Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1140
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Dehghan-Banadaky M - - 2007
Four rumen and duodenum cannulated, Holstein lactating cows were used in a change-over design to determine the effects of NaOH, Formaldehyde or Urea treated barley on disappearance of Dry Matter (DM), Crude Protein (CP), Amino Acids (AA), NDF, ADF, hemicelluloses and starch in rumen, Post Abomasal Tract (PAT) and total ...
Yáñez-Ruiz David R - - 2007
The effects of the absence of protozoa in the rumen of lambs on animal growth, rumen fermentation, microbial diversity and fatty acid profiles in abomasal fluid and intramuscular fat were measured in ten control and ten protozoa-free (PF) lambs. PF lambs were prepared by isolating them from ewes within the ...
Bories André - - 2007
The effect of the addition of nitrate to winery wastewaters to control the formation of VFA in order to prevent odours during storage and treatment was studied in batch bioreactors at different NO(3)/chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratios and at full scale in natural evaporation ponds (2 x 7000 m(2)) by ...
Boumba Vassiliki A - - 2008
In this contribution are presented the fermentations of the main substrates present in a decaying corpse, namely carbohydrates, amino acids, glycerol and fatty acids, generating the post-mortem volatile compounds that could be detected along with ethanol during the forensic ethanol analysis. The available literature (preferably reviews) on microbial metabolic pathways ...
Varel Vincent H - - 2007
Pathogens, ammonia, odor, and greenhouse gas emissions are serious environmental concerns associated with swine production. This study was conducted in two manure pits (33,000 L each) to determine the influence of 1.5 or 3.0 g thymol L(-1) and 80 mg L(-1) urease inhibitor amendments on urea accumulation, coliform bacteria, odor, ...
Ungerfeld E M - - 2007
It was hypothesized that the addition of crotonic acid or 3-butenoic acid would relieve constraints in digestibility observed when methane formation is inhibited by lumazine, propynoic acid, or ethyl 2-butynoate. In six incubations, one of the three methanogenesis inhibitors, at three different concentrations, was combined with either crotonic acid or ...
Hegde G - - 2007
The concept of starting up a batch, high-solids anaerobic digester by simply flooding the bed with a pH-buffer solution was tested using a mixture of vegetable waste and wood chips as feedstock at mesophilic (38 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) conditions. At both temperatures stable and balanced methanogenesis ...
Aubert Christophe - - 2007
To investigate the changes in physicochemical properties and volatile constituents in apricot during postharvest ripening, the volatile compounds of 28 apricot cultivars were investigated by means of liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME), GC-FID, and GC-MS. Fruits picked at their optimal harvestable stage of maturity were analyzed at harvest and after ripening at ...
Park S Y - - 2007
Lipid oxidation and oxidative volatiles as affected by pork meat cut and packaging method during frozen storage at -10 degrees C were evaluated. Pork belly cut had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and pH values than did the loin, whereas the loin had higher free fatty acid (FFA) values ...
Tauber T - - 2007
The aim of the present work was to compare the microbial communities of a mesophilic and a thermophilic pilot scale anaerobe sludge digester. For studying the communities cultivation independent chemotaxonomical methods (RQ and PLFA analyses) and T-RFLP were applied. Microbial communities of the mesophilic and thermophilic pilot digesters showed considerable ...
Klotz J L - - 2007
Dairy calf weaning is associated with ketone concentrations that exceed the levels occurring in adults, and weaning represents a potential energy loss that may be mitigated by ionophore supplementation. To assess the effects of weaning and ionophore supplementation on net nutrient flux across portal-drained viscera (PDV) tissues in dairy calves, ...
Hayaloglu A A - - 2007
Tulum cheeses were manufactured from raw ewe's milk and ripened in goat's skin bags (tulums) or plastic containers to understand the effect of ripening container on the chemical composition, biochemistry, microbiology, and volatile composition of Tulum cheeses during 150 d of ripening. Chemical compositions of the cheeses ripened in tulums ...
