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Kourtchev Ivan - - 2008
The molecular composition of PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microm) aerosol samples collected during a very warm and dry 2003 summer period at a mixed forest site in Jülich, Germany, was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in an effort to evaluate photooxidation products of biogenic volatile organic ...
Scholten Edzard - - 2008
A new bacterial strain producing succinic acid was enriched from bovine rumen content. It is facultatively anaerobic, belongs to the family Pasteurellaceae and has similarity to the genus Mannheimia. In batch cultivations with D-glucose or sucrose the strain produced up to 5.8 g succinic acid l(-1) with a productivity and ...
Kagami Keisuke - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Although the chemistry of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in foods has been well studied, few reports on the nutritional characteristics of MRPs in experimental animals and humans have been found. In this study, our interest was focused on the volatile MRPs (vMRPs) found in heated foods. METHODS: To confirm ...
Lourenço M - - 2008
Four different plant secondary metabolites were screened for their effect on rumen biohydrogenation of forage long-chain fatty acids, using dual-flow continuous culture fermenters. Treatments were as follows: control (no additive), positive control (12 mg/L of monensin), and plant extracts (500 and 1,000 mg/L of triterpene saponin; 250 and 500 mg/L ...
Montalvo S - - 2008
A study of the anaerobic treatment of wastewaters derived from red (RWWW) and tropical fruit wine (TFWWW) production was carried out in four laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactors with natural zeolite as bacterial support. These reactors operated at mesophilic temperature (35 degrees C). Reactors R1 and R2 contained Chilean natural zeolite, ...
Liu Xiaoling - - 2008
The effects of various pretreatment methods, including thermo-acid, thermo-alkaline, ultrasonic-alkaline and ultrasonic-acid, on solubilization and subsequent acidification efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated. The results showed that both thermo-alkaline and ultrasonic-alkaline significantly improved the solubilization of WAS at a high concentration (7.4% of total solids). Solubilization of volatile ...
Lim Seong-Jin - - 2008
Acidogenesis of food waste was studied in a 2-L reactor with semi-continuous mode operation (once-a-day feeding and draw-off) for maximum 65 days to examine optimal volatile acid compositions for biological nitrogen removal (BNR) and enhanced biological phosphorus removal (ENPR). Various operational parameters of hydraulic retention time (HRT), organic loading rate ...
Grigoryan Aleksandr A - - 2008
Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, collectively referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFA), are considered among the most important electron donors for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) in oil fields. Samples obtained from a field in the Neuquén Basin, western Argentina, had significant activity of mesophilic SRB, hNRB, ...
Hill S R - - 2008
A dynamic, mechanistic, compartmental model of phosphorus (P) digestion and metabolism was constructed in the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language using conservation of mass principles and mass action kinetics. Phosphorus was assumed to exist in 3 forms: inorganic (Pi), phytic acid (Pp), and organic (excluding phytic acid; Po). All 3 forms ...
Qureshi Asif - - 2008
Microwave digestion of liquid dairy manure was tested for the release of nutrients, such as orthophosphates, ammonia-nitrogen, magnesium, calcium and potassium, both with and without the aid of an oxidizing agent (hydrogen peroxide). The orthophosphate to total phosphorus ratio of the manure increased from 21% to greater than 80% with ...
Sundset Monica A - - 2008
Reindeer are able to eat and utilize lichens as an important source of energy and nutrients. In the current study, the activities of antibiotic secondary metabolites including usnic, antranoric, fumarprotocetraric, and lobaric acid commonly found in lichens were tested against a collection of 26 anaerobic rumen bacterial isolates from reindeer ...
Strobel Gary A - - 2008
Oidium sp. has been recovered as an endophyte in Terminalia catappa (tropical chestnut) in Costa Rica. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of this organism uniquely and primarily consist of esters of propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-, and butanoic acid, 3-methyl-. The VOCs of Oidium sp. are slightly inhibitory to ...
