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Results 451 - 500 of 1140
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Wu Shimin - - 2005
The volatile compounds of fresh fruiting bodies of wild Polyporus sulfureus (Bull.:Fr.) Fr. growing on oak trees were isolated by continuous liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE) and investigated by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS) on two GC columns of different polarity (DB-5 and ZB-WAX), and by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). A total of ...
Charles-Bernard Marielle - - 2005
This study is the first of two publications that investigate the phenomena of coffee nonvolatiles interacting with coffee volatile compounds. The purpose was to identify which coffee nonvolatile(s) are responsible for the interactions observed between nonvolatile coffee brew constituents and thiols, sulfides, pyrroles, and diketones. The overall interaction of these ...
Palander Samu - - 2005
The effects of age of growing turkeys and beta-glucanase-xylanase activity-containing feed enzyme supplementation on digestibility and feeding value of pelleted maize, wheat, barley and oats were investigated in growing turkeys using excreta collection and ileal sampling by slaughter. Excreta were collected and turkeys were slaughtered at 4, 8 and 12 ...
Mattheis James P - - 2005
Gala apples exposed to the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 12 h at 20 degrees C were stored at 1 degrees C in air or a controlled atmosphere (CA) maintained at 1 kPa O2 and 2 kPa CO2. Volatile compounds were measured after 4, 12, 20, and 28 weeks ...
Thierry Anne - - 2005
Two mixtures of Propionibacterium freudenreichii commercial strains were tested as adjunct cultures in pasteurized milk Raclette cheese to investigate the ability of propionibacteria (PAB) to enhance flavor development. Cheese flavor was assessed by a trained sensory panel, and levels of free amino acids, free fatty acids, and volatile compounds were ...
Rajapaksa Suresh - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is the accepted surgical treatment for chronic refractory rhinosinusitis. Prolonged healing and adhesion formation remain common problems. This study investigates the use of a hyaluronic acid-based pack impregnated with insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 to facilitate more rapid and effective healing after ESS in a ...
Defilippi Bruno G - - 2005
Regulation of ethylene biosynthesis or action has a major effect on volatiles production in apples. To understand the biochemical processes involved, we used Greensleeves apples from a transgenic line with a high suppression of ethylene biosynthesis. The study was focused at the level of the aroma volatile-related enzymes, including alcohol ...
Oyama-Okubo Naomi - - 2005
The mechanism of floral scent emission was studied in Petunia axillaris, a plant with a diurnal rhythm of scent output. The emission rate of each volatile compound oscillated in synchrony with its endogenous concentration, so that the intensity of the floral scent appeared to be determined by the endogenous concentrations. ...
Anderson Robin C - - 2005
Glycosides of 3-nitro-1-propanol (nitropropanol) and glucose esters of 3-nitro-1-propanoic acid (nitropropionic acid) occur in many forages distributed throughout the world. Systemically, nitropropionic acid irreversibly inactivates succinate dehydrogenase, thereby blocking ATP formation. Nitropropanol is not toxic per se in mammals but is converted to nitropropionic acid by hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase. Nitrotoxins ...
Salas Joaquín J - - 2005
Most of the volatile compounds responsible for the "green" notes to the aroma of fruits and vegetables are produced by the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway. The most determinant steps of this pathway are the peroxidation of free linoleic or linolenic acid by the action of ...
Gianelli M Pía - - 2005
The effect of curing agents (salt, glucose, nitrate, nitrite, and ascorbic acid) on the binding of skeletal peptides (carnosine and anserine) and a sarcoplasmic protein (myoglobin) with key flavor compounds (hexanal, octanal, 2-pentanone, 2-methylbutanal, and 3-methylbutanal) has been studied by solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Curing agents had an effect on the ...
Adams Leith - - 2005
The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is an aggressive, invasive termite species that has caused billions of dollars of damage across the United States for the past 50 years. Termites depend on intestinal microorganisms for cellulose digestion. Symbiotic microorganisms in the termite gut play key physiological functions such as ...
Chauhan Ashvini - - 2005
Efficient metabolism of fatty acids during anaerobic waste digestion requires development of consortia that include "fatty acid consuming H(2) producing bacteria" and methanogenic bacteria. The objective of this research was to optimize methanogenesis from fatty acids by evaluating a variety of support matrices for use in maintaining efficient syntrophic-methanogenic consortia. ...
