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Dalpke Alexander - - 2012
Besides their well known functions in storage and translation of information nucleic acids have emerged as a target of pattern recognition receptors that drive activation of innate immunity. Due to the paucity of building block monomers used in nucleic acids, discrimination of host and microbial nucleic acids as a means ...
Desbois Andrew P - - 2012
The antimicrobial effects of free fatty acids are well recognised and these compounds can prevent the growth of or directly kill bacteria, fungi and other microbes by affecting multiple cellular targets, including the cell membrane and components found therein. Moreover, fatty acids exert detrimental effects on microbial pathogens by interfering ...
Feig Daniel I - - 2012
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2012; 14:346-352. ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Uric acid has been suspected to be a risk factor for hypertension since the 1870s. Numerous epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between uric acid and both incident and prevalent hypertension in diverse populations. Studies in elderly patients have had more ...
Marinaro William A - - 2012
Many boronic acid-containing molecules are currently under investigation as possible therapeutics. An increase in the knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of these compounds will lead to their improved formulation into usable dosage forms. The current study describes the formation and characterization of a boronic acid anhydride, called a ...
Wierzbicki Anthony S - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the mechanisms leading to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and the effects of hypoglycaemic and lipid-lowering therapies on NAFLD/NASH. RECENT FINDINGS: The interaction of lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress and hepatic insulin resistance contribute ...
Vercauteren Dries - - 2012
In the field of nanomedicine, ample attention has been paid to the development of nanocarriers for the intracellular delivery of therapeutic cargo, such as nucleic acids for gene therapy. The efficiency with which these non-viral carriers deliver their payload at the required intracellular site of action remains low. Despite extensive ...
Lehto Taavi - - 2012
Different gene therapy approaches have gained extensive interest lately and, after many initial hurdles, several promising approaches have reached to the clinics. Successful implementation of gene therapy is heavily relying on finding efficient measures to deliver genetic material to cells. Recently, non-viral delivery of nucleic acids and their analogs has ...
Craw Pascal P Department of Electronic & Computer Engineering, School of Engineering & Design, Brunel University, London, UK. - - 2012
Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) promises rapid, sensitive and specific diagnosis of infectious, inherited and genetic disease. The next generation of diagnostic devices will interrogate the genetic determinants of such conditions at the point-of-care, affording clinicians prompt reliable diagnosis from which to guide more effective treatment. The complex biochemical nature of ...
Schiebel Johannes - - 2012
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections constitute a serious health threat worldwide, and novel antibiotics are therefore urgently needed. The enoyl-ACP reductase (saFabI) is essential for the S. aureus fatty acid biosynthesis and, hence, serves as an attractive drug target. We have obtained a series of snapshots of this enzyme that ...
Smith Zachary Z Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801, - - 2013
The traditional role of bile acids is to simply facilitate absorption and digestion of lipid nutrients, but bile acids also act as endocrine signaling molecules that activate nuclear and membrane receptors to control integrative metabolism and energy balance. The mechanisms by which bile acid signals are integrated to regulate target ...
Astbury Stuart M - - 2012
Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) formed by bacterial fermentation of fibre in the colon, and serves as anenergy source for colonocytes. The action of butyrate as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) has led to a number of clinical trials testing its effectiveness as a potential treatment for cancer. ...
Lopez Hector L - - 2012
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of musculoskeletal disability in elderly individuals, and it places an enormous economic burden on society. Management of OA is primarily focused on palliative relief by using agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics. However, such an approach is limited by a narrow ...
Mitchell Steve C - - 2012
S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, the side-chain carboxymethyl derivative of the sulfur-containing amino acid, cysteine, has been known and available for almost 80 years. During this time, it has been put to a variety of uses, but it is within the field of respiratory medicine that, presently, it has found a clinical niche. Early ...
Bouchoux Guy - - 2012
The present article is the third part of a general overview of the gas-phase protonation thermochemistry of polyfunctional molecules (first part: Mass Spectrom. Rev., 2007, 26:775-835, second part: Mass Spectrom. Rev., 2011, in press). This review is devoted to the 20 proteinogenic amino acids and is divided in two parts. ...
Prior Pedro Luis - - 2012
New discoveries in the field of neurophysiology and neuropharmacology have revealed the role of (n-3) fatty acids in controlling inflammation and protecting neuron cells from oxidative damage, preserving their function. It has also been thought that their psychoactive properties could be beneficial in certain psychiatric illnesses. This article discusses the ...
Porez Geoffrey - - 2012
Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis. When dyslipidemia coincides with other metabolic disorders such as obesity, hypertension, and glucose intolerance, defined as the metabolic syndrome (MS), individuals present an elevated risk to develop type 2 diabetes (T2D) as well as CVD. Because the MS ...
Aditi Anupam A Departments of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA. - - 2012
The discovery of Helicobacter pylori as the cause of gastritis and peptic ulcers ushered in the modern era of research into gastritis and into acid-peptic diseases and rekindled interest in the role of ascorbic acid in the pathophysiology and treatment of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Here, we review historic ...