Illmer P - - 2009
A 750,000l digester located in Roppen/Austria was studied over a 2-year period. The concentrations and amounts of CH4, H2, CO2 and H2S and several other process parameters like temperature, retention time, dry weight and input of substrate were registered continuously. On a weekly scale the pH and the concentrations of ...
Anderson Stacey E - - 2008
Glyoxylic acid, a small dicarboxylic acid, has been detected at measurable levels in the atmosphere and is suspected to be present in indoor air environments. It is generated through the ozonolysis of several high volume production compounds that are commonly found indoors. Glyoxylic acid was tested in a combined irritancy ...
Schripsema Jan - - 2008
The separation of butter or margarine into polar (soluble in water) and apolar fractions (soluble in chloroform) and subsequent analysis of these fractions by (1)H NMR permits a comprehensive analysis of its constituents. In the polar fraction the preservatives benzoic and sorbic acid, the organic acids citric, lactic, butyric, acetic, ...
Ramin M - - 2008
The digestion and Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) production from rice straw and oil palm fronds by cellulolytic bacteria isolated from the termite Coptotermes curvignathus were investigated. The bacteria were Acinetobacter strain Raminalimon, Enterobacter aerogenes strain Razmin C, Enterobacter cloacae strain Razmin B, Bacillus cereus strain Razmin A and Chryseobacterium kwangyangense ...
Caprino Fabio - - 2008
The present study was conducted to characterize caviar obtained from farmed white sturgeons (Acipenser transmontanus) subjected to different dietary treatments. Twenty caviar samples from fish fed two experimental diets containing different dietary lipid sources have been analysed for chemical composition, fatty acids and flavour volatile compounds. Fatty acid make up ...
Dang Khuyen T H - - 2008
The effects of different edible coatings on mango fruit ripening and ripe fruit quality parameters including color, firmness, soluble solids concentrations, total acidity, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, fatty acids, and aroma volatiles were investigated. Hard mature green mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Kensigton Pride) fruits were coated with aqueous mango ...
Moate P J - - 2008
Previous investigations into ruminal lipolysis of triacylglycerol and ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) of unsaturated long-chain fatty acids have generally quantified these processes with either zero-order or first-order kinetics. This investigation examined if Michaelis-Menten and other nonlinear kinetics might be useful for quantifying these processes. Data from 2 previously published in vitro ...
Zheng G H - - 2008
The activated sludge process generates a large amount of excess sludge as a byproduct, which is one of the most serious challenges in biological wastewater treatment. In the present study, the feasibility of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and malonic acid (MA) as metabolic uncouplers to reduce sludge generation in the sequence batch ...
Elefsiniotis Panagiotis - - 2008
This study explored the biodegradation potential of two agricultural pesticides (2,4-D and isoproturon) as well as their effect on the performance of the anaerobic digestion process. Three 3.5 L batch reactors were used, having the same initial isoproturon concentration (25 mg/L) and different 2,4-D concentrations (i.e. 0, 100, or 300 ...
Vlasenko Alexander - - 2008
The yield of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the heterogeneous oxidation of condensed-phase organic and hydrocarbon soot films by gas-phase OH has been studied in a coated-wall flow tube at room temperature. Simultaneously, OH concentrations are measured using a chemical-ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) operated in negative ion mode and VOCs ...
Kataoka Hiroko - - 2008
Utilising extremely different vaporisation properties of boron compounds, the determination procedures of volatile boric acid and total boron using tungsten boat furnace (TBF) ICP-MS and TBF-ICP-AES have been investigated. For the determination of volatile boric acid by TBF-ICP-MS, tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH, Me(4)NOH) was used as a chemical modifier to retain ...
Vallet A - - 2008
AIMS: Determination of pathways involved in synthesis of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) from methionine by Oenococcus oeni isolated from wine. METHODS AND RESULTS: Production of VSC by O. oeni from methionine was investigated during bacterial cultures and in assays performed in the presence of resting cells or protein fractions. Cells ...
Romano A - - 2008
AIMS: Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis is a particularly troublesome wine spoilage yeast. This work was aimed at characterizing its behaviour in terms of growth and volatile compound production in red wine. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sterile red wines were inoculated with 5 x 10(3) viable cells ml(-1) of three B. bruxellensis strains and ...
Kabda┼čli I - - 2008
In this study, landfill leachate treatment technologies alternative to anaerobic treatment were experimentally investigated. The emphasis was placed upon nitrogen removal through the use of struvite precipitation. Treatment technologies studied included struvite precipitation, low pH (acidic) air stripping, and activated sludge. Dilution of landfill leachate was used as a means ...
Heaven S - - 2008
First stage hydrolysis/acidification, using maize as the substrate, was carried out both in single pass (SP) reactors at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) and in hydraulic flush (HF) reactors in which the solids and liquid retention time were uncoupled. The HF reactors were operated at two different loadings (2 and ...
Climenhaga M A - - 2008
Source-separated foodwastes collected from a campus catering facility were processed in bench-scale single-stage anaerobic digesters. The feedstock contained a varied mix of fruits, vegetables, meats and fried foods. A constant organic loading rate (OLR) was maintained with differing hydraulic retention times (HRT). Regular addition of trace elements or prolonged retention ...
Song H - - 2008
The aroma-active compounds of American country ham were investigated by using direct solvent extraction-solvent assisted flavor evaporation (DSE-SAFE), dynamic headspace dilution analysis (DHDA), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results indicated the involvement of numerous volatile constituents in the aroma of country ...
Tezel U - - 2008
The effect of the quaternary ammonium compound, didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), on nitrate reduction was investigated at concentrations up to 100 mg/L in a batch assay using a mixed, mesophilic (35 degrees C) methanogenic culture. Glucose was used as the carbon and energy source and the initial nitrate concentration ...
Ganeko N - - 2008
Generally the main component of fishy flavor is considered to be trimethylamine. On the other hand, carbonyl compounds, produced from oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acid by lipoxygenase or by autoxidation, might have some contribution to the fishy flavor. Since sardine skin contains high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipoxygenase, ...
Miyazawa Mitsuo - - 2008
The components of the volatile oils from the straws of Oryza sativa L. (Onshinomai, Asamurasaki, Hinohikari) were analyzed by capillary GC/GC-MS. The quantification of volatile compounds in the oils was made by the internal standard method, using palmitic acid as reference substance. Palmitic acid was the most abundant component in ...
Wilson C A - - 2008
Sustainable operation of an anaerobic sewage sludge digester requires the effective shuttling of carbon from complex organic material to methane gas. The accumulation of intermediates and metabolic products such as volatile fatty acids and hydrogen gas not only reveal inefficiency within the digestion process, but can be detrimental to reactor ...
Zhang Yejian - - 2008
A bench-scale expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor was applied to the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). The reactor had been operated continuously at 35 degrees C for 514 d, with organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 1.45 to 17.5 kg COD/(m3 x d). The results showed that ...
Emmanuel D G V - - 2007
The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of acidic pH of the perfusate and presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on permeability of rumen and colon mucosal tissues to mannitol and LPS using the Ussing chamber system. Rumen and colon tissues (n = 8), obtained from slaughtered feedlot ...
Joaquin H J F - - 2008
The effect of milk protein concentrate (MPC) at 0, 2, 4, and 6% on lipid oxidation and volatile formation in frozen stored herring mince (-18 degrees C) was evaluated by analyzing samples at 0, 2, and 4 months for fatty acid composition, volatiles, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Sensory ...
Patrignani Francesca - - 2008
In recent years, the interest in the possible use of natural alternatives to food additives to prevent bacterial and fungal growth has notably increased. Plants and plant products can represent a source of natural alternatives to improve the shelf-life and the safety of food. Some of these compounds, i.e. hexanal, ...
Kronberg S L - - 2007
Enrichment of beef muscle with n-3 fatty acids (FA) is one means to introduce these FA into the diet, but ruminal biohydrogenation limits their bioavailability. To address this problem, we evaluated the ability of condensed tannin (quebracho), in the presence or absence of casein, to protect 18:3n-3 in flaxseed from ...
Jørgensen Kevin - - 2008
Soft shell crab is a seafood delicacy in many parts of the world. In Denmark, it has been investigated whether a commercial production of soft shell European green crabs (Carcinus maenas) would be feasible. In relation to this, a feeding study was performed to examine if occurrence of DSP toxins ...
Parawira W - - 2007
A two-stage anaerobic digestion process operated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions was investigated for the treatment of solid potato waste to determine optimal methane yield, efficiency of operation and process stability. A solid-bed reactor was used for hydrolysis/acidification stage while an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was used in ...
Di Cagno Raffaella - - 2007
Four semi-hard Italian goats' milk cheeses, Flor di Capra (FC), Caprino di Cavalese (CC), Caprino di Valsassina (CV) and Capritilla (C), were compared for compositional, microbiological, biochemical, volatile profile and sensory characteristics. Mean values for the gross composition in part differed between cheeses. At the end of ripening, cheeses contained ...
Or-Rashid M M - - 2008
The effects of dietary algal supplementation, a source of docosahexaenoic acid, on the fatty acid profile of rumen lipids in cattle were evaluated, with special emphasis on CLA and trans fatty acids produced by rumen microbes. A diet based on corn silage was fed with supplements containing the following: 1) ...
Ranilla M J - - 2007
AIMS: To assess the effect of protozoal species on rumen fermentation characteristics in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: Entodinium caudatum, Isotricha intestinalis, Metadinium medium, and Eudiplodinium maggii from monofaunated wethers and mixed protozoa from conventional wethers were obtained by centrifugation, re-suspended at their normal densities in rumen fluid supernatants from defaunated ...
Salter A M - - 2007
Dietary fat is well recognised as an important macronutrient that has major effects on growth, development and health of all animals including humans. The amount and type of fat in the diet impacts on many aspects of metabolism including lipoprotein pathways, lipid synthesis and oxidation, adipocyte differentiation and cholesterol metabolism. ...
Jeanbourquin P - - 2007
Analysis of volatiles from rumen digesta by gas chromatography linked antennogram recordings from Stomoxys calcitrans (L) (Diptera: Muscidae) antennal receptor cells revealed about 30 electrophysiologically active constituents, the most important of which is dimethyl trisulphide with a sensory threshold in the femtogram range. The behavioural responses of S. calcitrans to ...
Nam I S - - 2007
AIMS: To investigate biohydrogenation of linoleic acid by rumen fungi compared with rumen bacteria, and to identify the fungus with the fastest biohydrogenation rate. METHODS AND RESULTS: Biohydrogenation of linoleic acid by mixed rumen fungi and mixed rumen bacteria were compared in vitro. With mixed rumen bacteria, all biohydrogenation reactions ...
Lehtomäki A - - 2008
Anaerobic digestion of grass silage in batch leach bed reactors, with and without a second stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, was evaluated. Sixty six percent of the methane potential in grass was obtained within the 55 days solids retention time in the leach bed-UASB process without pH adjustment, ...
Deetae Pawinee - - 2007
Twelve bacterial strains belonging to eight taxonomic groups: Brevibacterium linens, Microbacterium foliorum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus equorum, Brachybacterium sp., Proteus vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp., isolated from different surface-ripened French cheeses, were investigated for their abilities to generate volatile aroma compounds. Out of 104 volatile compounds, 54 volatile compounds (identified ...
Puig S - - 2008
The purpose of this paper is to provide a basis for selecting alcohols (i.e. ethanol and methanol) or short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFAs) (i.e. acetate and propionate) as the external carbon sources for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewaters in adapted or unadapted activated sludge. When ethanol is used ...
Bergaoui Afifa - - 2007
The chemical composition of the volatiles isolated by steam distillation from leaves, flowers and fruits of Opuntia lindheimeri var. linguiformis L. Benson, leaves and flowers of Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm and leaves of Opuntia microdasys (Lehmann) gathered in the sea cliff of Monastir town (Tunisia), has been studied by GC and ...
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