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Results 401 - 450 of 1151
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Crater Annie R - - 2007
We studied rumen fermentation of castrated adult muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus; n=4) during periods of low (May) and high (August) food intake. Turnover time (17+/-1.8 h) and volume (26+/-3.9 L) of rumen fluid were consistent between May and August and among days within each season. Rumen temperature did not vary significantly ...
Salas Joaquín J - - 2006
The degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway is responsible for the production of volatile compounds that confer green sensory notes to the aroma of fruits and vegetables. The peroxidation of free linoleic or linolenic acid by action of lipoxygenase and then the lysis of the resulting hydroperoxides, ...
Larreta J - - 2006
The headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of some odorous organic compounds [volatile fatty acids (VFAs), phenols and indoles] from animal wastes was optimised using an experimental design approach. The variables affecting the HS-SPME process studied were as follows: type of fibre, pH of the slurry (3-7), addition of sodium chloride (0-1 ...
Saddoud Ahlem - - 2007
Two-phase anaerobic digestion of cheese whey was investigated in a system consisting of a stirred acidogenic reactor followed by a stirred methanogenic reactor, the latter being coupled to a membrane filtration system to enable removal of soluble effluent whilst retaining solids. The acidogenic reactor was operated at a hydraulic retention ...
Vlaeminck B - - 2006
The objectives of this study were 1) to determine whether a relationship exists between molar proportions of volatile fatty acids in the rumen and milk odd-and branched-chain fatty acid concentrations (i.e., iso C13:0, anteiso C13:0, iso C14:0, C15:0, iso C15:0, anteiso C15:0, iso C16:0, C17:0, iso C17:0, anteiso C17:0, and ...
Takatani Tait - - 2007
The production of volatile analyte species by UV photolysis in the presence of low-molecular-weight organic acids as an alternative to chemical vapor generation has been of recent interest. The mechanism of this process is not well understood. Proposed mechanisms often involve photolytic cleavage of the organic acid as the initial ...
Alvarez Maria Teresa - - 2007
Biological production of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) using sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has important potential within environmental biotechnology. The aim of this work was to study the possibility of using SRB for the treatment of an acid mine drainage (AMD) at bench-scale. This process involved three stages: the optimization of H(2)S production ...
Leone Antonella - - 2006
The enzymatic activity, subcellular localization, and immunolocalization of plant lipoxygenase (LOX) in strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa, Duch) were investigated. Chemical and enzymatic properties of LOX have been characterized, and the LOX capability of oxygenating free and esterified unsaturated fatty acids into C6 volatile aldehydes has been confirmed. Fruits at ...
Makni H - - 2006
The granulation process was examined using synthetic wastewater containing glucose in a 1 liter laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The anaerobic biotransformation of glucose was investigated during the granulation process. Anaerobic unacclimated sludge and glucose were used as seed and primary substrate, respectively. Massive initial granules were developed ...
Shimomura Yuko - - 2006
For evaluation of physiologically significant organic anions in the colonic environment, 87 samples of normal feces were collected from the rectum of 15 calves less than 60 days old. The calves were fed milk replacer with free access to starter diet and hay. After fecal extraction with water, pH, D- ...
Sawada Yoshitsugu - - 2006
Volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-glutamine] and N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine are known as insect-produced plant volatile elicitors. The absolute configuration of the hydroxylinolenoyl moiety of volicitin from three noctuid species, Helicoverpa armigera, Mythimna separata and Spodoptera litura, was determined to be all 17S in high enantiomeric excess. When treated with 30 pmol of (17S)- and (17R)-volicitin, ...
Azuma Hiroshi - - 2006
The genus Cycas (Cycadaceae; gymnosperm) have circumstantially been considered to be wind-pollinated. The cones of Cycas revoluta Thunb., however, emit a strong unpleasant odor. The chemical profiles of floral scents often correlate with various pollination modes (pollinators). We collected and analyzed the volatiles emitted from male and female cones of ...
