Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1140
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >
Azuma Hiroshi - - 2006
The genus Cycas (Cycadaceae; gymnosperm) have circumstantially been considered to be wind-pollinated. The cones of Cycas revoluta Thunb., however, emit a strong unpleasant odor. The chemical profiles of floral scents often correlate with various pollination modes (pollinators). We collected and analyzed the volatiles emitted from male and female cones of ...
Manrique Gabriel - - 2006
Compounds from the metasternal and Brindley's glands of the blood-sucking bug, Triatoma infestans, were identified by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Volatile compounds released by adult bugs during copulation or after mechanical disturbance were also characterized. Six compounds were identified and found consistently in all samples from ...
Kirat Doaa - - 2006
Despite the importance of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in maintaining the ruminant physiology, the mechanism of SCFA absorption is still not fully studied. The goal of this study was to elucidate the possible involvement of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in the mechanism of SCFA transport in the caprine rumen, and ...
Low Mei Yin - - 2006
Acrylamide levels in cooked/processed food can be reduced by treatment with citric acid or glycine. In a potato model system cooked at 180 degrees C for 10-60 min, these treatments affected the volatile profiles. Strecker aldehydes and alkylpyrazines, key flavor compounds of cooked potato, were monitored. Citric acid limited the ...
Tezel Ulas - - 2006
The potential inhibitory effect of four quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) and Vigilquat, a commercial sanitizer which is a mixture of the four QACs, was investigated at concentrations up to 100 mg/L using a mixed, mesophilic (35 degrees C) methanogenic culture. Dextrin and peptone were used as the carbon and energy ...
Resende Júnior J C - - 2006
The objective of this experiment was to compare measurements of fractional clearance rates obtained by using an unlabeled valerate-CoEDTA technique with measurements obtained by using a (13)C-labeled volatile fatty acids (VFA) technique. The exponential decay rate of the (13)C/(12)C ratio after pulse-dosing (13)C-acetate, (13)C-propionate, or (13)C-butyrate into the rumen was ...
Gao Mengchun - - 2007
The performance of a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating distiller's grains wastewater was investigated for 420 days at 37 degrees C. After a successful start-up, 80-97.3% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were achieved at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 82-11h with organic loading rates (OLR) of ...
Vlaeminck B - - 2006
Four dairy cows were used to examine the effect of the dietary forage:concentrate ratio [35:65, 50:50, 65:35, and 80:20 on a dry matter (DM) basis] on the fatty acid composition of rumen bacteria isolated from the liquid (LAB) and solid (SAB) phase of the rumen and duodenal digesta. Rumen contents ...
Tao Wendong - - 2006
Heterotrophic activities were investigated by measuring 3H-leucine incorporation to bacterial protein and 14C-glucose turnover in surface flow constructed wetlands receiving woodwaste leachate. No significant longitudinal variation was found in heterotrophic activities of bacterioplankton. An open wetland, a vegetated wetland, and a fertilized vegetated wetland were used to examine the effects ...
Puchajda Bartek - - 2006
The goal of this research was to demonstrate the ability to achieve Class A pathogen standards in nonthermophilic acid digesters. It was proposed that the key mechanism responsible for fecal coliform inactivation was the presence of un-ionized volatile fatty acids. Lab-scale acid digesters were assembled and operated in a batch ...
Cho In Hee - - 2006
The differences in volatile components of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) according to their grades were observed by applying multivariate statistical methods to GC-MS data sets. A total of 35 and 37 volatile components were identified in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms, respectively. The volatile components in pine-mushrooms were primarily composed of ...
Amin Mohammad M - - 2006
A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor was used to treat a model substrate mixture representing pharmaceutical wastewater at an organic loading rate of 2.9 g COD/(L d). After reaching stable operation the reactor was first exposed to low (1 mg/L) and, subsequently, to high (200 mg/L) concentrations of the antibiotic ...
Barta Csengele - - 2006
It was investigated whether the methyl-erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway that generates volatile isoprenoids and carotenoids also produces foliar abscisic acid (ABA) and controls stomatal opening. When the MEP pathway was blocked by fosmidomycin and volatile isoprenoid emission was largely suppressed, leaf ABA content decreased to about 50% and leaf stomatal ...
Gogus Fahrettin - - 2006
Volatile compounds were isolated from Cheddar cheese using direct thermal desorption (DTD) and analysed using comprehensive 2-D GC (GC x GC) coupled with TOF MS (TOF/MS). In total 12 aldehydes, 13 acids, 13 ketones, 5 alcohols, 3 hydrocarbons and 9 miscellaneous compounds were identified at desorption temperatures of 100, 150, ...
Whittington-Jones K J - - 2006
The potential for using readily available and cost-effective complex carbon sources, such as primary sludge (PS), for the bioremediation of sulfate-rich effluent streams, including acid mine drainage, has been constrained by the slow rate of solubilization and low yield of soluble products. Disposal of PS also remains a global problem. ...
King Bonnie M - - 2006
Orthonasal perception of six green leaf volatiles (GLVs) classified only hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl formate as green. (Z)-3-Hexen-1-yl hexanoate and (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl 3-methylbutyrate were more floral, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate fell between the two groups. For retronasal perception, classification along a bipolar green-fruity scale is proposed for describing these GLVs. Data from ...
Salsali H R - - 2006
It is known that the presence of volatile fatty acids may play a role in the inactivation of pathogens for systems that employ an acid phase reactor. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of volatile fatty acids on the inactivation of Salmonella spp. over a range of digestion ...
Lv Songqiao - - 2006
The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different inclusion levels of extruded corn on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and short-chain fatty acids profiles in the hindgut of weaned piglets. Ninety weaning piglets (28 d of age; 8.21 +/- 0.69 kg BW) were allotted to one of five dietary ...
Jenkins Thomas C - - 2006
The formation of hydroxystearic acid (HSA) and ketostearic acid (KSA) from oleic acid transformation has been documented in a variety of microbial species, including several isolated from the rumen of domesticated ruminant species. However, their ruminal production rates have not been established as influenced by fatty acid source. Dosing continuous ...
Ara Katsutoshi - - 2006
To characterize foot odor, we analyzed its components by sensory tests, isolated microorganisms that produce it, and evaluated the mechanism of the occurrence of foot odor. As a result, foot odor was found to be derived from isovaleric acid, which is produced when Staphylococcus epidermidis, a resident species of the ...
Harvatine K J - - 2006
Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on ruminal digestion kinetics, and ruminal and postruminal nutrient digestion. Eight early lactation ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows (77 +/- 12 days in milk, mean +/- SD) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment ...
Ogden R K - - 2006
Southern crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris [Retz.] Koel.) is often an undesirable species in field and forage crops, but visual observations suggest that livestock prefer it to many other summer forages. The objectives of this study were to assess the nutritive value of crabgrass sampled weekly between July 11 and August 22, ...
Stumpe Michael - - 2006
After wounding, the moss Physcomitrella patens emits fatty acid derived volatiles like octenal, octenols and (2E)-nonenal. Flowering plants produce nonenal from C18-fatty acids via lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase reactions, but the moss exploits the C20 precursor arachidonic acid for the formation of these oxylipins. We describe the isolation of the ...
Myung Kyung - - 2006
Wounded strawberry fruit produces a diverse group of volatile compounds including aldehydes, alcohols, and esters derived from the lipoxygenase (LOX) and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) pathways. Because the wound volatiles may play an important role in plant-fungal interaction, the goal of this study was to develop a greater understanding about the ...
Schelling Gustav - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid system includes G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, the endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and multiple enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids, including the anandamide metabolizing enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase. Endocannabinoids play an important role in the physiologic control of sleep, pain processing, and emesis. The ...
Pfeiffer Johann C - - 2006
Cross-modal interactions between aroma, sweetness, and acidity were studied. A series of samples was presented to trained panelists who assessed strawberry flavor intensity using magnitude estimation with a reference modulus. The delivery of aroma stimuli from the different solutions was measured by monitoring exhaled breath using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass ...
Avila Marta - - 2006
The effect on the volatile compounds and on the odor and aroma of Hispánico cheese of a high-pressure (HP) treatment (400 MPa for 5 min at 10 degrees C, applied to 15-day-old cheeses), by itself or combined with the addition of a bacteriocin-producing (BP) culture to milk, was investigated. HP-treated ...
Saengkerdsub Suwat - - 2006
Short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA) and methane are the products from a wide variety of microorganisms living in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to examine effects of feedstuff and select nitro compounds on VFA and methane production during in vitro incubation of laying hen cecal contents ...
Jay Steven M - - 2006
Despite its abundance in their diet, cattle are unable to directly digest cellulose. The bovine digestive tract overcomes this problem via the rumen, a portion of the stomach containing mixed anaerobic bacteria. These microbes, while breaking down foodstuffs, also perform undesirable processes such as biohydrogenation, in which unsaturated fatty acids ...
Erdirencelebi Dilek - - 2006
A comprehensive anaerobic leachate treatment in batch reactors was conducted for 9 months. Activities of two main bacterial groups, sulfidogens and methanogens were observed with monitoring parameters as chemical oxygen demand (COD), total gas production, pH, alkalinity, dissolved sulfide and volatile suspended solids/total suspended solids (VSS/TSS). Leachate contained high concentrations ...
Huang Can - - 2006
Manure odor, which results in the increasing complaints and lawsuits, has increased the tension among swine producers and surrounding residents. The effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and different rates of soluble carbohydrates additions to swine manure on odorous compounds, chemical compounds and indigenous flora were evaluated. Additions were calculated on dried ...
Tieman Denise M - - 2006
Fresh tomato fruit flavour is the sum of the interaction between sugars, acids, and a set of approximately 30 volatile compounds synthesized from a diverse set of precursors, including amino acids, lipids, and carotenoids. Some of these volatiles impart desirable qualities while others are negatively perceived. As a first step ...
Zeng R J - - 2006
Increasing evidence is emerging that the performance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems relies on not only the total amount but also the composition of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Domestic wastewater often contains limited amounts of VFAs with acetic acid typically being the dominating species. Consequently, prefermenters are often ...
Ugliano Maurizio - - 2005
The effects of malolactic fermentation (MLF) on the concentration of volatile compounds released by yeasts during the production of red wine were investigated by inoculation with four commercial starters of Oenococcus oeni. Volatile compounds in wine at the end of MLF were extracted, analyzed by GC-MS and GC, and compared ...
Anderson R C - - 2006
Strategies are sought to reduce economic and environmental costs associated with ruminant methane emissions. The effect of oral nitroethane or 2-nitropropanol administration on ruminal methane-producing activity and volatile fatty acid production was evaluated in mature ewes. Daily administration of 24 and 72 mg nitroethane/kg body weight reduced (P<0.05) methane-producing activity ...
Breuer Dietmar - - 2006
BGIA has organised round robins for the analysis of samples of inorganic acids in workplace air for a number of years. Test samples of the volatile acids HCl and HNO(3) are collected from a standard atmosphere and samples of the non-volatile acids H(3)PO(4) and H(2)SO(4) are prepared by spiking filters ...
Ribeiro C V D M - - 2005
The pattern of biohydrogenation of fatty acids from fresh alfalfa or alfalfa hay supplemented with 3 concentrations (0, 4, and 8%) of sucrose was studied at a constant pH of 6.2. Four continuous culture fermenters were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to test the hypothesis that ...
Pereira M A - - 2005
Palmitic acid was the main long chain fatty acids (LCFA) that accumulated onto the anaerobic sludge when oleic acid was fed to an EGSB reactor. The conversion between oleic and palmitic acid was linked to the biological activity. When palmitic acid was fed to an EGSB reactor it represented also ...
Mustafa Arif F - - 2005
A study was conducted to compare the ensiling characteristics, chemical composition, and the ruminal and total tract nutrient degradabilities of leafy (Cargill F227) and brown midrib (Mycogen TMF94) corn silage hybrids. Corn was grown in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec, Canada, harvested at a target 350 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM) content, and ...
Nair S - - 2005
The present work investigated the use of a simple rumen-fluid-inoculated anaerobic treatment system for the degradation of organic waste. Fresh rumen fluid collected from a fistulated sheep was used as the inoculum and fresh grass clippings were used as the waste material for treatment. Studies were carried out on both ...
Kim E J - - 2005
Two in situ studies were conducted to examine the use of odd-chain fatty acid profiles to study microbial colonization of freshly ingested herbage in the rumen as well as fatty acid biohydrogenation. In the first study, fresh perennial ryegrass was subjected to a range of sample preparation methods before incubation ...
Schneider J - - 2005
Mass spectrometric measurements of size and composition of diesel exhaust particles have been performed under various conditions: chassis dynamometer tests, field measurements near a German motorway, and individual car chasing. Nucleation particles consisting of volatile sulfate and organic material could be detected both at the chassis dynamometer test facility and ...
Kisidayová Svetlana - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting mechanical- and cryo-resistance of the rumen ciliates Entodinium caudatum (E.c.), Entodinium furca monolobum (E.f.m.), Entodinium simplex (E.s.), Diplodinium denticulatum (two clones, D.d.01 and D.d.02), Diploplastron affine (D.a.) and Epidinium ecaudatum forma caudatum (E.e.c.) after long-term in vitro cultivation. Following prolonged ...
Shen Zanming - - 2005
The objective of this study was to explore morphological alterations of rumen papillae induced by n-butyric acid in relation to the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in adult castrated bulls. Three animals fitted with rumen cannula were fed twice daily at a low and high nutritional level (LL and HL), ...
Hu Wei-lian - - 2005
The effect of tea saponins (TS) on rumen fermentation and methane emission was examined using an in vitro gas production technique named Reading Pressure Technique. Three levels of TS addition (0, 0.2, 0.4 mg/ml) were evaluated in the faunated and defaunated rumen fluid. Compared to the control, TS addition decreased ...
Steinhaus Martin - - 2005
Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of white pepper powder showing an intense fecal, cowshed-like off-flavor revealed 3-methylindole (fecal, swine-manure) and 4-methylphenol (fecal, horse-like) with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 22 odor-active compounds detected. In addition, high FD factors and/or undesirable odor qualities ...
Pavlov Atanas - - 2005
Studies were conducted on low molecular metabolites (volatiles and polar compounds) produced by Rosa damascena Mill 1803 cell suspension culture, cultivated under different regimes: as a free suspension (in flasks and in bioreactor) and in a two-phase system (in the presence of Amberlite XAD-4 as a second phase). It was ...
Jussi Vaahtovuo - - 2005
The gastrointestinal tracts of developed animals are colonized by an extremely complex and diverse microbial ecosystem. The host and its microbiota are in close interaction with each other, and the host's genetic characteristics have been suggested to have an influence on the composition of fecal bacteria. However, different sections of ...
Elefsiniotis Panagiotis - - 2005
This research investigated the effect of varying the starch-rich, industrial-wastewater component of mixtures with municipal wastewater fed to an anaerobic digester. A laboratory-scale, completely-mixed anaerobic digester was operated at an HRT of 30 h, an SRT of 10 d, and an ambient temperature of 21.5 +/- 1.5 degrees C. The ...
De La Torre Anne - - 2005
Ruminant products are the major source of CLA for humans. However, during periods of fat mobilization, the liver might play an important role in CLA metabolism which would limit the availability of the latter for muscles and milk. In this context, rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11 CLA) metabolism in the bovine ...
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >