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Results 451 - 500 of 1150
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Kim E J - - 2005
Two in situ studies were conducted to examine the use of odd-chain fatty acid profiles to study microbial colonization of freshly ingested herbage in the rumen as well as fatty acid biohydrogenation. In the first study, fresh perennial ryegrass was subjected to a range of sample preparation methods before incubation ...
Schneider J - - 2005
Mass spectrometric measurements of size and composition of diesel exhaust particles have been performed under various conditions: chassis dynamometer tests, field measurements near a German motorway, and individual car chasing. Nucleation particles consisting of volatile sulfate and organic material could be detected both at the chassis dynamometer test facility and ...
Kisidayová Svetlana - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting mechanical- and cryo-resistance of the rumen ciliates Entodinium caudatum (E.c.), Entodinium furca monolobum (E.f.m.), Entodinium simplex (E.s.), Diplodinium denticulatum (two clones, D.d.01 and D.d.02), Diploplastron affine (D.a.) and Epidinium ecaudatum forma caudatum (E.e.c.) after long-term in vitro cultivation. Following prolonged ...
Shen Zanming - - 2005
The objective of this study was to explore morphological alterations of rumen papillae induced by n-butyric acid in relation to the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in adult castrated bulls. Three animals fitted with rumen cannula were fed twice daily at a low and high nutritional level (LL and HL), ...
Hu Wei-lian - - 2005
The effect of tea saponins (TS) on rumen fermentation and methane emission was examined using an in vitro gas production technique named Reading Pressure Technique. Three levels of TS addition (0, 0.2, 0.4 mg/ml) were evaluated in the faunated and defaunated rumen fluid. Compared to the control, TS addition decreased ...
Steinhaus Martin - - 2005
Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of white pepper powder showing an intense fecal, cowshed-like off-flavor revealed 3-methylindole (fecal, swine-manure) and 4-methylphenol (fecal, horse-like) with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 22 odor-active compounds detected. In addition, high FD factors and/or undesirable odor qualities ...
Pavlov Atanas - - 2005
Studies were conducted on low molecular metabolites (volatiles and polar compounds) produced by Rosa damascena Mill 1803 cell suspension culture, cultivated under different regimes: as a free suspension (in flasks and in bioreactor) and in a two-phase system (in the presence of Amberlite XAD-4 as a second phase). It was ...
Jussi Vaahtovuo - - 2005
The gastrointestinal tracts of developed animals are colonized by an extremely complex and diverse microbial ecosystem. The host and its microbiota are in close interaction with each other, and the host's genetic characteristics have been suggested to have an influence on the composition of fecal bacteria. However, different sections of ...
Elefsiniotis Panagiotis - - 2005
This research investigated the effect of varying the starch-rich, industrial-wastewater component of mixtures with municipal wastewater fed to an anaerobic digester. A laboratory-scale, completely-mixed anaerobic digester was operated at an HRT of 30 h, an SRT of 10 d, and an ambient temperature of 21.5 +/- 1.5 degrees C. The ...
De La Torre Anne - - 2005
Ruminant products are the major source of CLA for humans. However, during periods of fat mobilization, the liver might play an important role in CLA metabolism which would limit the availability of the latter for muscles and milk. In this context, rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11 CLA) metabolism in the bovine ...
Wu Shimin - - 2005
The volatile compounds of fresh fruiting bodies of wild Polyporus sulfureus (Bull.:Fr.) Fr. growing on oak trees were isolated by continuous liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE) and investigated by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS) on two GC columns of different polarity (DB-5 and ZB-WAX), and by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). A total of ...
Charles-Bernard Marielle - - 2005
This study is the first of two publications that investigate the phenomena of coffee nonvolatiles interacting with coffee volatile compounds. The purpose was to identify which coffee nonvolatile(s) are responsible for the interactions observed between nonvolatile coffee brew constituents and thiols, sulfides, pyrroles, and diketones. The overall interaction of these ...
Palander Samu - - 2005
The effects of age of growing turkeys and beta-glucanase-xylanase activity-containing feed enzyme supplementation on digestibility and feeding value of pelleted maize, wheat, barley and oats were investigated in growing turkeys using excreta collection and ileal sampling by slaughter. Excreta were collected and turkeys were slaughtered at 4, 8 and 12 ...
