Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1140
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >
Takashima M - - 2010
The effectiveness of acidic thermal treatment (ATT) was examined in a 106-day continuous experiment, when applied to one- or two-stage anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge (4.3% TS). The ATT was performed at 170 °C and pH 5 for 1 hour (sulfuric acid for lowering pH). The one-stage process was mesophilic ...
Winkel Lenny - - 2010
Quantification and speciation of volatile selenium (Se) fluxes in remote areas has not been feasible previously, due to the absence of a simple and easily transportable trapping technique that preserves speciation. This paper presents a chemo-trapping method with nitric acid (HNO3) for volatile Se species, which preserves speciation of trapped ...
Lallès J P - - 2009
The EU ban on in-feed antibiotics has stimulated research on weaning diets as a way of reducing post-weaning gut disorders and growth check in pigs. Many bioactive components have been investigated but only few have shown to be effective. Amongst these, organic acids (OA) have been shown to exert a ...
Kim Man Deok - - 2010
This paper reports the effects of changing pH (5-7) and temperature (T, 40-60 degrees C) on the efficiencies of bacterial hydrolysis of suspended organic matter (SOM) in wastewater from food waste recycling (FWR) and the changes in the bacterial community responsible for this hydrolysis. Maximum hydrolysis efficiency (i.e., 50.5% reduction ...
Abdl-Rahman M A MA Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza 12211, - - 2010
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of sodium lauryl sulfate-fumaric acid coupled addition on in vitro methangenesis and rumen fermentation. Evaluation was carried out using in vitro gas production technique. Ruminal contents were collected from five steers immediately after slaughtering and used for preparation of ...
Freguia Stefano - - 2010
Strategies are being developed to harvest the energy content of the wasted sludge generated from the treatment of domestic wastewater. Sludge can be hydrolysed and fermented, giving a mixture of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Based on the composition of such a fermented stream, synthetic media were created and tested for ...
Khafipour Ehsan - - 2009
Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a metabolic disease in dairy cattle that occurs during early and mid-lactation and has traditionally been characterized by low rumen pH, but lactic acid does not accumulate as in acute lactic acid acidosis. It is hypothesized that factors such as increased gut permeability, bacterial lipopolysaccharides, ...
Or-Rashid Mamun M - - 2009
Consumers are aware of foods containing microcomponents that may have positive effects on health maintenance and disease prevention. In ruminant milk, meat, and milk products; these functional food components include eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3), docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3), 9c11t-conjugated linoleic acid, and vaccenic acid (11t-18:1). Modifying ruminal microbial metabolism of fatty acid ...
Kenge Anju A - - 2009
The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was used to treat separated solid dairy manure for nutrient release and solids reduction. The MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP was conducted at a microwave temperature of 120 degrees C for 10 minutes, and at three pH conditions of 3.5, 7.3 and 12. The hydrogen peroxide dosage ...
Chen Jiluan - - 2009
The influence of thermal and dense-phase carbon dioxide (DP-CO(2)) pasteurization on physicochemical properties and flavor compounds in Hami melon juice was investigated. Melon juice was pasteurized using DP-CO(2) treatment and compared to a conventional high-temperature-short-time (HTST) method. The DP-CO(2) treatment was carried out using a DP-CO(2) unit (55 degrees C, ...
Jerković I - - 2010
Salix spp. honeydew honey volatiles were analyzed for the first time by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC, GC-MS). The use of HS-SPME and USE had advantageous results over the use of one single technique, as it provided different ...
Young O A - - 2009
This article reports the perception of cooked, nitrite-cured sheepmeat sausage that included 1.5% glucose, sucrose, xylose, or no sugar addition. The 4 sugar treatments were dry-cooked, vacuum packed, and stored chilled, and were hedonically assessed after 0, 1, and 2 mo. Consumers were advised that they could be eating any ...
Franke S - - 2009
Orchids employing sexual deceit attract males of their pollinator species through specific volatile signals that mimic female-released sex pheromones. One of these signals proved to be 2-ethyl-5-propylcyclohexan-1,3-dione (chiloglottone1), a new natural product that was shown to be most important in the relations between orchids of the genus Chiloglottis, native to ...
