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Results 201 - 250 of 1151
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Lizard Gérard - - 2012
In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT), the role played by peroxisomes is not well known. Peroxisomes are present in all eukaryotic cells, with the exception of erythrocytes. They are involved in the β-oxidation process of long-chain fatty acids, very-long-chain fatty acids, and branched-chain fatty acids. ...
Patterson E - - 2012
Omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (e.g., arachidonic acid (AA)) and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are precursors to potent lipid mediator signalling molecules, termed "eicosanoids," which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In general, eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFA are proinflammatory while eicosanoids derived from ...
Qu Jing - - 2012
Jatropha curcas is recognized as a new energy crop due to the presence of the high amount of oil in its seeds that can be converted into biodiesel. The quality and performance of the biodiesel depends on the chemical composition of the fatty acids present in the oil. The fatty ...
Pessione Enrica - - 2012
Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are ancient organisms that cannot biosynthesize functional cytochromes, and cannot get ATP from respiration. Besides sugar fermentation, they evolved electrogenic decarboxylations and ATP-forming deiminations. The right balance between sugar fermentation and decarboxylation/deimination ensures buffered environments thus enabling LAB to survive in human gastric trait and colonize ...
Naresh Chary V - - 2012
Betaines belong to the naturally occurring osmoprotectants or compatible solutes present in a variety of plants, animals and microorganisms. In recent years, metabolomic techniques have been emerging as a fundamental tool for biologists because the constellation of these molecules and their relative proportions provide with information about the actual biochemical ...
de Vladar Harold P HP - - 2012
There is evidence that the genetic code was established prior to the existence of proteins, when metabolism was powered by ribozymes. Also, early proto-organisms had to rely on simple anaerobic bioenergetic processes. In this work I propose that amino acid fermentation powered metabolism in the RNA world, and that this ...
Rehman Ateequr - - 2012
Antibiotic associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection are frequent complications of broad spectrum antibiotic therapy. Probiotic bacteria are used as therapeutic and preventive agents in these disorders, but the exact functional mechanisms and the mode of action are poorly understood. The effects of clindamycin and the probiotic mixture VSL#3 (containing ...
Dave Anuja - - 2012
Oxylipins are lipid-derived compounds, many of which act as signals in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stress. They include the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) and related jasmonate metabolites cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), methyl jasmonate, and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile). Besides the defense response, jasmonates are involved in plant growth and development ...
Popkov Alexander - - 2011
Positron emission tomography (PET) utilises positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals in the study of metabolic and physiological processes. FDG-PET is a useful technique for tumour detection; however FDG has disadvantages. The incorporation of labelled amino acids into brain tumours and into some other organs with high physiological consumption of glucose is a ...
Yoshioka Sayaka - - 2011
Whisky exerts an inhibitory effect on melanogenesis in B16 cells, the anti-melanogenic activity being positively correlated with the aging period and anti-oxidative activity of whisky. We examined the correlation between the inhibition of melanogenesis and the concentration of each compound in various whiskies to evaluate the importance of 11 different ...
Nokihara Kiyoshi - - 2011
Focusing on drug discovery non-proteinogenic amino acids have often been used as important building blocks for construction of compound libraries in the filed of combinatorial chemistry and chemical biology. Highly homogeneous L: -mimosine, α-amino-β-(3-hydoxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-yl)-propanoic acid, a non-proteinogenic amino acid, has been successfully isolated and purified on an industrial scale from ...
Parra Andres - - 2011
Maslinic acid (2α,3β-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid), a natural dihydroxylated pentacyclic triterpene acid isolated from olive-pressing residues, has been investigated together with some of its derivatives regarding the induction of apoptosis in B16F10 melanoma cells. Some of the compounds tested are described in this work, but others come from previous studies. Ten of ...
Yamada Masayoshi - - 2011
The EtOH extract of tarragon Artemisia dracunculus, a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae, was found to potently inhibit α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) induced melanin production in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two alkamide compounds, isobutyl (1) and piperidiyl (2) amides of undeca-2E,4E-dien-8,10-dynoic acid. The ...
Lu Chichong - - 2011
The novel PEGylated lipoic acid (LA) derivatives with functionality were synthesized in satisfactory yield by simple procedures and evaluated about its anti-melanogenic activity on the B16F10 melanoma cells. Grafting a PEG moiety onto the carboxyl group of LA has reduced the cell cytotoxicity and provided the water solubility and functionality ...
Khan Azmat Ali - - 2011
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been reported to play a regulatory role in tumour growth progression. In the present study, we have synthesized ester derivatives of two important PUFA viz., linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) with propofol, a widely used general anaesthetic-sedative agent. The novel propofol ester analogues ...
Hull Mark A MA Section of Molecular Gastroenterology, Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, St James's University Hospital, Leeds, United Kingdom. - - 2011
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are naturally occurring omega (ω)-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are found in highest quantities in oily fish such as sardines and mackerel. Epidemiological studies of the association between fish intake, ω-3 PUFA intake or blood ω-3 PUFA levels and colorectal cancer ...
de Andrade Bab - - 2011
Oral Diseases (2011) doi: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2011.01841.x Objective:  The aim of this study was to determine the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) in oral nevi and melanomas, comparing the results with correspondent cutaneous lesions. Materials and Methods:  Expression of FASN was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 51 oral melanocytic lesions, including 38 ...
Fabriăs Gemma - - 2011
Ceramidases are ubiquitous amidohydrolases that catalyze the cleavage of ceramides into sphingosine and fatty acids. This reaction exerts a cytoprotective role in physiological conditions, while altered ceramidase activities favour a number of human diseases. Among these diseases, several reports point to important roles of ceramidases, mainly the acid ceramidase, in ...
Lee Seung-Ah - - 2011
Ascorbic acid, a potential antioxidant, is known to inhibit melanogenesis. However, there are conflicting findings that ascorbic acid has very low stability and acts as a pro-oxidant, eventually increasing proliferation and melanin content in melanoma cells. In the present study, we explored the effects of ascorbic acid on the activity ...
Laurentt Nicolas - - 2011
In recent years, gene therapy has received considerable interest as a potential method for the treatment of numerous inherited and acquired diseases. However, successes have so far been hampered by several limitations, including safety issues of viral-based nucleic acid vectors and poor in vivo efficiency of nonviral vectors. Magnetofection has ...
Sunshine Joel C JC Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 400 N. Broadway, Smith Building 5017, Baltimore, MD 21231, - - 2011
Nonviral systems for nucleic acid delivery offer a host of potential advantages compared with viruses, including reduced toxicity and immunogenicity, increased ease of production and less stringent vector size limitations, but remain far less efficient than their viral counterparts. In this article we review recent advances in the delivery of ...
Udén P - - 2011
A novel macro in vitro system was used to test the theory that rumen proportions of acetate, propionate and butyrate are not representative of their respective net production rates. Whole rumen content (10-16 kg) from two cows was mixed with a bicarbonate buffer and incubated separately in two 40-l in ...
Tonner Ralf - - 2011
We argue that Suhm and Albrecht's key point that the homo/heterochiral dimers do not play any role in the process of self-disproportionation of enantiomers of α-(trifluoromethyl)lactic acid through sublimation might be valid under a particular set of experimental conditions. However, the formation of dimers in the gas-phase cannot be completely ...
Babu P David Suresh - - 2011
The FTRaman and FTIR spectra for Toluic acid (TA) have been recorded in the region 4000-100cm(-1) and compared with the harmonic vibrational frequencies calculated using HF/DFT (LSDA and B3LYP) method BY employing 6-311G (d, p) basis set with appropriate scale factors. IR intensities and Raman activities are also calculated by ...
Ma Dawei - - 2011
Amino acids can be used as ligands to promote Ullmann-type coupling reactions. This review briefly discusses how L-proline, 4-hydroxy-L-proline and N,N-dimethylglycine can serve as the ideal ligands for copper-catalyzed coupling of aryl halides with different nucleophiles. Seven examples of applications of copper/amino acid catalyzed reactions in large-scale preparations are described.
Shelke Nikhil - - 2011
This paper focuses on the current best-evidence-based clinical practices and controversies surrounding folic acid supplementation/fortification for the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) during early pregnancy. The paper also discusses the controversies surrounding the effect of folic acid on the prevention as well as the promotion of cancer. Sufficient data ...
Huang Wen-Bin - - 2011
Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness. Improved knowledge of the pathogenesis of this disease has allowed the exploration of new therapeutic methods. In general, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), oxidative stress, and vascular insufficiency are accepted as the major risk factors for the progression of ...
Gil-Sánchez Alfonso - - 2011
The concentration of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) in the fetal brain increases dramatically from the third trimester until 18 months of life. Several studies have shown an association between the percentage of maternal plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during gestation and development of cognitive functions in the neonate. Since only ...
Uysal Ersin - - 2011
In this study, the Taguchi experimental design was applied to optimize the conditions for α-amylase production by Bacillus subtilis RSKK96, which was purchased from Refik Saydam Hifzissihha Industry (RSHM). Four factors, namely, carbon source, nitrogen source, amino acid, and fermentation time, each at four levels, were selected, and an orthogonal ...
Guglielmotti Daniela M - - 2011
Bacteriophages can cause great economic losses due to fermentation failure in dairy plants. Hence, physical and chemical treatments of raw material and/or equipment are mandatory to maintain phage levels as low as possible. Regarding thermal treatments used to kill pathogenic bacteria or achieve longer shelf-life of dairy products, neither low ...
Aschenbach J R - - 2011
Highly fermentable diets are rapidly converted to organic acids [i.e., short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactic acid] within the rumen. The resulting release of protons can constitute a challenge to the ruminal ecosystem and animal health. Health disturbances, resulting from acidogenic diets, are classified as subacute and acute acidosis based ...
Hu W - - 2010
The fermentability of a corn cultivar that expresses a thermostable α-amylase (CA3272) was evaluated under various in vitro conditions. The CA3272 corn was developed as a replacement to microbial enzyme additions during the high-temperature processing of corn to produce ethanol. The α-amylase activity in the corn might have the potential ...
Wall R - - 2011
A series of in vitro and in vivo assays were conducted to examine the effects of trans-cinnamic acid ethyl ester on Psoroptes mange mites. In vitro, 24h after exposure to the test material at concentrations of 10, 1 or 0.1% (v/v), 100, 74 and 20% of mites had died, respectively, ...
Ghosh D - - 2011
The present study records the occurrence of major lipid fractions and their fatty acids in a digenetic trematode parasite Paramphistomum cervi, and the rumen fluid and liver of the goat (Capra hircus). The amount of neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL) of goat liver, rumen fluid and of ...
Tietel Zipora - - 2011
During the last decade there has been a continuous rise in consumption of fresh easy-to-peel mandarins. However, mandarins are much more perishable than other citrus fruit, mainly due to rapid deterioration in sensory acceptability after harvest. In the current review we discuss the biochemical components involved in forming the unique ...
Jerković Igor - - 2010
Salix spp. nectar honey volatiles of Croatian origin were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE), followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC, GC/MS). Isolated volatiles were found in the honey headspace and extracts with almost exclusive distribution of several abundant compounds (e.g., phenylacetic acid, ...
Emaga Thomas Happi - - 2011
Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big ...
Flythe M D - - 2010
To determine the effects of hops extract on in vitro volatile fatty acid (VFA) production by bovine rumen micro-organisms. When mixed rumen microbes were suspended in media containing carbohydrates, the initial rates of VFA production were suppressed by β-acid-rich hops extract. The rates of VFA production increased over extended incubations ...
Lourenço M - - 2010
Despite the fact that the ruminant diet is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), ruminant products - meat, milk and dairy - contain mainly saturated fatty acids (SFA) because of bacterial lipolysis and subsequent biohydrogenation of ingested PUFA in the rumen. The link between SFA consumption by man and coronary ...
Bełzecki G - - 2010
Rumen ciliate protozoa intensively engulf bacteria. However, their ability to utilize murein which is the main polysaccharide of bacterial cell wall has hardly been recognized. The present study concerns the ability of the rumen protozoa Diploplastron affine to digest and ferment murein. The ciliates were isolated from the rumen fluid ...
Miltko R - - 2010
The ability was determined of the rumen ciliate Eudiplodinium maggii to utilize chitin from fungal cell wall. Cultivation experiments shoved that the population concentration (number of ciliates in vitro) was positively correlated with chitin doses. Cell extract prepared from the bacteria-free ciliates degraded colloidal chitin releasing 2.0 micromol reducing sugar ...
Krueger N A - - 2010
Ruminant-derived foods contain high proportions of saturated fats as a result of ruminal biohydrogenation that rapidly saturates and thus limits the availability of free unsaturated fatty acids for assimilation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of glycerol on ruminal free-fatty acid (FFA) production rates and in ...
Zhang Bo - - 2010
Changes in characteristic aroma volatiles, levels of fatty acids as aroma precursors, and expression patterns of related genes, including lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), alcohol acyltransferase (AAT), and fatty acid desaturase (FAD), were studied in peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch., cv. Yulu) fruit during postharvest ripening ...
Lasekan Ola - - 2010
Considering the importance of tropical almond nuts as a snack item, a study was conducted to identify the flavour volatiles and acrylamide generated during the roasting of the nuts. The supercritical fluid extracted flavour components revealed 74 aroma active compounds made up of 27 hydrocarbons, 12 aldehydes, 11 ketones, 7 ...
Montero B - - 2010
Knowledge of the relationship between the evolution of butyric acid, the main precursor of methane, and the methanogenic microbial population, quantified by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), is important for understating and controlling the anaerobic digestion of solid waste. In this study, a statistical analysis has been made of this ...
Smallegange Renate C - - 2010
Females of the African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, use human volatiles to find their blood-host. Previous work has shown that ammonia, lactic acid, and aliphatic carboxylic acids significantly affect host orientation and attraction of this species. In the current study, these compounds were tested for their attractiveness ...
Tietel Zipora - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Mandarins suffer from accumulation of off-flavours after harvest. In this study the sensory quality and aroma profile composition of homogenised segments of untreated (control) and wax-coated 'Mor' mandarins after 7 days at 20 degrees C or 3 or 6 weeks of cold storage at 5 degrees C were examined. ...
Shukla Shruti - - 2010
Organic acids are formed in food as a result of metabolism of large molecular mass compounds. These organic acids play an important role in the taste and aroma of fermented food products. Doenjang is a traditional Korean fermented soybean paste product that provides a major source of protein. The quantitative ...
Whelan Rebecca J - - 2010
The uropygial gland of birds produces secretions that are important in maintaining the health and structural integrity of feathers. Non-volatile components of uropygial secretions are believed to serve a number of functions including waterproofing and conditioning the feathers. Volatile components have been characterized in fewer species, but are particularly interesting ...
Krumbein Angelika - - 2010
Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration is an environmental factor currently undergoing dramatic changes. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of doubling the ambient CO(2) concentration on plant photochemistry as measured by photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), soluble sugars and volatiles in broccoli. Elevated CO(2) concentration increased ...
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