte proliferation ...
Matsuzaka Takashi - - 2012
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk for liver cirrhosis and cancer. ELOVL family member 6, elongation of very long chain fatty acids (Elovl6), is a microsomal enzyme that regulates the elongation of C12-16 saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (FAs). We have ...
Xu Jin - - 2013
Food grade biopolymers, such as dextrin, have been suggested as a technological solution for the controlled delivery of health promoting substances. The main focus of this work is to improve the stability of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and controlled release by encapsulating with helical spring dextrin (SD). The encapsulation was ...
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