Manrique Gabriel - - 2006
Compounds from the metasternal and Brindley's glands of the blood-sucking bug, Triatoma infestans, were identified by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Volatile compounds released by adult bugs during copulation or after mechanical disturbance were also characterized. Six compounds were identified and found consistently in all samples from ...
Kirat Doaa - - 2006
Despite the importance of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in maintaining the ruminant physiology, the mechanism of SCFA absorption is still not fully studied. The goal of this study was to elucidate the possible involvement of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in the mechanism of SCFA transport in the caprine rumen, and ...
Low Mei Yin - - 2006
Acrylamide levels in cooked/processed food can be reduced by treatment with citric acid or glycine. In a potato model system cooked at 180 degrees C for 10-60 min, these treatments affected the volatile profiles. Strecker aldehydes and alkylpyrazines, key flavor compounds of cooked potato, were monitored. Citric acid limited the ...
Tezel Ulas - - 2006
The potential inhibitory effect of four quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) and Vigilquat, a commercial sanitizer which is a mixture of the four QACs, was investigated at concentrations up to 100 mg/L using a mixed, mesophilic (35 degrees C) methanogenic culture. Dextrin and peptone were used as the carbon and energy ...
Resende Júnior J C - - 2006
The objective of this experiment was to compare measurements of fractional clearance rates obtained by using an unlabeled valerate-CoEDTA technique with measurements obtained by using a (13)C-labeled volatile fatty acids (VFA) technique. The exponential decay rate of the (13)C/(12)C ratio after pulse-dosing (13)C-acetate, (13)C-propionate, or (13)C-butyrate into the rumen was ...
Gao Mengchun - - 2007
The performance of a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating distiller's grains wastewater was investigated for 420 days at 37 degrees C. After a successful start-up, 80-97.3% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were achieved at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 82-11h with organic loading rates (OLR) of ...
Vlaeminck B - - 2006
Four dairy cows were used to examine the effect of the dietary forage:concentrate ratio [35:65, 50:50, 65:35, and 80:20 on a dry matter (DM) basis] on the fatty acid composition of rumen bacteria isolated from the liquid (LAB) and solid (SAB) phase of the rumen and duodenal digesta. Rumen contents ...
Tao Wendong - - 2006
Heterotrophic activities were investigated by measuring 3H-leucine incorporation to bacterial protein and 14C-glucose turnover in surface flow constructed wetlands receiving woodwaste leachate. No significant longitudinal variation was found in heterotrophic activities of bacterioplankton. An open wetland, a vegetated wetland, and a fertilized vegetated wetland were used to examine the effects ...
Puchajda Bartek - - 2006
The goal of this research was to demonstrate the ability to achieve Class A pathogen standards in nonthermophilic acid digesters. It was proposed that the key mechanism responsible for fecal coliform inactivation was the presence of un-ionized volatile fatty acids. Lab-scale acid digesters were assembled and operated in a batch ...
Cho In Hee - - 2006
The differences in volatile components of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) according to their grades were observed by applying multivariate statistical methods to GC-MS data sets. A total of 35 and 37 volatile components were identified in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms, respectively. The volatile components in pine-mushrooms were primarily composed of ...
Amin Mohammad M - - 2006
A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor was used to treat a model substrate mixture representing pharmaceutical wastewater at an organic loading rate of 2.9 g COD/(L d). After reaching stable operation the reactor was first exposed to low (1 mg/L) and, subsequently, to high (200 mg/L) concentrations of the antibiotic ...
Barta Csengele - - 2006
It was investigated whether the methyl-erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway that generates volatile isoprenoids and carotenoids also produces foliar abscisic acid (ABA) and controls stomatal opening. When the MEP pathway was blocked by fosmidomycin and volatile isoprenoid emission was largely suppressed, leaf ABA content decreased to about 50% and leaf stomatal ...
