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Zhang Michael J - - 2012
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential to health, and deficiencies in these PUFAs are linked to chronic disease. Although important insights into the diverse biological roles of PUFAs have been made, the mechanistic basis underlying their protective actions is still emerging. Studies over the past decade have elucidated that ...
Saurav Alok - - 2012
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (i.e., statins) are the mainstay of therapy for hyperlipidemia, as per the current National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) recommendation. However, the role of other agents, such as the fibrates, is continually being debated in the context of incremental risk reduction, especially in the setting of ...
Yousef Lina Fayez - - 2012
Phytophthora sojae is a destructive soilborne pathogen of soybean, but currently there is no rapid or commercially available testing for its infestation level in soil. For growers, such information would greatly improve their ability to make management decisions to minimize disease damage to soybean crops. Fatty acid profiling of P. ...
Puddu Paolo - - 2012
Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism. Its immediate precursor, xanthine, is converted to uric acid by an enzymatic reaction involving xanthine oxidoreductase. Uric acid has been formerly considered a major antioxidant in human plasma with possible beneficial anti-atherosclerotic effects. In contrast, studies in the past two decades ...
Unciti-Broceta Asier - - 2012
Nucleic acids are the foundation stone of all cellular processes. Consequently, the use of DNA or RNA to treat genetic and acquired disorders (so called gene therapy) offers enormous potential benefits. The restitution of defective genes or the suppression of malignant genes could target a range of diseases, including cancers, ...
Gupta Adarsha - - 2012
Thraustochytrids are large-celled marine heterokonts and classified as oleaginous microorganisms due to their production of docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) ω-3-fatty acids. The applications of microbial DHA and EPA for human health are rapidly expanding, and a large number of clinical trials have been carried out to verify their efficacy. ...
Kim Hyo Geun - - 2012
Current anticonvulsant therapies are generally directed at symptomatic treatment by suppressing excitability within the brain. Consequently, they have adverse effects such as cognitive impairment, dependence, and abuse. The need for more effective and less toxic anticonvulsants has generated renewed interest in natural products for the treatment of convulsions. Caffeoylquinic acids ...
Georgiadi Anastasia - - 2012
Consumption of specific dietary fatty acids has been shown to influence risk and progression of several chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, cancer, and arthritis. In recent years, insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of fatty acids have improved considerably and have provided the foundation for the ...
Vanek Vincent W - - 2012
The currently available, standard soybean oil (SO)-based intravenous fat emulsions (IVFEs) meet the needs of most parenteral nutrition (PN) patients. There are alternative oil-based fat emulsions, such as medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), olive oils (OOs), and fish oils (FOs), that, based on extensive usage in Europe, have an equivalent safety profile ...
Raouane Mouna - - 2012
Oligonucleotides, including antisense oligonucleotides and siRNA are promising therapeutic agents against a variety of diseases. Effective delivery of these molecules is critical in view of their clinical application. Therefore, cation-based nanoplexes have been developed to improve the stability as well as the intracellular penetration of these short fragments of nucleic ...
Allen Doug K - - 2012
The architecture of plant metabolism includes substantial duplication of metabolite pools and enzyme catalyzed reactions in different subcellular compartments. This poses challenges for understanding the regulation of metabolism particularly in primary metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis. To explore the extent to which amino acids are made in single compartments and ...
Hein Jason E - - 2012
The process of delineating the origins of the chemistry of life starts with the consideration of the molecules that might have existed on prebiotic earth and extends to the discussion of potential mechanisms for assembly of these molecules into informational polymers capable of self-replication and transmittance of genetic information. At ...
Dodd Kayleigh M - - 2012
Amino acid availability is a rate-limiting factor in the regulation of protein synthesis. When amino acid supplies become restricted, mammalian cells employ homeostatic mechanisms to rapidly inhibit processes such as protein synthesis, which demands high levels of amino acids. Muscle cells in particular are subject to high protein turnover rates ...
Abate Michele - - 2012
Intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) are useful in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA), as shown by studies on knee, hip, and trapezio-metacarpal joints. The positive results can be explained by several factors: the restoration of elastic and viscous properties of intra-articular fluid, the anti-inflammatory and the anti-nociceptive activity, and ...
Palchetti Ilaria - - 2012
Recent progress in the development of electrochemical nanomaterial-aptamer-based biosensors is summarized. Aptamers are nucleic acid ligands that can be generated against amino acids, drugs, proteins, and other molecules. They are isolated from a large random library of synthetic nucleic acids by an iterative process of binding, separation, and amplification, called ...
Miyoshi Yurika - - 2012
d-Amino acids are currently recognized as naturally occurring physiologically active substances and biomarkers in mammals. The progress of analytical technologies, mostly high resolution chromatographic or electrodriven separation methods, has significantly contributed to the advances in d-amino acid research in real biological matrices. In this review, we would like to describe ...
He Shichao - - 2012
In general, simultaneously separation and purification of components with a broad polarity range from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a challenge by an ordinary high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method. In this paper, we describes a rapid and efficient separation method of combining three-step gradient elution and two-step flow-rate gradient elution ...