Mattheis James P - - 2005
Gala apples exposed to the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 12 h at 20 degrees C were stored at 1 degrees C in air or a controlled atmosphere (CA) maintained at 1 kPa O2 and 2 kPa CO2. Volatile compounds were measured after 4, 12, 20, and 28 weeks ...
Thierry Anne - - 2005
Two mixtures of Propionibacterium freudenreichii commercial strains were tested as adjunct cultures in pasteurized milk Raclette cheese to investigate the ability of propionibacteria (PAB) to enhance flavor development. Cheese flavor was assessed by a trained sensory panel, and levels of free amino acids, free fatty acids, and volatile compounds were ...
Rajapaksa Suresh - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is the accepted surgical treatment for chronic refractory rhinosinusitis. Prolonged healing and adhesion formation remain common problems. This study investigates the use of a hyaluronic acid-based pack impregnated with insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 to facilitate more rapid and effective healing after ESS in a ...
Defilippi Bruno G - - 2005
Regulation of ethylene biosynthesis or action has a major effect on volatiles production in apples. To understand the biochemical processes involved, we used Greensleeves apples from a transgenic line with a high suppression of ethylene biosynthesis. The study was focused at the level of the aroma volatile-related enzymes, including alcohol ...
Oyama-Okubo Naomi - - 2005
The mechanism of floral scent emission was studied in Petunia axillaris, a plant with a diurnal rhythm of scent output. The emission rate of each volatile compound oscillated in synchrony with its endogenous concentration, so that the intensity of the floral scent appeared to be determined by the endogenous concentrations. ...
Anderson Robin C - - 2005
Glycosides of 3-nitro-1-propanol (nitropropanol) and glucose esters of 3-nitro-1-propanoic acid (nitropropionic acid) occur in many forages distributed throughout the world. Systemically, nitropropionic acid irreversibly inactivates succinate dehydrogenase, thereby blocking ATP formation. Nitropropanol is not toxic per se in mammals but is converted to nitropropionic acid by hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase. Nitrotoxins ...
Salas Joaquín J - - 2005
Most of the volatile compounds responsible for the "green" notes to the aroma of fruits and vegetables are produced by the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway. The most determinant steps of this pathway are the peroxidation of free linoleic or linolenic acid by the action of ...
Gianelli M Pía - - 2005
The effect of curing agents (salt, glucose, nitrate, nitrite, and ascorbic acid) on the binding of skeletal peptides (carnosine and anserine) and a sarcoplasmic protein (myoglobin) with key flavor compounds (hexanal, octanal, 2-pentanone, 2-methylbutanal, and 3-methylbutanal) has been studied by solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Curing agents had an effect on the ...
Adams Leith - - 2005
The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is an aggressive, invasive termite species that has caused billions of dollars of damage across the United States for the past 50 years. Termites depend on intestinal microorganisms for cellulose digestion. Symbiotic microorganisms in the termite gut play key physiological functions such as ...
Chauhan Ashvini - - 2005
Efficient metabolism of fatty acids during anaerobic waste digestion requires development of consortia that include "fatty acid consuming H(2) producing bacteria" and methanogenic bacteria. The objective of this research was to optimize methanogenesis from fatty acids by evaluating a variety of support matrices for use in maintaining efficient syntrophic-methanogenic consortia. ...
Jiang Wei Zhong - - 2005
The effects of leachate from a methanogenic process on acidogenic performance of a solid recycle (SR) process by a rotational drum fermentation (RDF) system were evaluated under mesophilic condition and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 days. Two SR process configurations, SR1 and SR2, were evaluated, using fresh soybean ...
Tumlinson James H - - 2005
Larvae of several species of Lepidoptera produce fatty acid amide elicitors that induce the plants on which they feed to synthesize and release volatile organic compounds. The volatiles released by the plants act as cues that aid in host location by natural enemies of the herbivorous larvae. The elicitors are ...
Sullivan H M - - 2005
The influence of feeding whole cottonseed (WCS) containing elevated concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA) in the oil on ruminal fermentation and amino acid (AA) flow to the abomasum was evaluated in a 4 x 4 Latin square trial. Four ruminally and abomasally cannulated Holstein steers were fed diets containing ...
Hüther Liane - - 2005
Abstract Four rumen fistulated wethers were used to investigate the effect of glyphosate contaminated feed on rumen fermentation. The rations were based on corn silage, urea and a vitamin-mineral premix, either in the absence or presence of 0.77 g glyphosate per kg DM. Furthermore, rations were fed either with or ...
Zhang Xiao-Meng - - 2005
Changes in ethylene production rate, respiration rate, and aroma volatile composition was determined from the immature to mature stage in "Hujingmilu" peach (Prunus presica) fruit. Flesh firmness, fruit size, ground color of skin, and total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) in juice were analyzed, and ACC, ACC synthase and ...
Yun Soon-Il - - 2005
The removal of aqueous volatile fatty acids (VFA) in wastewater and spoiled waste-foods by immobilized Rhodococcus sp. B261 was investigated. The n-valeric acid (0.5%) was completely removed within 25 h under the following conditions; solution pH, 8.0; air flow rate, 0.2 l/min; superficial velocity, 0.96 h(-1); temperature, 37 degrees C. ...
Zitomer D H - - 2005
A thermophilic anaerobic digester with ultrafilter (TADU) for solids separation offers potential advantages of higher VS destruction, biomass retention, and pathogen removal. However, potential disadvantages include ultrafilter fouling, decreasing flux, and high VFA concentrations. In this study, a thermophilic anaerobic digester coupled to a sintered titanium, cross-flow ultrafilter was operated ...
Bories A - - 2005
During treatment of winery and distillery wastewater by natural evaporation in ponds, formation of malodorous compounds induces harmful olfactory effects. In this work, we studied the origin of malodorous compounds and methods to prevent and treat odours. The formation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from pure substrates (glycerol, lactic and ...
Zheng Xian-Jun - - 2005
In this study batch experiments were conducted to investigate the inhibitory effects of butyrate addition on hydrogen production from glucose by using anaerobic mixed cultures. Experimental results showed that addition of butyrate at 4.18 and 6.27 g/l only slightly inhibited hydrogen production, and addition of butyrate at 8.36-12.54 g/l imposed ...
Sharpe A - - 2005
Since scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep are clinicopathologically indistinguishable, BSE in sheep may have been misdiagnosed as scrapie. Disease-specific prion protein (PrP(d)) patterns in archival tissues of 38 Irish ARQ/ARQ sheep diagnosed as scrapie-affected were compared to those in four Dutch BSE-challenged sheep. When medulla oblongata was ...
Yang C-M J - - 2005
Preservation of soybean milk residue (SMR) by ensiling with peanut hulls (PEH) and subsequent utilization of silage by mixed ruminal microorganisms were investigated. Treatments were combinations of SMR with PEH at the following ratios: 100:0, 78:22, 71:29, and 60:40 (fresh weight basis). After eight weeks of ensiling, silage lactic acid, ...
Vallimont J E - - 2004
A dual-effluent continuous-culture system was used to evaluate the effects of partially replacing cornstarch with sucrose in a total mixed ration on ruminal fermentation and N metabolism. The 4 treatments were 0 (control), 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% sucrose and, respectively, 7.5 (control), 5.0, 2.5, and 0% cornstarch in a total ...
Vlaeminck B - - 2004
A first aim of this batch in vitro experiment (21 h) was to use changes in odd and branched chain fatty acid (OBCFA) patterns to suggest shifts in microbial populations, associated with four types of incubated whole dairy cow diets. Principal component analysis suggested higher dietary starch increased the proportion ...
Tavaria F K - - 2004
Serra da Estrela cheese is an artisanal cheese manufactured from raw ewe's milk coagulated with Cynara cardunculus; it is highly appreciated for its unique flavor and bouquet. This research effort focused on a search for the molecules responsible for those organoleptic characteristics. Eighty cheeses manufactured in 4 dairies located in ...
Elefsiniotis P - - 2004
This study investigates the ability of naturally-produced volatile fatty acids (VFAs) to act as a carbon source for the removal of nitrate-Nitrogen concentrations in the range of 20 to 200 mg/L. The VFAs were generated from an anaerobic digester treating a 1:1 mixture of starch-rich industrial and municipal wastewater. The ...
dos Santos André B - - 2005
We studied in batch assays the transformation and toxicity of anthraquinone dyes during incubations with anaerobic granular sludge under mesophilic (30 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) conditions. Additionally, the electron shuttling capacity of the redox mediator anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQS) and subsequent increase on decolourisation rates was investigated on ...
Franks Nicholas P - - 2004
Two-pore-domain K+ (K(2P)) channels are a diverse and highly regulated superfamily of channels that are thought to provide baseline regulation of membrane excitability. Of these, the TREK channels are expressed highly in the human CNS, and can be activated by temperature, membrane stretch and internal acidosis. In addition, TREK channels ...
Enemark J M D - - 2004
An observational study was conducted in six Danish dairy herds. A specially designed stomach tube was compared to the rumenocentesis technique as part of the monitoring of rumen pH. In contrast to a previous study, the use of the stomach tube appeared to reduce saliva contamination. However, correlation with the ...
Takabatake Hiroo - - 2004
It is known that the presence of ammonia inhibits hydrogen production by photosynthetic bacteria. In order to avoid it, a two-step process containing ammonia removal and hydrogen production was investigated in this study. Firstly, the effects of carbonate presence on ammonia removal by photosynthetic bacteria were investigated by the vial ...
Buttery Ron G - - 2004
The identities and possible origins of three minor unusual volatile components of tomato are discussed. These are pentyl nitrate, the first identification of a volatile alkyl nitrate in a fresh vegetable or fruit; 5-ethyl-2(5H)-furanone, which, besides its presence in tomato, was found to be a major autoxidation product of pure ...
Weinberg Z G - - 2004
Inoculated silages sometimes improve cattle performance, possibly because of probiotic effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) silage inoculants. The cause of improved animal performance following feeding with inoculated silage is unclear. One issue in studying this phenomenon is to find out whether LAB pass from silage into the rumen fluid ...
Tanaka Muneo - - 2004
Oral malodor is considered to originate primarily from tongue microbiota populations. However, the relationship between oral malodor and tongue microbiota remains unclear. In this study, tongue periodontal pathogens were analyzed via real-time PCR, and the association between oral malodor and tongue periodontal pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia, ...
Soliva Carla R - - 2004
Two in vitro experiments were carried out with the Hohenheim gas test (HGT) apparatus in order to investigate dose-dependent effects and interactions of non-esterified lauric acid (C(12)) and myristic acid (C(14)) given either individually or in mixture on ruminal methanogens and methanogenesis. Special emphasis was also put on the relationship ...
Tungjaroenchai W - - 2004
The effects of the adjunct cultures Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis, Brevibacterium linens BL2, Lactobacillus helveticus LH212, and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 23272 on volatile free fatty acid production in reduced-fat Edam cheese were studied. Lipase activity evaluation using p-nitrophenyl fatty acid ester substrates indicated that L. lactis ssp. diacetylactis showed the ...
Soliva Carla R - - 2004
The interactions of lauric (C12) and myristic acid (C14) in suppressing ruminal methanogenesis and methanogens were investigated with the rumen simulation technique (Rusitec) using bovine ruminal fluid. The fatty acids were added to basal substrates (grass hay:concentrate, 1:1.5) at a level of 48 g/kg DM, provided in C12:C14 ratios of ...
McMahon Katherine D - - 2004
Microbial population dynamics were investigated during start-up and during periods of overload conditions in anaerobic co-digesters treating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge. Changes in community structure were monitored using ribosomal RNA-based oligonucleotide probe hybridization to measure the abundance of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria (SPOB), saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophs (SFAS), and ...
Hong Soon Ho - - 2004
The rumen represents the first section of a ruminant animal's stomach, where feed is collected and mixed with microorganisms for initial digestion. The major gas produced in the rumen is CO(2) (65.5 mol%), yet the metabolic characteristics of capnophilic (CO(2)-loving) microorganisms are not well understood. Here we report the 2,314,078 ...
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