Gogus Fahrettin - - 2006
Volatile compounds were isolated from Cheddar cheese using direct thermal desorption (DTD) and analysed using comprehensive 2-D GC (GC x GC) coupled with TOF MS (TOF/MS). In total 12 aldehydes, 13 acids, 13 ketones, 5 alcohols, 3 hydrocarbons and 9 miscellaneous compounds were identified at desorption temperatures of 100, 150, ...
Whittington-Jones K J - - 2006
The potential for using readily available and cost-effective complex carbon sources, such as primary sludge (PS), for the bioremediation of sulfate-rich effluent streams, including acid mine drainage, has been constrained by the slow rate of solubilization and low yield of soluble products. Disposal of PS also remains a global problem. ...
King Bonnie M - - 2006
Orthonasal perception of six green leaf volatiles (GLVs) classified only hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl formate as green. (Z)-3-Hexen-1-yl hexanoate and (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl 3-methylbutyrate were more floral, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate fell between the two groups. For retronasal perception, classification along a bipolar green-fruity scale is proposed for describing these GLVs. Data from ...
Salsali H R - - 2006
It is known that the presence of volatile fatty acids may play a role in the inactivation of pathogens for systems that employ an acid phase reactor. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of volatile fatty acids on the inactivation of Salmonella spp. over a range of digestion ...
Lv Songqiao - - 2006
The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different inclusion levels of extruded corn on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and short-chain fatty acids profiles in the hindgut of weaned piglets. Ninety weaning piglets (28 d of age; 8.21 +/- 0.69 kg BW) were allotted to one of five dietary ...
Jenkins Thomas C - - 2006
The formation of hydroxystearic acid (HSA) and ketostearic acid (KSA) from oleic acid transformation has been documented in a variety of microbial species, including several isolated from the rumen of domesticated ruminant species. However, their ruminal production rates have not been established as influenced by fatty acid source. Dosing continuous ...
Ara Katsutoshi - - 2006
To characterize foot odor, we analyzed its components by sensory tests, isolated microorganisms that produce it, and evaluated the mechanism of the occurrence of foot odor. As a result, foot odor was found to be derived from isovaleric acid, which is produced when Staphylococcus epidermidis, a resident species of the ...
Harvatine K J - - 2006
Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on ruminal digestion kinetics, and ruminal and postruminal nutrient digestion. Eight early lactation ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows (77 +/- 12 days in milk, mean +/- SD) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment ...
Ogden R K - - 2006
Southern crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris [Retz.] Koel.) is often an undesirable species in field and forage crops, but visual observations suggest that livestock prefer it to many other summer forages. The objectives of this study were to assess the nutritive value of crabgrass sampled weekly between July 11 and August 22, ...
Stumpe Michael - - 2006
After wounding, the moss Physcomitrella patens emits fatty acid derived volatiles like octenal, octenols and (2E)-nonenal. Flowering plants produce nonenal from C18-fatty acids via lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase reactions, but the moss exploits the C20 precursor arachidonic acid for the formation of these oxylipins. We describe the isolation of the ...
Myung Kyung - - 2006
Wounded strawberry fruit produces a diverse group of volatile compounds including aldehydes, alcohols, and esters derived from the lipoxygenase (LOX) and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) pathways. Because the wound volatiles may play an important role in plant-fungal interaction, the goal of this study was to develop a greater understanding about the ...
Schelling Gustav - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid system includes G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, the endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and multiple enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids, including the anandamide metabolizing enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase. Endocannabinoids play an important role in the physiologic control of sleep, pain processing, and emesis. The ...
Pfeiffer Johann C - - 2006
Cross-modal interactions between aroma, sweetness, and acidity were studied. A series of samples was presented to trained panelists who assessed strawberry flavor intensity using magnitude estimation with a reference modulus. The delivery of aroma stimuli from the different solutions was measured by monitoring exhaled breath using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass ...
Avila Marta - - 2006
The effect on the volatile compounds and on the odor and aroma of Hispánico cheese of a high-pressure (HP) treatment (400 MPa for 5 min at 10 degrees C, applied to 15-day-old cheeses), by itself or combined with the addition of a bacteriocin-producing (BP) culture to milk, was investigated. HP-treated ...