Hurtado Pilar Perez - - 2012
Characterization and differentiation of isomers in biological macromolecules using mass spectrometry is one of the most significant challenges facing scientists in the field. The capability of high-resolution MS instruments along with the development of new fragmentation methods now provides the ability to indirectly differentiate between some isomers. This ability has ...
Deckelbaum Richard J - - 2012
Dietary fatty acids (FA) are increasingly recognized as major biologic regulators and have properties that relate to health outcomes and disease. The longer chain, more bioactive (n-6) (or omega-6) FA and (n-3) (or omega-3) FA share similar elongation and desaturation enzymes in their conversion from the essential (n-6) FA, linoleic ...
Weiss Lauren A - - 2012
Gastroschisis is a congenital abdominal wall defect, thought by many to represent a disruption in intrauterine blood flow, where there is herniation of abdominal organs. Dietary intake is an important environmental factor that has been implicated in the development of many diseases. Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are nutrients that ...
Alemany Marià - - 2012
Amino-N is preserved because of the scarcity and nutritional importance of protein. Excretion requires its conversion to ammonia, later incorporated into urea. Under conditions of excess dietary energy, the body cannot easily dispose of the excess amino-N against the evolutively adapted schemes that prevent its wastage; thus ammonia and glutamine ...
Wang Yong-Xiang - - 2012
Recent progress in chiral separation of D- and L-amino acids by chromatography ascertained the presence of several free D-amino acids in a variety of mammals including humans. Unidirectional chiral inversion of many D-amino acid analogs such as exogenous NG-nitro-D-arginine (D-NNA), endogenous D-leucine, D-phenylanine and D-methionine have been shown to take ...
Briones Carlos - - 2012
Nucleic acid biosensors have a growing number of applications in genetics and biomedicine. This contribution is a critical review of the current state of the art concerning the use of nucleic acid analogues, in particular peptide nucleic acids (PNA) and locked nucleic acids (LNA), for the development of high-performance affinity ...
Hurtado Albert - - 2012
Table olives are one of the main fermented vegetables in the world. Olives can be processed as treated or natural. Both have to be fermented but treated green olives have to undergo an alkaline treatment before they are placed in brine to start their fermentation. It has been generally established that ...
Zhou Huan - - 2012
For several decades, composites made of polylactic acid-calcium phosphates (PLA-CaP) and polylactic acid-co-glycolic acid-calcium phosphates (PLGA-CaP) have seen widespread uses in orthopedic applications. This paper reviews the fabrication aspects of these composites, following the ubiquitous materials science approach by studying "processing-structure-property" correlations. Various fabrication processes such as microencapsulation, phase separation, ...
Hudson Harry R - - 2012
Substituted hydroxymethylenebisphosphonic acid derivatives - either as dronic acids or their dronate sodium salts, are important pharmaceuticals in the treatment of diseases arising from excessive bone-resorption. Potential has also been identified in areas ranging from parasite-growth inhibition to immunological and cancer therapeutics. Representative clinically relevant N-heterocyclic derivatives include zoledronic and ...
Dupuis Robert - - 2012
In solid organ transplant patients, it is important to maintain a fine balance between preventing rejection and reducing adverse effects. Several immunosuppressive agents such tacrolimus, cyclosporine, sirolimus and everolimus require therapeutic drug monitoring. The study of germline variation of the genome has opened novel opportunities to individualize therapy. Among the ...
Grenon S Marlene SM Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA. - - 2012
There is substantial evidence that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FAs) play an important role in prevention of atherosclerosis. In vitro and in vivo studies focusing on the interactions between monocytes and endothelial cells have explored the molecular effects of FAs on these interactions. ...
Verheesen R H - - 2012
Since the discovery of the genetic code, Mendel's heredity theory and Darwin's evolution theory, science believes that adaptations to the environment are processes in which the adaptation of the genes is a matter of probability, in which finally the specie will survive which is evolved by chance. We hypothesize that ...
Zampagni Mariagioia - - 2012
Oxidative stress-mediated neuronal death may be initiated by a decrease in glutathione (GSH), whose levels are reduced in mitochondrial and synaptosomal fractions of specific CNS regions in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Currently, the use of GSH as a therapeutic agent is limited by its unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties. In this study, ...
Szostak Michal - - 2012
The first general method for efficient electron transfer reduction of carboxylic acids has been developed. The protocol using SmI(2)-H(2)O-Et(3)N allows for reduction of a variety of carboxylic acids in excellent yields and provides an attractive alternative to processes mediated by reactive alkali metals, lithium aluminum hydride, and boron hydrides. Of ...
Pessione Enrica - - 2012
Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are ancient organisms that cannot biosynthesize functional cytochromes, and cannot get ATP from respiration. Besides sugar fermentation, they evolved electrogenic decarboxylations and ATP-forming deiminations. The right balance between sugar fermentation and decarboxylation/deimination ensures buffered environments thus enabling LAB to survive in human gastric trait and colonize ...
Stams Alfons J M - - 2012
Anaerobic purification is a cost-effective way to treat high strength industrial wastewater. Through anaerobic treatment of wastewaters energy is conserved as methane, and less sludge is produced. For high-rate methanogenesis compact syntrophic communities of fatty acid-degrading bacteria and methanogenic archaea are essential. Here, we describe the microbiology of syntrophic communities ...
Naresh Chary V - - 2012
Betaines belong to the naturally occurring osmoprotectants or compatible solutes present in a variety of plants, animals and microorganisms. In recent years, metabolomic techniques have been emerging as a fundamental tool for biologists because the constellation of these molecules and their relative proportions provide with information about the actual biochemical ...
Lizard Gérard - - 2012
In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT), the role played by peroxisomes is not well known. Peroxisomes are present in all eukaryotic cells, with the exception of erythrocytes. They are involved in the β-oxidation process of long-chain fatty acids, very-long-chain fatty acids, and branched-chain fatty acids. ...
Wong Foon H - - 2012
The amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily has been shown to include five recognized families, four of which are specific for amino acids and their derivatives. Recent high-resolution X-ray crystallographic data have shown that four additional transporter families (BCCT, TC No. 2.A.15; SSS, 2.A.21; NSS, 2.A.22; and NCS1, 2.A.39), transporting a wide ...
Oleszczuk J - - 2012
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with a single pair of conjugated double bonds. The major natural CLA isomer is 18:2 cis-9, trans-11 (c9, t11) linoleic acid, or rumenic acid (RA). Chemically synthesized CLA is also available, mostly as a mixture of RA and ...
Wiedenheft Blake - - 2012
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) are essential components of nucleic-acid-based adaptive immune systems that are widespread in bacteria and archaea. Similar to RNA interference (RNAi) pathways in eukaryotes, CRISPR-mediated immune systems rely on small RNAs for sequence-specific detection and silencing of foreign nucleic acids, including viruses and plasmids. ...
Patterson E - - 2012
Omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (e.g., arachidonic acid (AA)) and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are precursors to potent lipid mediator signalling molecules, termed "eicosanoids," which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In general, eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFA are proinflammatory while eicosanoids derived from ...
Cascio Giuseppe - - 2012
In the last few decades, the prevalence of overweight and essential obesity has been undergoing a fast and progressive worldwide increase. Obesity has been in turn linked to type II diabetes, with the total number of diabetic patients worryingly increasing, in the last fifteen years, suggesting a pandemic phenomenon. At ...
Qu Jing - - 2012
Jatropha curcas is recognized as a new energy crop due to the presence of the high amount of oil in its seeds that can be converted into biodiesel. The quality and performance of the biodiesel depends on the chemical composition of the fatty acids present in the oil. The fatty ...
Lattka Eva - - 2012
Sufficient nutritional supply with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has long been considered as beneficial for child health, especially in regard to neuronal development and allergic diseases. In recent years, genetic association studies showed that in addition to nutritional influences, the genetic background is highly important for PUFA composition in human ...
Vanden Heuvel John P - - 2012
Diets rich in ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) such as alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid are associated with decreased incidence and severity of several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. At least some of the beneficial effects of these dietary fatty acids are via metabolites such ...
Perea Sally - - 2012
There is growing evidence of the role that nutrition can play in the management of veterinary patients with osteoarthritis. Current evidence supports nutritional management of body weight and dietary fortification with the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Additional studies suggest that supplements and diet additives such ...
Dwidar Mohammed - - 2012
In this paper, the different applications of butyric acid and its current and future production status are highlighted, with a particular emphasis on the biofuels industry. As such, this paper discusses different issues regarding butyric acid fermentations and provides suggestions for future improvements and their approaches.
Acar Niyazi - - 2012
The assessment of blood lipids is very frequent in clinical research as it is assumed to reflect the lipid composition of peripheral tissues. Even well accepted such relationships have never been clearly established. This is particularly true in ophthalmology where the use of blood lipids has become very common following ...
Jollivet Didier - - 2012
Taking advantage of the massive genome sequencing effort made on thermophilic prokaryotes, thermal adaptation has been extensively studied by analysing amino acid replacements and codon usage in these unicellular organisms. In most cases, adaptation to thermophily is associated with greater residue hydrophobicity and more charged residues. Both of these characteristics ...
de Vladar Harold P - - 2012
There is evidence that the genetic code was established prior to the existence of proteins, when metabolism was powered by ribozymes. Also, early proto-organisms had to rely on simple anaerobic bioenergetic processes. In this work I propose that amino acid fermentation powered metabolism in the RNA world, and that this ...
Rehman Ateequr - - 2012
Antibiotic associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection are frequent complications of broad spectrum antibiotic therapy. Probiotic bacteria are used as therapeutic and preventive agents in these disorders, but the exact functional mechanisms and the mode of action are poorly understood. The effects of clindamycin and the probiotic mixture VSL#3 (containing ...
Martí-Carvajal Arturo J - - 2012
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in the course of liver cirrhosis. Patients with liver disease frequently have haemostatic abnormalities like hyperfibrinolysis. Therefore, antifibrinolytic amino acids have been proposed to be used as supplementary interventions alongside any of the primary treatments for ...
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