Zhang Xiaojun - - 2012
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a relapsing intestinal condition which precise etiology is still unclear, has continually increased in recent years. Metabolic profiling is an effective method with high sample throughput that can detect and identify potential biomarkers, and thus may be useful in investigating the pathogenesis of ...
Kirma Menny - - 2012
Plants represent the major sources of human foods and livestock feeds, worldwide. However, the limited content of the essential amino acid lysine in cereal grains represents a major nutritional problem for human and for livestock feeding in developed countries. Optimizing the level of lysine in cereal grains requires extensive knowledge ...
Huang S - - 2012
As a cutting-edge scientific research field, the detection of biological active substance is very important for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Boronic acid interacts with cis-1,2-or 1,3-diol to form five- or six-membered ring which could be used as the reporter of fluorescent sensors to probe carbohydrates and bioactive ...
Wang Yizhong - - 2012
Amino-propargyl silanes condense with carbonyl compounds to form imines and subsequently cyclize to form allenylidene tetrahydroquinolines. The cyclocondensations are catalyzed by a variety of Brønsted acids, among which phosphoric acids provide the highest yields. Subsequent intramolecular and intermolecular additions to the allene moiety provide complex polycyclic amines.
Mapiye C - - 2012
The fatty acid composition of beef and pork has been stigmatized due to their relationships with several diseases from cardiovascular disease to cancer. Meat lipids are, however, one of the few components of meat that can be modified in content and composition, and can present opportunities for value added production ...
Feng Yan - - 2012
Abstract Polypill has been a hot issue since it was first advanced in 2003. This new concept immediately spurred a worldwide discussion. Xuezhikang is a partially purified extract of fermented red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus). It is composed of 13 kinds of natural statins, unsaturated fatty acids, ergosterol, amino acids, ...
Lee Jae Woo - - 2012
Recently published experimental results indicate that current extreme ultra-violet lithography (EUVL) patterning process seems to be very hard to meet the device manufacturing specification goals, such as resolution, line-width roughness, and sensitivity (RLS) simultaneously. To overcome trade-off limitations between RLS performances of resist, we have approached the problem in several ...
Wu S L - - 2012
N-Acylsulfonamide derivatives have important applications in organic synthesis and drug discovery. It was found that many problems occurred preparing amino acid derived N-acylsulfonamides with the commonly used coupling approach in our previous studies. In this paper, we report an efficient approach to synthesize various amino acids derived N-acylsulfonamides in high ...
Božic Aleksandar K - - 2012
The gastrointestinal tract of bovines often contains bacteria that contribute to disorders of the rumen, and may also contain foodborne or opportunistic human pathogens as well as bacteria capable of causing mastitis in cows. Thus there is a need to develop broad-spectrum therapies that are effective while not leading to ...
Grigsby Christopher L - - 2012
Nonviral delivery of nucleic acids is a potentially safe and viable therapeutic modality for inherited and acquired diseases. However, current systems have proven too inefficient for widespread clinical translation. The rational design of improved carriers depends on a quantitative, mechanistic understanding of the rate-limiting barriers to efficient intracellular delivery. Separation ...
Varki Ajit - - 2012
Sialic acids are a diverse family of monosaccharides widely expressed on all cell surfaces of vertebrates and so-called "higher" invertebrates, and on certain bacteria that interact with vertebrates. This overview surveys examples of biological roles of sialic acids in immunity, with emphasis on an evolutionary perspective. Given the breadth of ...
Dobish Mark C - - 2012
Highly enantioselective halolactonizations have been developed that employ a chiral proton catalyst-N-iodosuccinimide (NIS) reagent system in which the Brønsted acid is used at catalyst loadings as low as 1 mol %. An approach that modulates the achiral counterion (equimolar to the neutral chiral ligand-proton complex present at low catalyst loadings) ...
Mouzaki Marialena - - 2012
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease in adults and children and is currently the third most common indication for liver transplantation in North America. Its pathogenesis is thought to be secondary to multiple "hits" derived from the dietary components, adipose tissue, immune system, ...
Hong Weizhe - - 2012
The extremely acidic environment of the mammalian stomach not only serves to facilitate food digestion but also acts as a natural barrier against infections of food-borne pathogens. Many pathogenic bacteria, such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, can breach this host defense and cause severe diseases. These pathogens have evolved multiple intricate ...
Breslow Ronald - - 2012
Over the past century the origin of terrestrial prebiotic homochirality has been the subject of many speculations. For life to start on earth and elsewhere, it is critical that the building blocks of amino acids, sugars, and nucleosides be created in predominant homochiral form. Recent findings of a modest excess ...
Zhang Zhenqing - - 2012
Monosaccharide analysis is a critical way to profile the composition of complex carbohydrates. Methods to analyze neutral and amino sugars have been established for a long time, but methods for acidic sugars are rare. The acidic sugars, including uronic acids and sialic acids, are also important components in some complex ...
Boatman P Douglas - - 2012
G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) GPR109a is a molecular target for nicotinic acid and is expressed in adipocytes, spleen and immune cells. Nicotinic acid has long been used for the treatment of dyslipidemia due to its capacity to positively affect serum lipids to a greater extent than other currently marketed drugs. ...
Lomstein Bente Aa - - 2012
Two decades of scientific ocean drilling have demonstrated widespread microbial life in deep sub-seafloor sediment, and surprisingly high microbial-cell numbers. Despite the ubiquity of life in the deep biosphere, the large community sizes and the low energy fluxes in this vast buried ecosystem are not yet understood. It is not ...
Chen Xi - - 2012
In this work, we first employ a drying method combining with the bienzyme colorimetric detection of glucose and uric acid on microfluidic paper-based analysis devices (μPADs). The channels of 3D μPADs are also designed by us to get better results. The color results are recorded by both Gel Documentation systems ...
Stacey Timothy E - - 2012
A central challenge in the design of new metallic materials is the elucidation of the chemical factors underlying the structures of intermetallic compounds. Analogies to molecular bonding phenomena, such as the Zintl concept, have proven very productive in approaching this goal. In this Article, we extend a foundational concept of ...
Shen Zengming - - 2012
Give me a ring? An efficient approach has been developed for the intramolecular decarboxylative coupling of arene carboxylic acids/esters with aryl bromides catalyzed by palladium. From a synthetic viewpoint, this method is highly attractive because the catalyst loading is low, the optimized reaction conditions are mild, and the substrate scope ...
Park Kyeng Min - - 2012
A facile in situ supramolecular assembly and modular modification of biocompatible hydrogels were demonstrated using cucurbit[6]uril conjugated hyaluronic acid (CB[6]-HA), diaminohexane conjugated HA (DAH-HA), and tags-CB[6] for cellular engineering applications. The strong and selective host-guest interaction between CB[6] and DAH made possible the supramolecular assembly of CB[6]/DAH-HA hydrogels in the ...
Zhang Michael J - - 2012
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential to health, and deficiencies in these PUFAs are linked to chronic disease. Although important insights into the diverse biological roles of PUFAs have been made, the mechanistic basis underlying their protective actions is still emerging. Studies over the past decade have elucidated that ...
Saurav Alok - - 2012
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (i.e., statins) are the mainstay of therapy for hyperlipidemia, as per the current National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) recommendation. However, the role of other agents, such as the fibrates, is continually being debated in the context of incremental risk reduction, especially in the setting of ...
Yousef Lina Fayez - - 2012
Phytophthora sojae is a destructive soilborne pathogen of soybean, but currently there is no rapid or commercially available testing for its infestation level in soil. For growers, such information would greatly improve their ability to make management decisions to minimize disease damage to soybean crops. Fatty acid profiling of P. ...
Puddu Paolo - - 2012
Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism. Its immediate precursor, xanthine, is converted to uric acid by an enzymatic reaction involving xanthine oxidoreductase. Uric acid has been formerly considered a major antioxidant in human plasma with possible beneficial anti-atherosclerotic effects. In contrast, studies in the past two decades ...
Unciti-Broceta Asier - - 2012
Nucleic acids are the foundation stone of all cellular processes. Consequently, the use of DNA or RNA to treat genetic and acquired disorders (so called gene therapy) offers enormous potential benefits. The restitution of defective genes or the suppression of malignant genes could target a range of diseases, including cancers, ...
Gupta Adarsha - - 2012
Thraustochytrids are large-celled marine heterokonts and classified as oleaginous microorganisms due to their production of docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) ω-3-fatty acids. The applications of microbial DHA and EPA for human health are rapidly expanding, and a large number of clinical trials have been carried out to verify their efficacy. ...
Kim Hyo Geun - - 2012
Current anticonvulsant therapies are generally directed at symptomatic treatment by suppressing excitability within the brain. Consequently, they have adverse effects such as cognitive impairment, dependence, and abuse. The need for more effective and less toxic anticonvulsants has generated renewed interest in natural products for the treatment of convulsions. Caffeoylquinic acids ...
Georgiadi Anastasia - - 2012
Consumption of specific dietary fatty acids has been shown to influence risk and progression of several chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, cancer, and arthritis. In recent years, insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of fatty acids have improved considerably and have provided the foundation for the ...
Vanek Vincent W - - 2012
The currently available, standard soybean oil (SO)-based intravenous fat emulsions (IVFEs) meet the needs of most parenteral nutrition (PN) patients. There are alternative oil-based fat emulsions, such as medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), olive oils (OOs), and fish oils (FOs), that, based on extensive usage in Europe, have an equivalent safety profile ...
Raouane Mouna - - 2012
Oligonucleotides, including antisense oligonucleotides and siRNA are promising therapeutic agents against a variety of diseases. Effective delivery of these molecules is critical in view of their clinical application. Therefore, cation-based nanoplexes have been developed to improve the stability as well as the intracellular penetration of these short fragments of nucleic ...
Allen Doug K - - 2012
The architecture of plant metabolism includes substantial duplication of metabolite pools and enzyme catalyzed reactions in different subcellular compartments. This poses challenges for understanding the regulation of metabolism particularly in primary metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis. To explore the extent to which amino acids are made in single compartments and ...
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