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Morris Ciara - - 2012
The role of metabolomics in the field of nutrition is continuing to grow and it has the potential to assist in the understanding of metabolic regulation and explain how minor perturbations can have a multitude of biochemical endpoints. It is this development, which creates the potential to provide the knowledge ...
Bianco Ambra A Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, - - 2012
Genetic code expansion for unnatural amino acid mutagenesis has, until recently, been limited to cell culture. We demonstrate the site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins in Drosophila melanogaster at different developmental stages, in specific tissues and in a subset of cells within a tissue. This approach provides a ...
Lewis Michael - - 2013
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has long been recognized as the leading cause of traumatic death and disability. Tremendous advances in surgical and intensive care unit management of the primary injury, including maintaining adequate oxygenation, controlling intracranial pressure, and ensuring proper cerebral perfusion pressure, have resulted in reduced mortality. However, the ...
Robbins Daniel W - - 2012
A method for the synthesis of biaryls and heterobiaryls from arenes and haloarenes without the intermediacy of unstable boronic acids is described. Pinacol boronate esters that are analogous to unstable boronic acids are formed in high yield by iridium-catalyzed C-H borylation of heteroarenes and fluoroarenes. These boronates are stable in ...
Jukanti A K - - 2012
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important pulse crop grown and consumed all over the world, especially in the Afro-Asian countries. It is a good source of carbohydrates and protein, and protein quality is considered to be better than other pulses. Chickpea has significant amounts of all the essential amino ...
Monheit Gary - - 2012
In this roundtable discussion, the physicochemical properties and potential clinical applications of two new ranges of hyaluronic acid fillers are reviewed. These fillers display enhanced tissue integration after implantation due to novel manufacturing processes, and one of the ranges is customized for specific clinical applications by variation of filler gel ...
Fuller Malcolm - - 2012
To meet the protein and amino acid requirements of individuals and of populations requires information not only about their requirements but also about the capacity of available foods to meet those requirements. Most of our current knowledge of the digestibility of food proteins and the methods to estimate it has ...
Zhou Dejian - - 2012
Over the last 10 years, fluorescent semiconductor QD (quantum dot)-biomolecule conjugates have emerged as a powerful new sensing platform showing great potential in a wide range of applications in biosensing, environmental monitoring and disease diagnosis. The present mini-review is a brief account of the recent developments in QD-NA (nucleic acid), particularly ...
Meremäe Kadrin - - 2012
In response to public concern, this study assessed the fatty acid (FA) composition of blended spreads, margarines and shortenings in the Estonian retail market in 2011. Special attention was paid to the trans fatty acids (TFA) composition. The changes in these characteristics of selected dietary fats in the market over ...
Machlin Erica S ES Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305, - - 2012
MicroRNAs have been predicted to regulate the stability and translation of many target mRNAs that are involved in modulating disease outcome. Thus, valuable strategies to enhance or to diminish the function of microRNAs are needed to manipulate microRNA-mediated target gene expression. Recently, it has become apparent that one class of ...
Wolosker Herman - - 2012
The discovery of large amounts of D: -serine in the brain challenged the dogma that only L: -amino acids are relevant for eukaryotes. The levels of D: -serine in the brain are higher than many L: -amino acids and account for as much as one-third of L: -serine levels. Several ...
Luchtman Dirk W - - 2012
Omega-(n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are major components of neuronal membranes and have a wide range of functions, from modulating synaptic plasticity and neurochemistry, to neuroimmune-modulation and neuroprotection. Thus, it is not surprising that n-3 PUFA are widely acknowledged to have cognitive-enhancing ...
Strassburg Katrin - - 2012
Oxylipins, including eicosanoids, affect a broad range of biological processes, such as the initiation and resolution of inflammation. These compounds, also referred to as lipid mediators, are (non-) enzymatically generated by oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (AA). A plethora of lipid mediators exist which makes the ...
Marchetti Nicola - - 2012
The adsorption behavior of four perfluoroalkyl acids, including the environmentally relevant perfluorooctanoic acid, has been investigated on a straight-chain perfluorohexyl adsorbent. The aim of this study was to probe the potential of perfluorinated materials for the analysis and enrichment of perfluoroalkyl analytes. Water-acetonitrile mixtures to which formic acid had been ...
Marcinkiewicz Janusz - - 2012
Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is the most abundant free amino acid in humans and plays an important role in several essential biological processes such as bile acid conjugation, maintenance of calcium homeostasis, osmoregulation and membrane stabilization. Moreover, attenuation of apoptosis and its antioxidant activity seem to be crucial for the cytoprotective ...
Casettari Luca - - 2012
The presence of reactive primary amines in the backbone structure of chitosan, enables the derivatisation with different functional groups and thereby improving and expanding its properties, such as solubility and mucoadhesiveness, for biomedical applications. Such derivatives can be exploited with good results in a number of biomedical areas, including enhancement ...