Rincón B - - 2009
A study of the second step or methanogenic stage of a two-stage anaerobic digestion process treating two-phase olive oil mill solid residue (OMSR) was conducted at mesophilic temperature (35 degrees C). The substrate fed to the methanogenic step was the effluent from a hydrolytic-acidogenic reactor operating at an organic loading ...
Combet Emilie - - 2009
The enzymic oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acid-linoleic acid leads, in fungi, to the formation of a unique class of nonconjugated hydroperoxides, which are cleaved to form eight-carbon volatiles characteristic of mushroom and fungal flavor. However, the enzymes involved in this biosynthetic pathway, the bioavailability of the fatty acid substrate, ...
Wu Guangxue - - 2009
The effect of the solid content on anaerobic digestion of meat and bone meal (MBM) was investigated in batch reactors at MBM solid contents of 1%, 2%, 5% and 10%. There was no significant difference in the specific methane (CH(4)) production potential with respect to the total volatile MBM solids ...
Goulitquer Sophie - - 2009
With a little kelp from my friends: In response to biotic and abiotic stress, the brown algal kelp Laminaria digitata releases volatile fatty acid aldehydes under laboratory conditions and in its natural environment (red). In response to 4-HHE treatment, L. digitata releases (13S)-HOTrE (green). These results support the hypothesis that ...
Diez Ana M - - 2009
Blood sausage, a widely consumed traditional product, would benefit from an increased commercial life. It is therefore pertinent to investigate the type, the evolution, and the behaviour of the Lactic Acid Bacteria responsible for their spoilage. This study aims to clarify the role played by Weissella viridescens and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, ...
Goberna M - - 2009
Prokaryotic diversity was investigated near the inlet and outlet of a plug-flow reactor. After analyzing 800 clones, 50 bacterial and 3 archaeal phylogenetic groups were defined. Clostridia (>92%) dominated among bacteria and Methanoculleus (>90%) among archaea. Significant changes in pH and volatile fatty acids did not invoke a major shift ...
Rösler Thomas W - - 2009
The chemical composition of the hydrodistillate won by steam distillation from the fruits of Serenoa repens (W. Bartram), a well known phytomedicine against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), was analyzed by GC-MS. It resulted in the identification of 144 steam-volatile components including about 100 structures which have not been described as ...
Gaquerel Emmanuel - - 2009
Treating wounds in Nicotiana attenuata leaves with Manduca sexta oral secretions (W+OS) mimics most changes elicited by M. sexta herbivory, but an unbiased analysis of the effect of the different OS constituents on volatile emissions is lacking. We used two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight (GCxGC-ToF) mass spectrometry combined with multivariate statistics to ...
Di Pasquale Mauro G - - 2009
All fats, including saturated fatty acids, have important roles in the body. However, the most important fats are those that the body cannot make and thus must come from the food we eat. These essential fatty acids (EFAs) are based on linoleic acid (omega-6 group) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3 group). ...
Sukhonthara Sukhontha - - 2009
The volatile oils from red and black rice bran were obtained by hydrodistillation using diethyl ester and the components of that oil were analyzed by capillary GC-MS. The volatile components of essential oil from red and black rice bran were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. One hundred twenty-nine (129) of ...
Tedeschi L O - - 2009
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the dynamics of gas production of several corn (co)products, to develop equations to predict the rate of ruminal fiber digestion, to estimate total digestible nutrients (TDN) and net energy for lactation (NE(L)), and to assess the stochasticity of chemical composition and nutritive ...
Jacobi H Fabian - - 2009
Recently biogas production from agricultural sources has rapidly developed. Therefore the demands on biogas plants to optimise the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process have grown immensely. At present there is no online-supervision tool available to monitor the AD process, but costly and time-consuming chemical analyses are necessary. The ...
Zhao Tiantao - - 2009
The inhibition effects and mechanisms of chlorinated methane and acetylene on methanogenesis in the anaerobic digestion process of the biodegradable wastes were investigated. It was found that both chloroform and acetylene could effectively inhibit methanogens while the biodegradability of the wastes was not affected. Acetylene inhibited the activity of methanogens, ...