Muller Christopher D - - 2007
A combination of bench- and full-scale studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of high-intensity mechanical shear in an internal recycle loop to enhance mesophilic anaerobic digestion and the implications of this process for routine operations of a digestion system. During short-term batch digestion (56 hours), a 46% increase in ...
Tajima Kiyoshi - - 2007
The effect of heat and humidity stresses on the rumen bacterial molecular diversity of heifers was studied. No statistically significant changes in the rumen microbiota composition were found in the first experiment (average body mass 250kg) while in the second and third experiments (additional variables included the relative humidity and ...
Bhattacharyya J K - - 2008
Biomethanation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a slow process and the yield of biogas is usually low. Enhancement of acidification is necessary to increase the biogas yield in biomethanation of MSW. MSW contains a significant fraction of ligno-cellulosic material. The acidification of these materials influences the biogas yield. In ...
Siles José Angel - - 2007
A study of the anaerobic digestion of wastewater from the pressing of orange peel generated in orange juice production was carried out in a laboratory-scale completely stirred tank reactor at mesophilic temperature (37 degrees C). Prior to anaerobic treatment the raw wastewater was subjected to physicochemical treatment using aluminum sulfate ...
Karnati S K R - - 2007
Methionine supplemented as 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMB) has been suggested to alter bacterial or protozoal populations in the rumen. Our objective was to determine if source of Met would change microbial populations in the rumen and to compare those results to samples from the omasum. The ruminal and omasal samples were ...
Mahmood Talat - - 2007
In municipal and industrial practices, wastewater treatment sludges are generally conditioned with organic polymers before dewatering. The dewatering polymers are expensive and contribute significantly to the overall sludge management cost. This paper discusses a preconditioning strategy that holds great promise for enhancing dewatering properties of wastewater treatment sludges, while reducing ...
Vedrenne F - - 2008
The effects of incubations conditions (dilution, mixing, incubation time and inoculum amount and origin) on the determination of the maximum methane producing capacity (B(0)) from various livestock slurries were evaluated. For this purpose, the methane yields of different livestock slurries were determined using batch anaerobic incubations performed at 30 degrees ...
Methven Lisa - - 2007
Volatile and nonvolatile compounds, which could contribute to flavor, were analyzed in salmon. One hundred twenty-three volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of two different samples of cooked salmon, including lipid-derived volatiles, Maillard-derived volatiles, sulfur volatiles, Strecker aldehydes, nitrogen heterocyclic compounds, terpenes, and trimethylamine. Significant differences between samples were ...
Jerković I - - 2007
A comparative study of ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE) with the mixture pentane:ether (1:2) and hydrodistillation (HD) with the same trapping mixture is presented for the isolation of volatile compounds from two unifloral honeys of Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Castanea sativa L. All HD isolates contained many thermally derived artefacts (especially phenylacetaldehyde ...
Bouzas A - - 2007
A primary sludge fermentation-elutriation pilot plant was operated using in-line and side-stream schemes. The influence of solids retention time, recirculation sludge flow-rate and solids concentration on the fermentation-elutriation process performance has been assessed in this paper. The use of high elutriation flows (12% of influent flow) improved the volatile fatty ...
Nechev Jordan - - 2007
The compositions of the volatile and polar fractions from two coexisting Black Sea invertebrates, the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the beadlet anemone Actinia equina, were established. The main metabolites in the volatile fraction from the investigated animals appeared to be methyl esters of fatty acids and fatty aldehydes. In the ...
Herckes Pierre - - 2007
Fogwater collected during winter in Fresno (CA) was characterized by isolating several distinct fractions and characterizing them by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. More than 80% of the organic matter in the fogwater was recovered and characterized. The most abundant isolated fractions were those comprised of volatile acids ...
R. Foroughbakhch
The quality of cattle feed supplements may be enhanced by the addition of certain vegetable components which improve its nutritional value. However, these structural components may vary according to the climate conditions prevalent during the seasonal changes in temperate or subtropical areas. In this sense a characterization of dry leaves ...