Aguirre Ana-Maria - - 2012
In recent years, the not too distant exhaustion of fossil fuels is becoming apparent. Apart from this, the combustion of fossil fuels leads to environmental concerns, the emission of greenhouse gases and issues with global warming and health problems. Production of biodiesel from microalgae may represent an attractive solution to ...
García García María Inmaculada - - 2012
The possibility of incorporating N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) in infant formulas and other functional foods has opened up the need to synthesize N-acetylneuraminic acid using N-acetylneuraminate lyases (NALs) by reversible aldol condensation of pyruvate and N-acetyl-d-mannosamine. Until now, NALs have been cloned from pathogenic microorganisms; however, this Article describes the expression ...
Gho Eun Ji - - 2012
Fluorescent nano-sized carbon dots (Cdots) are an emerging bioimaging agent with excellent chemical inertness and marginal cytotoxicity in comparison to widely used semiconductor quantum dots. In this work, we report the application of Cdots for real time bioimaging of target specific delivery of hyaluronic acid (HA) derivatives. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) ...
Ramayo-Caldas Y - - 2012
The lipid content and fatty acid (FA) profile, have an important impact in human health, as well as in the technological transformation, nutritional and organoleptic quality of meat. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 144 backcross pigs (25% Iberian x 75% Landrace) was performed for 32 traits associated with intramuscular ...
Molander Gary A - - 2012
The Suzuki-Miyaura reaction has become one of the more useful tools for synthetic organic chemists. Until recently, there did not exist a direct way to make the most important component in the coupling reaction, namely the boronic acid. Current methods to make boronic acids often employ harsh or wasteful reagents ...
Orr Sarah K - - 2012
Neuroinflammation is present in the majority of acute and chronic neurological disorders. Excess or prolonged inflammation in the brain is thought to exacerbate neuronal damage and loss. Identifying modulators of neuroinflammation is an active area of study since it may lead to novel therapies. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) ...
Johnson Guy H - - 2012
The majority of evidence suggests that n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acid (LA), reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease as reflected by current dietary recommendations. However, concern has been expressed that a high intake of dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid contributes to excess chronic inflammation, primarily by prompting the ...
Efeyan Alejo - - 2012
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase controls growth and metabolism, and its deregulation underlies the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) integrates signals arising from nutrients, energy, and growth factors, but how exactly these signals are propagated await to be fully understood. ...
van den Boorn Jasper G - - 2012
Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles produced naturally by many cell types. They are specifically loaded with nucleic acid cargo, dependent on the exosome-producing cell and its homeostatic state. As natural intercellular shuttles of miRNA, exosomes influence an array of developmental, physiological and pathological processes in the recipient cell or tissue to ...
Hanson Julien - - 2012
Nicotinic acid (NA) and fumaric acid esters (FAE) such as monomethyl fumarate or dimethyl fumarate are drugs that elicit a cutaneous reaction called flushing as a side effect. NA is used to reduce progression of atherosclerosis through its anti-dyslipidemic activity and lipid-independent mechanisms involving immune cells, whereas FAE are used ...
Eckert Gunter P - - 2012
Mitochondrial dysfunction represents a common early pathological event in brain aging and in neurodegenerative diseases, e.g., in Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD), as well as in ischemic stroke. In vivo and ex vivo experiments using animal models of aging and AD, PD, and HD mainly showed improvement ...
Cheng Ke-Ke - - 2012
Succinic acid is a promising chemical which has a wide range of applications and can be biologically produced. The separation of succinic acid from fermentation broth makes more than 50 % of the total costs in their microbial production. This review summarizes the present state of methods studied for the recovery ...
Innis S M - - 2012
Considerable information has accumulated to show that DHA and EPA have unique roles that differ from other n-3 fatty acids and the n-6 fatty acids, with increasing understanding of the mechanisms through which these fatty acids reduce risk of disease. DHA and EPA regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism, but ...
Hatcher Jeanne L - - 2012
Abstract Objective: To differentiate a non-infectious inflammatory reaction following hyaluronic acid injection for facial rejuvenation from other reported complications, and describe appropriate treatment. Methods: Using a review of the literature and information available from the manufacturer, recommendations for management of non-infectious hyaluronic acid reactions are made. Results: Patients who are ...
Seo Sangwon - - 2012
A new approach to protodecarboxylation is described that enhances the substrate scope for benzoic acids. The reaction uses oxidative radical conditions to decarboxylate a variety of acids in acetonitrile.
Shen Bo - - 2012
A general, green, and efficient Brønsted acid-catalyzed glycosylation serves as a key step in the one-flow, multistep syntheses of several important 5'-deoxyribonucleoside pharmaceuticals.
Bird Susan S - - 2012
The increased presence of synthetic trans fatty acids into western diets has been shown to have deleterious effects on physiology and raising an individual's risk of developing metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. The importance of these fatty acids for health and the diversity of their (patho) physiological effects suggest ...
Anand Asha - - 2012
Acid phosphatase is ubiquitous in distribution in various organisms. Although it catalyzes simple hydrolytic reactions, it is considered as an interesting enzyme in biological systems due to its involvement in different physiological activities. However, earlier reviews on acid phosphatase reveal some fragmentary information and do not give a holistic view ...
Gopalan Ashwin - - 2012
The blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L., Grossulariceae), a small, perennial shrub native to central Europe and northern Asia, is cultivated throughout the world, including the United States. In addition to its anecdotal use in traditional herbal medicine, modern laboratories have demonstrated the potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of blackcurrant constituents ...
Pasha Zeeshan - - 2012
At the request of all authors of the Rapid Communication article entitled, "Non-viral reprogramming of skeletal myoblasts with valproic acid for pluripotency," which was published online ahead of editing (DOI: 10.1089/scd.2012.0080), is being officially retracted from publication in its current form in Stem Cells and Development.
Gil-Campos Mercedes - - 2012
A number of studies are investigating the role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with metabolic inborn errors, while the effects on visual and brain development in premature infants and neonates are well known. However, their function incertain chronic neurological, inflammatory and metabolic disorders is still under study. Standards ...
Dilzer Allison - - 2012
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has drawn significant attention in the last two decades for its variety of biologically beneficial effects. CLA reduces body fat, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and modulates immune and inflammatory responses as well as improves bone mass. It has been suggested that the overall effects of CLA ...
Rangel-Huerta Oscar D - - 2012
Inflammation is part of the normal host response to infection and injury. Eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and other inflammatory molecules are frequently produced during this process. Numerous studies in humans have documented the inflammation-limiting properties of omega-3 fatty acids, but only a few have been randomised clinical trials. The ...
Ferreira Adriano Menis - - 2012
The objective of this study was to characterize the Brazilian scientific production on the topical use of fatty acids in wound care, and to describe the effects of its administration in this process. This integrative literature review included articles indexed in Lilacs and BEDENF databases. Data collection was carried out ...
Corella Dolores - - 2012
Nutritional genomics has undergone rapid development and the concept is now very popular with the general public. Therefore, there is increasing demand for knowledge on adapting dietary composition to the genome. Our aim has been to undertake a systematic review so as to find out the level of evidence existing ...
Klingler Mario - - 2012
Over the last few decades n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status became of special interest for scientists. Biochemical measures on the n-3 fatty acid status vary depending on body compartment assessed and measures chosen. Plasma phospholipids and red blood cell membrane phospholipids are mainly used as n-3 fatty acid ...
Bellomo Gianni - - 2012
The association between uric acid (UA) and pre-eclampsia has been known for years, but the prognostic value of UA has been debated. This article will review recent evidences, evaluating UA as a prognostic factor for pre-eclampsia, both in the general population and in women with gestational hypertension, and as a ...
Cai Anna Q AQ Department of Mathematics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, - - 2012
The vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) is a morphogen that patterns the anterior-posterior axis of the vertebrate hindbrain. Cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins (Crabps) transport RA within cells to both its nuclear receptors (RARs) and degrading enzymes (Cyp26s). However, mice lacking Crabps are viable, suggesting that Crabp functions are redundant ...
Forbes David - - 2012
Anorexia nervosa is a relatively common psychiatric disorder that appears during a critical phase of development with profound physical consequences. The clinical manifestations are primarily of severe, chronic malnutrition that involves all organ systems. The causes, course and optimal treatments are still not well understood. A study reported in this ...
de Roos Baukje - - 2012
A low intake of fish and PUFA and high dietary trans- and SFA are considered to be among the main preventable causes of death. Unfortunately, epidemiological and preclinical studies have yet to identify biomarkers that accurately predict the influence of fatty acid intake on risk of chronic diseases, including cancer. ...
Lo Conte Mauro - - 2012
Making a comeback: The inefficient condensation of sulfinic acid and aryl nitroso compounds has been transformed into a chemoselective process that converts sulfinic acid into stable cyclic sulfonamide analogues (see scheme). This ligation proceeds rapidly under aqueous conditions in high yield, and lays the groundwork for the development of sulfinic ...
Rosenzweig Ivana - - 2012
Neuropsychiatric medications that directly alter the epigenome, such as valproic acid, can under certain conditions reactivate critical developmental periods and thus impact adult neuroconnectivity. In animal models valproic acid was shown to inhibit the process of postnatal myelination and to replicate age-dependent decline in remyelination efficiency. The human central nervous ...
Abou Elseoud Salwa M F - - 2012
Carboxylic acids play an important role in both aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways of both the snail and the parasite. Monitoring the effects of infection by schistosome on Biomphalaria alexandrina carboxylic acids metabolic profiles represents a promising additional source of information about the state of metabolic system. We separated and ...
Kimmel Kyle L - - 2012
The highly enantioselective protonation of nitronates formed upon the addition of α-substituted Meldrum's acids to terminally unsubstituted nitroalkenes is described. This work represents the first enantioselective catalytic addition of any type of nucleophile to this class of nitroalkenes. Moreover, for the successful implementation of this method, a new type of ...
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