Miyazawa Mitsuo - - 2009
The composition of the volatile components from unripe (I) and ripe (II) Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) have been investigated. Seventy-six volatile components were identified, 25 for the first time as volatile constituents of Japanese apricot. The main components were benzaldehyde (I, 59.16%; II, 1.81%), isolongifololyl acetate (II, ...
Lui Clarissa - - 2009
The advent of nucleic acid-based pathogen detection methods offers increased sensitivity and specificity over traditional microbiological techniques, driving the development of portable, integrated biosensors. The miniaturization and automation of integrated detection systems presents a significant advantage for rapid, portable field-based testing. In this review, we highlight current developments and directions ...
Yang Ziyin - - 2009
The isolated protoplasts of rose flowers were used to investigate the metabolic pathway in rose flower leading from shikimic acid or L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) to 2-phenylethanol (2PE), a dominant volatile compound in hybrid roses such as Rosa damascena Mill., R. 'Hoh-Jun', and R. 'Yves Piaget'. Deuterium-labeled L-Phe ([2H8]L-Phe) was supplied to ...
Dogan E - - 2009
A lab-scale leaching bed reactor (LBR) was operated to (1) investigate the potential of in-vessel solid-state anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) and (2) examine the feasibility of using LBRs for hydrolysis/liquefaction and acidification of organic fraction of MSW for maximum total volatile fatty acid ...
Watanapokasin Ramida Yuwadee - - 2009
Anaerobic biodegradability of wastewater (3,000 mg CODcr/l) containing 300 mg/l Reactive Blue 4, with different co-substrates, glucose, butyrate and propionate by a bacterial consortium of Salmonella subterranea and Paenibacillus polymyxa, concomitantly with hydrogen production was investigated at 35 degrees C. The accumulative hydrogen production at 3,067 mg CODcr/l was obtained ...
Strobel Gary A - - 2008
An endophytic fungus, Gliocladium roseum (NRRL 50072), produced a series of volatile hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives on an oatmeal-based agar under microaerophilic conditions as analysed by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME)-GC/MS. As an example, this organism produced an extensive series of the acetic acid esters of straight-chained alkanes including those of pentyl, ...
Liu L - - 2008
The objective of this study was to determine whether malic acid could promote the accumulation of vaccenic acid in the rumen. The control diet was composed of a 65:35 ratio of forage to concentrate with 1% (dry matter basis) added fractionated fish oil (rich in docosahexaenoic acid), and treatment diets ...
Boeckaert Charlotte - - 2008
Optimization of the fatty acid composition of ruminant milk and meat is desirable. Dietary supplementation of algae was previously shown to inhibit rumen biohydrogenation, resulting in an altered milk fatty acid profile. Bacteria involved in biohydrogenation belong to the Butyrivibrio group. This study was aimed at relating accumulation of biohydrogenation ...
Masino Francesca - - 2008
In this study, two different doses of commercial beta-glucanase enzyme preparation were tested to verify their effect on wines aged on lees. These wines were compared with two samples with no enzymatic treatment. The former was aged on lees (control), and the latter was readily filtered off from the yeast ...
Mondala Andro - - 2009
The potential of using municipal wastewater sludges as a lipid feedstock for biodiesel production was investigated. Primary and secondary sludge samples obtained from a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Tuscaloosa, AL were freeze-dried and subjected to an acid-catalyzed insitu transesterification process. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of temperature, ...
Robles-Zepeda Ramón E - - 2009
Montanoa tomentosa has been used in traditional medicine in Mexico to treat diverse female health disorders; it is particularly useful in inducing childbirth. Microscopic analysis of leaf surfaces of M. tomentosa revealed the presence of glandular trichomes. The chemical profile and distribution of glandular trichomes from different developmental stages of ...
Vavilin Vasily A - - 2008
Taking into account isotope (13)C value a mathematical model was developed to describe the dynamics of methanogenic population during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of putrescible solid waste and waste imitating Chinese municipal solid waste. Three groups of methanogens were considered in the model including unified hydrogenotrophic methanogens and two aceticlastic methanogens ...