Juan B - - 2007
The effect of high-pressure treatment on the volatile profile of ewe milk cheeses was investigated. Cheeses were submitted to 200, 300, 400 and 500 MPa at 2 stages of ripening (after 1 and 15 d of manufacturing) and volatile compounds were assayed at 15 and 60 d of ripening. High-pressure ...
Soini Helena A - - 2007
Quantitative stir bar sorptive extraction methodology, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and element-specific atomic emission detection (AED) were utilized to analyze seasonal changes in volatile components of preen oil secretions in Junco hyemalis. Juncos were held in long days to simulate breeding conditions, or short days to simulate nonbreeding ...
Hynes Juliet - - 2007
The mycelia of two wood decay basidiomycete fungi were grown opposing each other across a 1-microm pore membrane supported on the surface of malt broth, contained within a sealable reaction vessel. Production of volatiles during the time course of interaction was followed by collecting head space samples by solid phase ...
Pelletier Carl - - 2007
In activated sludge (AS) biotreatment, septic compounds such as volatile organic acids and reduced sulphur compounds have been frequently cited as a major cause of Thiothrix and Type 021N filamentous bulking. These filaments are common in Canadian pulp and paper biotreatment systems, where they cause settling problems in secondary clarifiers. ...
Melamane X L - - 2007
Wine distillery wastewaters (WDW) are acidic and have a high content of potential organic pollutants. This causes high chemical oxygen demand (COD) values. Polyphenols constitute a significant portion of this COD, and limit the efficiency of biological treatment of WDWs. WDW starting parameters were as follows: pH 3.83, 4,185 mg/l ...
Cai Lingshuang - - 2007
Poultry operations are associated with emissions of aerial ammonia (NH3), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and odor, and the magnitude of emissions is influenced by manure management practices. As a manure treatment additive, zeolites have been shown to have the potential to control NH3. Because of their properties it is also ...
Caligiani A - - 2007
A detailed analysis of the proton high-field NMR spectra of vinegars (in particular of Italian balsamic vinegars) is reported. A large number of organic substances belonging to different classes, such as carbohydrates, alcohols, organic acids, volatile compounds and amino acids, were assigned. The possibility of quantification of the substances identified ...
Haiyan Zhong - - 2006
Camellia oil is widely used in some parts of the world partly because of its high oxidative stability. The effect of heating a refined camellia oil for 1 h at 120 degrees C or 2 h at 170 degrees C with exogenous antioxidant, namely, caffeic acid and tyrosol, was studied. ...
Jerković Igor - - 2006
Volatile compounds of unifloral Salvia officinalis L. honey has been investigated for the first time. The botanical origin of ten unifloral Salvia honey samples has been ascertained by pollen analysis (the honey samples displayed 23-60% of Salvia pollen). Fifty-four volatile compounds were identified by GC and GC/MS in ten Salvia ...
Lee M R F - - 2006
The experiment investigated the digestion of lipids from different forage silages in beef steers. Six Hereford x Friesian steers prepared with rumen and duodenal cannulas were given ad libitum access to a high-sugar grass silage, control grass silage, red clover silage, or mixtures of the red clover and each of ...
Yáñez-Ruiz David R - - 2006
The present experiment was designed to estimate the quantitative contribution of rumen protozoa to the total N, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vaccenic acid (VA; trans-11-18 : 1) flow to the duodenum of steers fed two silage diets: control silage (CS) and silage high in water-soluble carbohydrates (HS). Protozoal duodenal ...
Wierda Rana Lori - - 2006
A method was developed for the analysis of salmon volatiles using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This method was used to monitor the volatiles of fresh king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stored in ambient air or in a 40:60 (v/v) mixture of CO2:N2 over time. The levels of several of ...
Kieronczyk A - - 2006
AIMS: The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of extracellular redox potential (Eh) on amino acid conversion to aroma compounds by Lactococcus lactis that is commonly used as a starter in the cheese industry. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study was realized in vitro by incubating resting cells ...
