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Date Yukari Y Frontier Science Research Center, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692, Japan. Electronic - - 2012
Ghrelin, a gastrointestinal hormone, functions as an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). It comprises 28 amino acids, of which the Ser-3 residue is post-translationally modified by the addition of octanoyl acid. Ghrelin stimulates feeding and the secretion of growth hormone; it is also thought to function ...
Colombo Serra Sonia - - 2012
The extraordinary enhancement of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal that can be obtained by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) techniques is prompting new avenues of research based on the in vivo detection of metabolic abnormalities associated with the onset and progression of human diseases. (13) C-labelled short-chain fatty acids appear ...
McGaha Tracy L - - 2012
Enhanced amino acid catabolism is a common response to inflammation, but the immunologic significance of altered amino acid consumption remains unclear. The finding that tryptophan catabolism helped maintain fetal tolerance during pregnancy provided novel insights into the significance of amino acid metabolism in controlling immunity. Recent advances in identifying molecular ...
Bel-Rhlid Rachid - - 2012
Chicoric acid (ChA) and caftaric acid (CafA) were identified as bioactive components of chicory and have been ascribed to a number of health benefits. In this study we investigated the hydrolysis of ChA and CafA with enzymes and a probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus johnsonii (La1). Chlorogenate esterase (24 U/mg) hydrolyzed 100% ...
Han Hongyan - - 2012
Aims:  To determine the survival rate of silage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract. Methods and Results:  Wilted Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) silage (containing 1.9 × 10(6) cfu LAB·g(-1) ) was fed ad libitum to 3 goats equipped with rumen cannulae. Silage was given alone or ...
Offermanns Stefan - - 2012
The antiatherogenic drug nicotinic acid (niacin) has antidyslipidemic effects independent of free fatty acid suppression mediated by its receptor HCA(2) (GPR109A) (Lauring et al., this issue).
Dutta Subrata - - 2012
We developed fluorogenic probes, which are photoactivated in the presence of specific nucleic acid templates with the release of fluorescent dyes. This templated reaction can be used to target specific nucleic acids in complex mixtures. We further demonstrate that this reaction can be monitored by single-molecule fluorescence imaging.
Stedwell Corey N - - 2012
We report infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra for a series of crown-adducted, protonated amino acids, generated by electrospray ionization. The tight chelation of 18-crown-6 on the protonated NH3+ moiety results in a considerable redshift of the NH3+ stretch modes, notably the antisymmetric NH3+ stretch. This is rationalized by a ...
Billard Jean-Marie - - 2012
Far from our initial view of D: -amino acids as being limited to invertebrates, they are now considered active molecules at synapses of mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems, capable of modulating synaptic communication within neuronal networks. In particular, experimental data accumulated in the last few decades show that through ...
Pennick Graham - - 2012
Humectant and occlusive technologies have been used traditionally for the treatment of dry skin. Originally, non-lamellar forming ingredients were used such as Petrolatum but recent research has shown the advantage of using lamellar-forming ingredients such as ceramides, pseudoceramides and phospholipids in the relief of dry skin. Nevertheless, the importance of ...
Morris Ciara - - 2012
The role of metabolomics in the field of nutrition is continuing to grow and it has the potential to assist in the understanding of metabolic regulation and explain how minor perturbations can have a multitude of biochemical endpoints. It is this development, which creates the potential to provide the knowledge ...
Bianco Ambra A Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, - - 2012
Genetic code expansion for unnatural amino acid mutagenesis has, until recently, been limited to cell culture. We demonstrate the site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins in Drosophila melanogaster at different developmental stages, in specific tissues and in a subset of cells within a tissue. This approach provides a ...
Lewis Michael - - 2013
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has long been recognized as the leading cause of traumatic death and disability. Tremendous advances in surgical and intensive care unit management of the primary injury, including maintaining adequate oxygenation, controlling intracranial pressure, and ensuring proper cerebral perfusion pressure, have resulted in reduced mortality. However, the ...
Robbins Daniel W - - 2012
A method for the synthesis of biaryls and heterobiaryls from arenes and haloarenes without the intermediacy of unstable boronic acids is described. Pinacol boronate esters that are analogous to unstable boronic acids are formed in high yield by iridium-catalyzed C-H borylation of heteroarenes and fluoroarenes. These boronates are stable in ...
Jukanti A K - - 2012
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important pulse crop grown and consumed all over the world, especially in the Afro-Asian countries. It is a good source of carbohydrates and protein, and protein quality is considered to be better than other pulses. Chickpea has significant amounts of all the essential amino ...
Monheit Gary - - 2012
In this roundtable discussion, the physicochemical properties and potential clinical applications of two new ranges of hyaluronic acid fillers are reviewed. These fillers display enhanced tissue integration after implantation due to novel manufacturing processes, and one of the ranges is customized for specific clinical applications by variation of filler gel ...
Fuller Malcolm - - 2012
To meet the protein and amino acid requirements of individuals and of populations requires information not only about their requirements but also about the capacity of available foods to meet those requirements. Most of our current knowledge of the digestibility of food proteins and the methods to estimate it has ...
Zhou Dejian - - 2012
Over the last 10 years, fluorescent semiconductor QD (quantum dot)-biomolecule conjugates have emerged as a powerful new sensing platform showing great potential in a wide range of applications in biosensing, environmental monitoring and disease diagnosis. The present mini-review is a brief account of the recent developments in QD-NA (nucleic acid), particularly ...
Meremäe Kadrin - - 2012
In response to public concern, this study assessed the fatty acid (FA) composition of blended spreads, margarines and shortenings in the Estonian retail market in 2011. Special attention was paid to the trans fatty acids (TFA) composition. The changes in these characteristics of selected dietary fats in the market over ...
Machlin Erica S ES Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305, - - 2012
MicroRNAs have been predicted to regulate the stability and translation of many target mRNAs that are involved in modulating disease outcome. Thus, valuable strategies to enhance or to diminish the function of microRNAs are needed to manipulate microRNA-mediated target gene expression. Recently, it has become apparent that one class of ...
Wolosker Herman - - 2012
The discovery of large amounts of D: -serine in the brain challenged the dogma that only L: -amino acids are relevant for eukaryotes. The levels of D: -serine in the brain are higher than many L: -amino acids and account for as much as one-third of L: -serine levels. Several ...
Luchtman Dirk W - - 2012
Omega-(n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are major components of neuronal membranes and have a wide range of functions, from modulating synaptic plasticity and neurochemistry, to neuroimmune-modulation and neuroprotection. Thus, it is not surprising that n-3 PUFA are widely acknowledged to have cognitive-enhancing ...
Strassburg Katrin - - 2012
Oxylipins, including eicosanoids, affect a broad range of biological processes, such as the initiation and resolution of inflammation. These compounds, also referred to as lipid mediators, are (non-) enzymatically generated by oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (AA). A plethora of lipid mediators exist which makes the ...
Marchetti Nicola - - 2012
The adsorption behavior of four perfluoroalkyl acids, including the environmentally relevant perfluorooctanoic acid, has been investigated on a straight-chain perfluorohexyl adsorbent. The aim of this study was to probe the potential of perfluorinated materials for the analysis and enrichment of perfluoroalkyl analytes. Water-acetonitrile mixtures to which formic acid had been ...
Marcinkiewicz Janusz - - 2012
Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is the most abundant free amino acid in humans and plays an important role in several essential biological processes such as bile acid conjugation, maintenance of calcium homeostasis, osmoregulation and membrane stabilization. Moreover, attenuation of apoptosis and its antioxidant activity seem to be crucial for the cytoprotective ...
Casettari Luca - - 2012
The presence of reactive primary amines in the backbone structure of chitosan, enables the derivatisation with different functional groups and thereby improving and expanding its properties, such as solubility and mucoadhesiveness, for biomedical applications. Such derivatives can be exploited with good results in a number of biomedical areas, including enhancement ...
Aguirre Ana-Maria - - 2012
In recent years, the not too distant exhaustion of fossil fuels is becoming apparent. Apart from this, the combustion of fossil fuels leads to environmental concerns, the emission of greenhouse gases and issues with global warming and health problems. Production of biodiesel from microalgae may represent an attractive solution to ...
García García María Inmaculada - - 2012
The possibility of incorporating N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) in infant formulas and other functional foods has opened up the need to synthesize N-acetylneuraminic acid using N-acetylneuraminate lyases (NALs) by reversible aldol condensation of pyruvate and N-acetyl-d-mannosamine. Until now, NALs have been cloned from pathogenic microorganisms; however, this Article describes the expression ...
Gho Eun Ji - - 2012
Fluorescent nano-sized carbon dots (Cdots) are an emerging bioimaging agent with excellent chemical inertness and marginal cytotoxicity in comparison to widely used semiconductor quantum dots. In this work, we report the application of Cdots for real time bioimaging of target specific delivery of hyaluronic acid (HA) derivatives. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) ...
Ramayo-Caldas Y - - 2012
The lipid content and fatty acid (FA) profile, have an important impact in human health, as well as in the technological transformation, nutritional and organoleptic quality of meat. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 144 backcross pigs (25% Iberian x 75% Landrace) was performed for 32 traits associated with intramuscular ...
Molander Gary A - - 2012
The Suzuki-Miyaura reaction has become one of the more useful tools for synthetic organic chemists. Until recently, there did not exist a direct way to make the most important component in the coupling reaction, namely the boronic acid. Current methods to make boronic acids often employ harsh or wasteful reagents ...
Orr Sarah K - - 2012
Neuroinflammation is present in the majority of acute and chronic neurological disorders. Excess or prolonged inflammation in the brain is thought to exacerbate neuronal damage and loss. Identifying modulators of neuroinflammation is an active area of study since it may lead to novel therapies. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) ...
Johnson Guy H - - 2012
The majority of evidence suggests that n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acid (LA), reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease as reflected by current dietary recommendations. However, concern has been expressed that a high intake of dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid contributes to excess chronic inflammation, primarily by prompting the ...
Efeyan Alejo - - 2012
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase controls growth and metabolism, and its deregulation underlies the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) integrates signals arising from nutrients, energy, and growth factors, but how exactly these signals are propagated await to be fully understood. ...
van den Boorn Jasper G - - 2012
Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles produced naturally by many cell types. They are specifically loaded with nucleic acid cargo, dependent on the exosome-producing cell and its homeostatic state. As natural intercellular shuttles of miRNA, exosomes influence an array of developmental, physiological and pathological processes in the recipient cell or tissue to ...
Hanson Julien - - 2012
Nicotinic acid (NA) and fumaric acid esters (FAE) such as monomethyl fumarate or dimethyl fumarate are drugs that elicit a cutaneous reaction called flushing as a side effect. NA is used to reduce progression of atherosclerosis through its anti-dyslipidemic activity and lipid-independent mechanisms involving immune cells, whereas FAE are used ...
Eckert Gunter P - - 2012
Mitochondrial dysfunction represents a common early pathological event in brain aging and in neurodegenerative diseases, e.g., in Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD), as well as in ischemic stroke. In vivo and ex vivo experiments using animal models of aging and AD, PD, and HD mainly showed improvement ...
Cheng Ke-Ke - - 2012
Succinic acid is a promising chemical which has a wide range of applications and can be biologically produced. The separation of succinic acid from fermentation broth makes more than 50 % of the total costs in their microbial production. This review summarizes the present state of methods studied for the recovery ...
Innis S M - - 2012
Considerable information has accumulated to show that DHA and EPA have unique roles that differ from other n-3 fatty acids and the n-6 fatty acids, with increasing understanding of the mechanisms through which these fatty acids reduce risk of disease. DHA and EPA regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism, but ...
Hatcher Jeanne L - - 2012
Abstract Objective: To differentiate a non-infectious inflammatory reaction following hyaluronic acid injection for facial rejuvenation from other reported complications, and describe appropriate treatment. Methods: Using a review of the literature and information available from the manufacturer, recommendations for management of non-infectious hyaluronic acid reactions are made. Results: Patients who are ...
Seo Sangwon - - 2012
A new approach to protodecarboxylation is described that enhances the substrate scope for benzoic acids. The reaction uses oxidative radical conditions to decarboxylate a variety of acids in acetonitrile.
Shen Bo - - 2012
A general, green, and efficient Brønsted acid-catalyzed glycosylation serves as a key step in the one-flow, multistep syntheses of several important 5'-deoxyribonucleoside pharmaceuticals.
Bird Susan S - - 2012
The increased presence of synthetic trans fatty acids into western diets has been shown to have deleterious effects on physiology and raising an individual's risk of developing metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. The importance of these fatty acids for health and the diversity of their (patho) physiological effects suggest ...
Anand Asha - - 2012
Acid phosphatase is ubiquitous in distribution in various organisms. Although it catalyzes simple hydrolytic reactions, it is considered as an interesting enzyme in biological systems due to its involvement in different physiological activities. However, earlier reviews on acid phosphatase reveal some fragmentary information and do not give a holistic view ...
Gopalan Ashwin - - 2012
The blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L., Grossulariceae), a small, perennial shrub native to central Europe and northern Asia, is cultivated throughout the world, including the United States. In addition to its anecdotal use in traditional herbal medicine, modern laboratories have demonstrated the potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of blackcurrant constituents ...
Pasha Zeeshan - - 2012
At the request of all authors of the Rapid Communication article entitled, "Non-viral reprogramming of skeletal myoblasts with valproic acid for pluripotency," which was published online ahead of editing (DOI: 10.1089/scd.2012.0080), is being officially retracted from publication in its current form in Stem Cells and Development.
Gil-Campos Mercedes - - 2012
A number of studies are investigating the role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with metabolic inborn errors, while the effects on visual and brain development in premature infants and neonates are well known. However, their function incertain chronic neurological, inflammatory and metabolic disorders is still under study. Standards ...
Dilzer Allison - - 2012
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has drawn significant attention in the last two decades for its variety of biologically beneficial effects. CLA reduces body fat, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and modulates immune and inflammatory responses as well as improves bone mass. It has been suggested that the overall effects of CLA ...
Rangel-Huerta Oscar D - - 2012
Inflammation is part of the normal host response to infection and injury. Eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and other inflammatory molecules are frequently produced during this process. Numerous studies in humans have documented the inflammation-limiting properties of omega-3 fatty acids, but only a few have been randomised clinical trials. The ...
Ferreira Adriano Menis - - 2012
The objective of this study was to characterize the Brazilian scientific production on the topical use of fatty acids in wound care, and to describe the effects of its administration in this process. This integrative literature review included articles indexed in Lilacs and BEDENF databases. Data collection was carried out ...
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