Jiang Wei Zhong - - 2005
The effects of leachate from a methanogenic process on acidogenic performance of a solid recycle (SR) process by a rotational drum fermentation (RDF) system were evaluated under mesophilic condition and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 days. Two SR process configurations, SR1 and SR2, were evaluated, using fresh soybean ...
Tumlinson James H - - 2005
Larvae of several species of Lepidoptera produce fatty acid amide elicitors that induce the plants on which they feed to synthesize and release volatile organic compounds. The volatiles released by the plants act as cues that aid in host location by natural enemies of the herbivorous larvae. The elicitors are ...
Sullivan H M - - 2005
The influence of feeding whole cottonseed (WCS) containing elevated concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA) in the oil on ruminal fermentation and amino acid (AA) flow to the abomasum was evaluated in a 4 x 4 Latin square trial. Four ruminally and abomasally cannulated Holstein steers were fed diets containing ...
Hüther Liane - - 2005
Abstract Four rumen fistulated wethers were used to investigate the effect of glyphosate contaminated feed on rumen fermentation. The rations were based on corn silage, urea and a vitamin-mineral premix, either in the absence or presence of 0.77 g glyphosate per kg DM. Furthermore, rations were fed either with or ...
Zhang Xiao-Meng - - 2005
Changes in ethylene production rate, respiration rate, and aroma volatile composition was determined from the immature to mature stage in "Hujingmilu" peach (Prunus presica) fruit. Flesh firmness, fruit size, ground color of skin, and total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) in juice were analyzed, and ACC, ACC synthase and ...
Yun Soon-Il - - 2005
The removal of aqueous volatile fatty acids (VFA) in wastewater and spoiled waste-foods by immobilized Rhodococcus sp. B261 was investigated. The n-valeric acid (0.5%) was completely removed within 25 h under the following conditions; solution pH, 8.0; air flow rate, 0.2 l/min; superficial velocity, 0.96 h(-1); temperature, 37 degrees C. ...
Zitomer D H - - 2005
A thermophilic anaerobic digester with ultrafilter (TADU) for solids separation offers potential advantages of higher VS destruction, biomass retention, and pathogen removal. However, potential disadvantages include ultrafilter fouling, decreasing flux, and high VFA concentrations. In this study, a thermophilic anaerobic digester coupled to a sintered titanium, cross-flow ultrafilter was operated ...
Bories A - - 2005
During treatment of winery and distillery wastewater by natural evaporation in ponds, formation of malodorous compounds induces harmful olfactory effects. In this work, we studied the origin of malodorous compounds and methods to prevent and treat odours. The formation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from pure substrates (glycerol, lactic and ...
Zheng Xian-Jun - - 2005
In this study batch experiments were conducted to investigate the inhibitory effects of butyrate addition on hydrogen production from glucose by using anaerobic mixed cultures. Experimental results showed that addition of butyrate at 4.18 and 6.27 g/l only slightly inhibited hydrogen production, and addition of butyrate at 8.36-12.54 g/l imposed ...
Sharpe A - - 2005
Since scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep are clinicopathologically indistinguishable, BSE in sheep may have been misdiagnosed as scrapie. Disease-specific prion protein (PrP(d)) patterns in archival tissues of 38 Irish ARQ/ARQ sheep diagnosed as scrapie-affected were compared to those in four Dutch BSE-challenged sheep. When medulla oblongata was ...
Yang C-M J - - 2005
Preservation of soybean milk residue (SMR) by ensiling with peanut hulls (PEH) and subsequent utilization of silage by mixed ruminal microorganisms were investigated. Treatments were combinations of SMR with PEH at the following ratios: 100:0, 78:22, 71:29, and 60:40 (fresh weight basis). After eight weeks of ensiling, silage lactic acid, ...
Vallimont J E - - 2004
A dual-effluent continuous-culture system was used to evaluate the effects of partially replacing cornstarch with sucrose in a total mixed ration on ruminal fermentation and N metabolism. The 4 treatments were 0 (control), 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% sucrose and, respectively, 7.5 (control), 5.0, 2.5, and 0% cornstarch in a total ...
Vlaeminck B - - 2004
A first aim of this batch in vitro experiment (21 h) was to use changes in odd and branched chain fatty acid (OBCFA) patterns to suggest shifts in microbial populations, associated with four types of incubated whole dairy cow diets. Principal component analysis suggested higher dietary starch increased the proportion ...
Tavaria F K - - 2004
Serra da Estrela cheese is an artisanal cheese manufactured from raw ewe's milk coagulated with Cynara cardunculus; it is highly appreciated for its unique flavor and bouquet. This research effort focused on a search for the molecules responsible for those organoleptic characteristics. Eighty cheeses manufactured in 4 dairies located in ...
Elefsiniotis P - - 2004
This study investigates the ability of naturally-produced volatile fatty acids (VFAs) to act as a carbon source for the removal of nitrate-Nitrogen concentrations in the range of 20 to 200 mg/L. The VFAs were generated from an anaerobic digester treating a 1:1 mixture of starch-rich industrial and municipal wastewater. The ...
dos Santos André B - - 2005
We studied in batch assays the transformation and toxicity of anthraquinone dyes during incubations with anaerobic granular sludge under mesophilic (30 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) conditions. Additionally, the electron shuttling capacity of the redox mediator anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQS) and subsequent increase on decolourisation rates was investigated on ...
Franks Nicholas P - - 2004
Two-pore-domain K+ (K(2P)) channels are a diverse and highly regulated superfamily of channels that are thought to provide baseline regulation of membrane excitability. Of these, the TREK channels are expressed highly in the human CNS, and can be activated by temperature, membrane stretch and internal acidosis. In addition, TREK channels ...
Enemark J M D - - 2004
An observational study was conducted in six Danish dairy herds. A specially designed stomach tube was compared to the rumenocentesis technique as part of the monitoring of rumen pH. In contrast to a previous study, the use of the stomach tube appeared to reduce saliva contamination. However, correlation with the ...
Takabatake Hiroo - - 2004
It is known that the presence of ammonia inhibits hydrogen production by photosynthetic bacteria. In order to avoid it, a two-step process containing ammonia removal and hydrogen production was investigated in this study. Firstly, the effects of carbonate presence on ammonia removal by photosynthetic bacteria were investigated by the vial ...
Buttery Ron G - - 2004
The identities and possible origins of three minor unusual volatile components of tomato are discussed. These are pentyl nitrate, the first identification of a volatile alkyl nitrate in a fresh vegetable or fruit; 5-ethyl-2(5H)-furanone, which, besides its presence in tomato, was found to be a major autoxidation product of pure ...
Weinberg Z G - - 2004
Inoculated silages sometimes improve cattle performance, possibly because of probiotic effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) silage inoculants. The cause of improved animal performance following feeding with inoculated silage is unclear. One issue in studying this phenomenon is to find out whether LAB pass from silage into the rumen fluid ...
Tanaka Muneo - - 2004
Oral malodor is considered to originate primarily from tongue microbiota populations. However, the relationship between oral malodor and tongue microbiota remains unclear. In this study, tongue periodontal pathogens were analyzed via real-time PCR, and the association between oral malodor and tongue periodontal pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia, ...
Soliva Carla R - - 2004
Two in vitro experiments were carried out with the Hohenheim gas test (HGT) apparatus in order to investigate dose-dependent effects and interactions of non-esterified lauric acid (C(12)) and myristic acid (C(14)) given either individually or in mixture on ruminal methanogens and methanogenesis. Special emphasis was also put on the relationship ...
Tungjaroenchai W - - 2004
The effects of the adjunct cultures Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis, Brevibacterium linens BL2, Lactobacillus helveticus LH212, and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 23272 on volatile free fatty acid production in reduced-fat Edam cheese were studied. Lipase activity evaluation using p-nitrophenyl fatty acid ester substrates indicated that L. lactis ssp. diacetylactis showed the ...
Soliva Carla R - - 2004
The interactions of lauric (C12) and myristic acid (C14) in suppressing ruminal methanogenesis and methanogens were investigated with the rumen simulation technique (Rusitec) using bovine ruminal fluid. The fatty acids were added to basal substrates (grass hay:concentrate, 1:1.5) at a level of 48 g/kg DM, provided in C12:C14 ratios of ...
McMahon Katherine D - - 2004
Microbial population dynamics were investigated during start-up and during periods of overload conditions in anaerobic co-digesters treating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge. Changes in community structure were monitored using ribosomal RNA-based oligonucleotide probe hybridization to measure the abundance of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria (SPOB), saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophs (SFAS), and ...
Hong Soon Ho - - 2004
The rumen represents the first section of a ruminant animal's stomach, where feed is collected and mixed with microorganisms for initial digestion. The major gas produced in the rumen is CO(2) (65.5 mol%), yet the metabolic characteristics of capnophilic (CO(2)-loving) microorganisms are not well understood. Here we report the 2,314,078 ...
Chen Guoping - - 2004
There are at least five lipoxygenases (TomloxA, TomloxB, TomloxC, TomloxD, and TomloxE) present in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit, but their role in generation of fruit flavor volatiles has been unclear. To assess the physiological role of TomloxC in the generation of volatile C6 aldehyde and alcohol flavor compounds, we ...
Morgavi D P - - 2004
Aspergillus fumigatus is a toxicogenic fungus usually found in contaminated animal feeds, especially in conserved forages where it can produce several mycotoxins. Gliotoxin, one of the most important toxic metabolites produced by this fungus, has antibacterial, immunosuppressive and apoptotic effects. Ruminants due to the high proportion of forages they receive ...
Dandekari Abhaya M - - 2004
The role of ethylene in regulating sugar, acid, texture and volatile components of fruit quality was investigated in transgenic apple fruit modified in their capacity to synthesize endogenous ethylene. Fruit obtained from plants silenced for either ACS (ACC synthase; ACC-1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) or ACO (ACC oxidase), key enzymes responsible for ethylene ...
Sanna Vanna - - 2004
Rumen-stable devices ensure a protection of active ingredients against chemical degradation and bacterial fermentation processes that occur in the rumen. These systems should also provide postruminal bioavailability and controlled release of the active ingredient. The objective of this study was the preparation of bilayer tablets as rumen-stable delivery systems, designed ...
Amaral A L - - 2004
Image analysis techniques are applied to monitor the morphological changes in granular sludge present in an expanded granular sludge blanket (EGSB) reactor fed with oleic acid. Deterioration of granular sludge was monitored along the trial period by measuring the percentage of aggregates smaller than 1 mm (in terms of Feret ...
Peinado Rafael A - - 2004
Volatile compounds have been determined in control dry sherry wines and those supplemented with gluconic acid, which were inoculated with the Schizosaccharomyces pombe 1379 (ATCC 26760) yeast strain. These compounds were grouped, according to volatiles exhibiting the identical odor quality, into nine groups of the same odor character (aromatic series) ...
Reusser Steve - - 2004
Laboratory-scale digesters were used to perform side-by-side evaluations of alternative digestion systems including thermophilic-mesophilic-phased digestion (TPAD), acid/methane-phased digestion, mesophilic digestion, and the performance of the thermophilic stage of TPAD alone. Total detention times in the systems evaluated varied from 8 to 20 days. Temperatures in the mesophilic stage of TPAD ...
Gargouri Mohamed - - 2004
The extraction of 13-hydroperoxide-lyase activity from mint leaves as well as its use for C6-aldehyde production was studied in this work. The enzyme cleaves 13(S)-hydroperoxy-C18 fatty acids into C6-aldehyde and C12-oxo-acid. Two mint species were tested: Mentha veridis and Mentha pulegium. The headspace injection method coupled to gas chromatography was ...
Martín Alberto - - 2004
The proteolytic changes taking place in dry-cured hams lead to increases in free amino acids. Such free amino acids not only contribute to flavour, but also serve as precursors of volatile compounds. Several months of ripening time are required to allow the particular flavour to develop. The fungal population allowed ...
Franco Miguel - - 2004
Changes in 36 volatile compounds of must from ripe grapes dried by direct exposure to sun and must from ripe grapes were studied. Compounds not dependent on sampling site in both musts were selected, and their concentration/Brix degree ratio values, were subjected to variance analysis. Only butan-1-ol and isoamyl alcohols ...
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