Puchajda Bartek - - 2006
The objective of this research was to establish a correlation between inactivation of fecal coliforms caused by organic acids in their unionized form in batch acid digesters and semicontinuously fed acid digesters at both mesophilic (38 degrees C) and low-mesophilic (24 degrees C) temperatures. Batch acid digesters achieved a U.S. ...
Crater Annie R - - 2007
We studied rumen fermentation of castrated adult muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus; n=4) during periods of low (May) and high (August) food intake. Turnover time (17+/-1.8 h) and volume (26+/-3.9 L) of rumen fluid were consistent between May and August and among days within each season. Rumen temperature did not vary significantly ...
Salas Joaquín J - - 2006
The degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway is responsible for the production of volatile compounds that confer green sensory notes to the aroma of fruits and vegetables. The peroxidation of free linoleic or linolenic acid by action of lipoxygenase and then the lysis of the resulting hydroperoxides, ...
Larreta J - - 2006
The headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of some odorous organic compounds [volatile fatty acids (VFAs), phenols and indoles] from animal wastes was optimised using an experimental design approach. The variables affecting the HS-SPME process studied were as follows: type of fibre, pH of the slurry (3-7), addition of sodium chloride (0-1 ...
Saddoud Ahlem - - 2007
Two-phase anaerobic digestion of cheese whey was investigated in a system consisting of a stirred acidogenic reactor followed by a stirred methanogenic reactor, the latter being coupled to a membrane filtration system to enable removal of soluble effluent whilst retaining solids. The acidogenic reactor was operated at a hydraulic retention ...
Vlaeminck B - - 2006
The objectives of this study were 1) to determine whether a relationship exists between molar proportions of volatile fatty acids in the rumen and milk odd-and branched-chain fatty acid concentrations (i.e., iso C13:0, anteiso C13:0, iso C14:0, C15:0, iso C15:0, anteiso C15:0, iso C16:0, C17:0, iso C17:0, anteiso C17:0, and ...
Takatani Tait - - 2007
The production of volatile analyte species by UV photolysis in the presence of low-molecular-weight organic acids as an alternative to chemical vapor generation has been of recent interest. The mechanism of this process is not well understood. Proposed mechanisms often involve photolytic cleavage of the organic acid as the initial ...
Alvarez Maria Teresa - - 2007
Biological production of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) using sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has important potential within environmental biotechnology. The aim of this work was to study the possibility of using SRB for the treatment of an acid mine drainage (AMD) at bench-scale. This process involved three stages: the optimization of H(2)S production ...
Leone Antonella - - 2006
The enzymatic activity, subcellular localization, and immunolocalization of plant lipoxygenase (LOX) in strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa, Duch) were investigated. Chemical and enzymatic properties of LOX have been characterized, and the LOX capability of oxygenating free and esterified unsaturated fatty acids into C6 volatile aldehydes has been confirmed. Fruits at ...
Makni H - - 2006
The granulation process was examined using synthetic wastewater containing glucose in a 1 liter laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The anaerobic biotransformation of glucose was investigated during the granulation process. Anaerobic unacclimated sludge and glucose were used as seed and primary substrate, respectively. Massive initial granules were developed ...
Shimomura Yuko - - 2006
For evaluation of physiologically significant organic anions in the colonic environment, 87 samples of normal feces were collected from the rectum of 15 calves less than 60 days old. The calves were fed milk replacer with free access to starter diet and hay. After fecal extraction with water, pH, D- ...
Sawada Yoshitsugu - - 2006
Volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-glutamine] and N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine are known as insect-produced plant volatile elicitors. The absolute configuration of the hydroxylinolenoyl moiety of volicitin from three noctuid species, Helicoverpa armigera, Mythimna separata and Spodoptera litura, was determined to be all 17S in high enantiomeric excess. When treated with 30 pmol of (17S)- and (17R)-volicitin, ...
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