Saengkerdsub Suwat - - 2006
Short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA) and methane are the products from a wide variety of microorganisms living in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to examine effects of feedstuff and select nitro compounds on VFA and methane production during in vitro incubation of laying hen cecal contents ...
Jay Steven M - - 2006
Despite its abundance in their diet, cattle are unable to directly digest cellulose. The bovine digestive tract overcomes this problem via the rumen, a portion of the stomach containing mixed anaerobic bacteria. These microbes, while breaking down foodstuffs, also perform undesirable processes such as biohydrogenation, in which unsaturated fatty acids ...
Erdirencelebi Dilek - - 2006
A comprehensive anaerobic leachate treatment in batch reactors was conducted for 9 months. Activities of two main bacterial groups, sulfidogens and methanogens were observed with monitoring parameters as chemical oxygen demand (COD), total gas production, pH, alkalinity, dissolved sulfide and volatile suspended solids/total suspended solids (VSS/TSS). Leachate contained high concentrations ...
Huang Can - - 2006
Manure odor, which results in the increasing complaints and lawsuits, has increased the tension among swine producers and surrounding residents. The effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and different rates of soluble carbohydrates additions to swine manure on odorous compounds, chemical compounds and indigenous flora were evaluated. Additions were calculated on dried ...
Tieman Denise M - - 2006
Fresh tomato fruit flavour is the sum of the interaction between sugars, acids, and a set of approximately 30 volatile compounds synthesized from a diverse set of precursors, including amino acids, lipids, and carotenoids. Some of these volatiles impart desirable qualities while others are negatively perceived. As a first step ...
Zeng R J - - 2006
Increasing evidence is emerging that the performance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems relies on not only the total amount but also the composition of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Domestic wastewater often contains limited amounts of VFAs with acetic acid typically being the dominating species. Consequently, prefermenters are often ...
Ugliano Maurizio - - 2005
The effects of malolactic fermentation (MLF) on the concentration of volatile compounds released by yeasts during the production of red wine were investigated by inoculation with four commercial starters of Oenococcus oeni. Volatile compounds in wine at the end of MLF were extracted, analyzed by GC-MS and GC, and compared ...
Anderson R C - - 2006
Strategies are sought to reduce economic and environmental costs associated with ruminant methane emissions. The effect of oral nitroethane or 2-nitropropanol administration on ruminal methane-producing activity and volatile fatty acid production was evaluated in mature ewes. Daily administration of 24 and 72 mg nitroethane/kg body weight reduced (P<0.05) methane-producing activity ...
Breuer Dietmar - - 2006
BGIA has organised round robins for the analysis of samples of inorganic acids in workplace air for a number of years. Test samples of the volatile acids HCl and HNO(3) are collected from a standard atmosphere and samples of the non-volatile acids H(3)PO(4) and H(2)SO(4) are prepared by spiking filters ...
Ribeiro C V D M - - 2005
The pattern of biohydrogenation of fatty acids from fresh alfalfa or alfalfa hay supplemented with 3 concentrations (0, 4, and 8%) of sucrose was studied at a constant pH of 6.2. Four continuous culture fermenters were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to test the hypothesis that ...
Pereira M A - - 2005
Palmitic acid was the main long chain fatty acids (LCFA) that accumulated onto the anaerobic sludge when oleic acid was fed to an EGSB reactor. The conversion between oleic and palmitic acid was linked to the biological activity. When palmitic acid was fed to an EGSB reactor it represented also ...
Mustafa Arif F - - 2005
A study was conducted to compare the ensiling characteristics, chemical composition, and the ruminal and total tract nutrient degradabilities of leafy (Cargill F227) and brown midrib (Mycogen TMF94) corn silage hybrids. Corn was grown in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec, Canada, harvested at a target 350 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM) content, and ...
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