Stumpff Friederike - - 2009
The absorption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) from the rumen requires efficient mechanisms for both apical uptake and basolateral extrusion. Previous studies suggest that the rumen expresses a basolateral chloride conductance that might be permeable to SCFA. In order to characterize this conductance in more detail, isolated cultured ruminal epithelial ...
González Cristina - - 2008
The potential and limitations of photosynthetic oxygenation on carbon and nitrogen removal from swine slurry were investigated in batch experiments using Chlorella sorokiniana and an acclimated activated sludge as model microorganisms. While algal-bacterial systems exhibited similar performance than aerated activated sludge in tests supplied with four and eight times diluted ...
Kourtchev Ivan - - 2008
The molecular composition of PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microm) aerosol samples collected during a very warm and dry 2003 summer period at a mixed forest site in Jülich, Germany, was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in an effort to evaluate photooxidation products of biogenic volatile organic ...
Scholten Edzard - - 2008
A new bacterial strain producing succinic acid was enriched from bovine rumen content. It is facultatively anaerobic, belongs to the family Pasteurellaceae and has similarity to the genus Mannheimia. In batch cultivations with D-glucose or sucrose the strain produced up to 5.8 g succinic acid l(-1) with a productivity and ...
Kagami Keisuke - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Although the chemistry of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in foods has been well studied, few reports on the nutritional characteristics of MRPs in experimental animals and humans have been found. In this study, our interest was focused on the volatile MRPs (vMRPs) found in heated foods. METHODS: To confirm ...
Lourenço M - - 2008
Four different plant secondary metabolites were screened for their effect on rumen biohydrogenation of forage long-chain fatty acids, using dual-flow continuous culture fermenters. Treatments were as follows: control (no additive), positive control (12 mg/L of monensin), and plant extracts (500 and 1,000 mg/L of triterpene saponin; 250 and 500 mg/L ...
Montalvo S - - 2008
A study of the anaerobic treatment of wastewaters derived from red (RWWW) and tropical fruit wine (TFWWW) production was carried out in four laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactors with natural zeolite as bacterial support. These reactors operated at mesophilic temperature (35 degrees C). Reactors R1 and R2 contained Chilean natural zeolite, ...
Liu Xiaoling - - 2008
The effects of various pretreatment methods, including thermo-acid, thermo-alkaline, ultrasonic-alkaline and ultrasonic-acid, on solubilization and subsequent acidification efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated. The results showed that both thermo-alkaline and ultrasonic-alkaline significantly improved the solubilization of WAS at a high concentration (7.4% of total solids). Solubilization of volatile ...
Lim Seong-Jin - - 2008
Acidogenesis of food waste was studied in a 2-L reactor with semi-continuous mode operation (once-a-day feeding and draw-off) for maximum 65 days to examine optimal volatile acid compositions for biological nitrogen removal (BNR) and enhanced biological phosphorus removal (ENPR). Various operational parameters of hydraulic retention time (HRT), organic loading rate ...
Grigoryan Aleksandr A - - 2008
Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, collectively referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFA), are considered among the most important electron donors for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) in oil fields. Samples obtained from a field in the Neuquén Basin, western Argentina, had significant activity of mesophilic SRB, hNRB, ...
Hill S R - - 2008
A dynamic, mechanistic, compartmental model of phosphorus (P) digestion and metabolism was constructed in the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language using conservation of mass principles and mass action kinetics. Phosphorus was assumed to exist in 3 forms: inorganic (Pi), phytic acid (Pp), and organic (excluding phytic acid; Po). All 3 forms ...
Qureshi Asif - - 2008
Microwave digestion of liquid dairy manure was tested for the release of nutrients, such as orthophosphates, ammonia-nitrogen, magnesium, calcium and potassium, both with and without the aid of an oxidizing agent (hydrogen peroxide). The orthophosphate to total phosphorus ratio of the manure increased from 21% to greater than 80% with ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >