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Kang Kihwa - - 2011
Ghrelin is a unique peptide gut hormone that requires post-translational modification to stimulate both feeding and growth hormone release. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) was identified as a specific acyl-transferase for ghrelin, and recent genetic deletion studies of the Goat gene (Goat(-/-)) uncovered the role of ghrelin in the regulation of glucose ...
Karlengen I J - - 2011
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of excess cobalt (Co) on gene expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), fatty acid synthase (FASN), diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) of lactating dairy cows in relation to milk fatty acid profile. Seven multiparous cows of the Norwegian ...
Zhu Zongjian - - 2011
Background This study investigated the effect of a broad range of dietary ratios of n-3:n-6 fatty acids on mammary gland density (MD) and mammary cancer risk. Methods Cancer was induced in female rats by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Purified diet that provided 30% of dietary kcal from fat was formulated to contain ratios ...
Nara Takayuki - - 2011
The distribution of sialic acids and antimicrobial products (lysozyme, β-defensin-1, lactoferrin, IgA) in the anal glands of miniature pig was studied by glycoconjugate histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. The glandular acini of these glands exhibited considerable amounts of sialoglycoconjugates that terminated in Siaα2-6Gal/GalNAc or Siaα2-3Gal1-4GlcNAc, including O-acetylated sialic acids. Additionally, all antimicrobial ...
Novak Elizabeth M - - 2011
Levels of n-6, n-3 and medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) in milk are highly variable. Higher carbohydrate intakes are associated with increased mammary gland MCFA synthesis, but the role of unsaturated fatty acids for milk MCFA secretion is unclear. This study addressed whether n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, which are ...
Manni Andrea - - 2011
Epidemiologic studies on the protective role of omega-3 fatty acids (n:3) on breast cancer prevention remain inconclusive but studies in preclinical models provide more positive outcome. However, the mechanisms accounting for the protective effect of n:3 are not defined. In the present study, conducted in the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis ...
Louw Stefan - - 2011
In lizards, the epidermal glands of the femoral and precloacal regions are involved in the production of semiochemicals. In addition to its femoral glands, the giant girdled lizard, or sungazer, Cordylus giganteus, which is endemic to South Africa, has generation glands as an additional potential source of semiochemicals. These epidermal ...
Vihma Veera - - 2011
At the end of the last century ideas concerning the physiological role of the steroid fatty acid ester family were emerging. Estrogens, fatty acylated at C-17 hydroxyl group and incorporated in lipoproteins were proposed to provide antioxidative protection to these particles. A large number of studies involving non-estrogenic adrenal steroids, ...
Mach Núria - - 2011
Information about the effects of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) supplementation on the health and integrity of the mammary gland in lactating dairy cows is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of unprotected dietary UFA on the global expression pattern of genes in the mammary ...
Nara T - - 2011
The functional properties of sialic acids appear to be manifold. Additionally, antimicrobial substances serve as a non-specific defense against microorganisms. In this study, therefore, the localization of sialic acids and antimicrobial substances in the anal glands of dog was studied by sialoglycoconjugate histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. The secretory epithelium, luminal secretions ...
Maeda N - - 2011
Chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate proteoglycans are major components of the cell surface and extracellular matrix in the brain. Both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate are unbranched highly sulfated polysaccharides composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine, and glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine, respectively. During their biosynthesis in ...
Chiang Hsiu-Mei - - 2011
UV is a potent factor in skin photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Therefore, investigating the inhibiting mechanisms of photoaging would be useful to enable development of agents to slow down the aging process. UV-irradiation increased metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -3, and -9 and then causes collagen and elastin degradation, leading to the formation of ...
Agyare Christian - - 2011
Leaves from Phyllanthus muellerianus (Kuntze) Exell. are traditionally used for wound healing in Western Africa. Aqueous extracts of dried leaves recently have been shown to stimulate proliferation of human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Within bioassay-guided fractionation the ellagitannins geraniin (1), corilagin (2), furosin (3), the flavonoids quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (isoquercitrin), kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucoside (astragalin), ...
Heikkinen Jari - - 2011
Lysyl hydroxylases (LH), which catalyze the post-translational modifications of lysines in collagen and collagen-like proteins, function as dimers. However, the amino acids responsible for dimerization and the role of dimer formation in the enzymatic activities of LH have not yet been identified. We have localized the region responsible for the ...
Wernersson Erik - - 2010
Domains rich in cationic amino acids are ubiquitous in peptides with the ability to cross cell membranes, which is likely related to the binding of such polypeptides to anionic groups on the membrane surface. To shed more light on these interactions, we investigated specific interactions between basic amino acids and ...
Monavari Sanam - - 2011
By employing metal salts in dilute-acid pretreatment the severity can be reduced due to reduced activation energy. This study reports on a dilute-acid steam pretreatment of spruce chips by addition of a small amount of ferrous sulfate to the acid catalyst, i.e., either SO2, H2SO3 or H2SO4. The utilization of ...
Nalinanon Sitthipong - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Due to the low extraction efficiency of collagen from fish skin by the typical acid solubilization process, pepsin has been widely used to aid further extraction of collagen from the residue. The aim of this study was to characterize collagen from the skin of arabesque greenling extracted with the ...
Ignatov D V - - 2010
We performed a comparative analysis ofMycobacterium aviumtranscriptomes (strain 724R) in infected mice of two different strains- resistant and susceptible to infection. Sets of mycobacterial genes transcribed in lung tissue were defined, and differentially transcribed genes were revealed. Our results indicate thatM. aviumgenes coding for enzymes of the Krebs cycle, oxidative ...
Smeds Emanuel - - 2010
The signaling of various molecules involved in development and regulation of cell growth are regulated by heparan sulfate (HS). Specific binding of HS to ligand proteins depends on the HS sulfation pattern, where the spacing and number of O-sulfate groups are of special importance. HS 2-O-sulfotransferase catalyzes 2-O-sulfation of glucuronic ...
Schiraldi Chiara - - 2010
The production of microbial polysaccharides has recently gained much interest because of their potential biotechnological applications. Several pathogenic bacteria are known to produce capsular polysaccharides, which provide a protection barrier towards harsh environmental conditions, and towards host defences in case of invasive infections. These capsules are often composed of glycosaminoglycan-like ...
Kim Young Kyung - - 2010
The complex morphologies of mineralised collagen fibrils are regulated through interactions between the collagen matrix and non-collagenous extracellular proteins. In the present study, polyvinylphosphonic acid, a biomimetic analogue of matrix phosphoproteins, was synthesised and confirmed with FTIR and NMR. Biomimetic mineralisation of reconstituted collagen fibrils devoid of natural non-collagenous proteins ...
Vityazev F V - - 2010
The following pectins were sulfated: bergenan BC (the pectin of Bergenia crassifolia L), lemnan LM (the pectin of Lemna minor L), and galacturonan as a backbone of pectins. Pyridine monomethyl sulfate, pyridine sulfotrioxide, and chlorosulfonic acid were used as reagents for sulfation. Chlorosulfonic acid proved to be the optimal reagent ...
Saito Akihiro - - 2010
The monosaccharide moieties found in heparin (HP) and heparan sulfate (HS), glucosamine and two kinds of uronic acids, glucuronic and iduronic acids, were efficiently synthesized by use of glucosamine hydrochloride and glucurono-6,3-lactone as starting compounds. In the synthesis of the disaccharide building block, the key issues of preparation of uronic ...
Wu Shih-Yun - - 2010
This prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial compared the clinical outcomes for a polylactic acid barrier versus a collagen membrane in conjunction with guided tissue regeneration (GTR). Thirty patients with chronic periodontitis and at least one intrabony defect of a minimum 4 mm were enrolled. Following full-mouth scaling, GTR using a ...
Raghavan Maanasa - - 2010
We report a novel method for the chromatographic separation and measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)C) of individual amino acids in hair proteins and bone collagen using the LC-IsoLink system, which interfaces liquid chromatography (LC) with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). This paper provides baseline separation of 15 and ...
Liang Aiye - - 2010
Heparin (H) and heparan sulfate (HS) play major roles in a number of biological processes. Yet, H/HS-based pharmaceutical agents are also associated with multiple adverse effects. This has led to the concept of designing noncarbohydrate, aromatic mimetics that modulate H/HS function. In this work, we study a library of synthetic, ...
Jackson John K - - 2010
Collagen based cosmetic fillers require repeat treatments due to collagenase derived degradation of the filler in the intradermal injection site. The objective of this study was to investigate the inhibition of this degradation by the galloyl-containing compounds tannic acid, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and gallic acid (GA). A ...
Tagle Jorge M - - 2010
Lipoatrophy is a condition that affects certain individuals, most commonly those who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.(1-3) Injectable fillers are used for the treatment of these dermal contour deformities to smooth dermal depressions formed by the loss of volume. These dermal fillers (also known as soft tissue augmentation ...
Badiu Diana L - - 2010
Wound healing consists of re-epithelialization, contraction and formation of granulation and scar tissue. Amino acids from proteins are involved in these events, but their exact roles are not well understood. The present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of some amino acids from two molluscs, Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.) ...
Ehrlich Hermann - - 2010
Control over crystal growth by acidic matrix macromolecules is an important process in the formation of many mineralized tissues. Highly acidic macromolecules are postulated intermediates in tissue mineralization, because they sequester many calcium ions and occur in high concentrations at mineralizing foci in distantly related organisms. A prerequisite for biomineralization ...
Li Kai - - 2010
Heparan sulfate (HS) is involved in essential physiological and pathophysiological functions. HS is a highly sulfated polysaccharide consisting of glucuronic acid (or iduronic acid) linked to glucosamine carrying various sulfo groups. Biosynthesis of HS involves sulfotransferases and an epimerase. The HS C(5)-epimerase converts glucuronic acid to iduronic acid. The method ...
Benjakul Soottawat - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Fish collagen has been paid increasing attention as an alternative to the mammalian counterpart owing to the abundance of fish skin as a processing by-product. Generally, the low yield of collagen extracted using the typical acid solubilisation process has led to the use of mammalian pepsin as an aid ...
Metreveli Nunu O - - 2010
The influence of deleterious UV radiation on collagen molecules in the absence and presence of ascorbic acid using UV-vis and FT-IR spectroscopy has been studied. Intensity of UV-vis absorption spectrum of collagen with a maximum at 275 m due to the aromatic residues (tyrosine and phenylalanine) increases with the increasing ...
Sharrock Patrick - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: 2-Hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) was compared to its epoxy analogue, glycidoxypropylmethacrylate (GMA), for reactivity with 2,6-diaminohexanoic acid (Lysine), an amino acid present in collagen possessing a reactive amino side chain. The aim was to verify whether HEMA could chemically react with collagen fibers. METHODS: Capillary electrophoresis was used to analyse reaction ...
Fabbrocini Gabriella - - 2009
Chemical peeling is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of skin rejuvenation where it can improve damaged skin and fine wrinkles. The basic procedure aims at obtaining a controlled chemical burn of the epidermis and/or dermis. This results in epidermal regeneration and postinflammatory collagen neoformation with remodeling of collagen and ...
Tejero Ricardo - - 2010
Glucuronic acid (GlcA) and phosphoserine (pS) carrying acidic functional groups were used as model molecules for glycosaminoglycans and phosphoproteins, respectively to mimic effects of native biomolecules and influence the mineralization behaviour of collagen I. Collagen substrates modified with GlcA showed a stable interaction between GlcA and collagen fibrils. Substrates were ...
Vibert Aude - - 2009
Controlled acid hydrolysis of polymeric chondroitin sulfate of bovine origin afforded in good yield a basic disaccharide fragment that was used for the first time as a starting material for the expeditious preparation of a set of building blocks that in turn act as versatile synthons for the efficient and ...
Koshimizu Naoki - - 2009
This paper reports an analysis of the structure and heat stability of two different collagen gels: conventional collagen gel (neutral gel) and gel without collagen fibrils (acidic gel), previously reported. We performed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), observations by scanning electron microscope (SEM), observations by atomic force microscope (AFM), and small ...
Maccarana Marco - - 2009
Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 (DS-epi1) and DS-epi2 convert glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Here we report on the generation of DS-epi1-null mice and the resulting alterations in the chondroitin/dermatan polysaccharide chains. The numbers of long blocks of adjacent iduronic acids are greatly decreased in skin decorin ...
Pacheco Benny - - 2009
Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate is a highly complex linear polysaccharide ubiquitously found in the extracellular matrix and at the cell surface. Several of its functions, such as binding to growth factors, are mediated by domains composed of alternating iduronic acid and 4-O-sulfated N-acetylgalactosamine residues, named 4-O-sulfated iduronic acid blocks. These domains are ...
von Witzendorff Dorothee - - 2009
Oocyte maturation is a prerequisite for successful fertilization. Growing evidence suggests that not only the oocyte but also the surrounding zona pellucida has to undergo maturational changes. In the pig, two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis demonstrated an acidic shift of the zona pellucida glycoproteins of about 1.5-2.0 pH units during the maturation ...
Başpinar M Serhat - - 2010
The increase of power plant capacity has led to the production of an increasing amount of fly ash that causes high environmental impact in Turkey. Some of the fly ash is utilized within the fired brick industry but high sulfate-containing fly ash creates severe problems during sintering of the fired ...
Almora-Barrios Neyvis - - 2009
In view of the importance of the hydroxyapatite/collagen composite of both natural bone tissue and in synthetic biomaterials, we have investigated the interaction of three constituent amino acids of the collagen matrix with two major hydroxyapatite surfaces. We have employed electronic structure techniques based on the density functional theory to ...
Bentkover Stuart H - - 2009
The biologic behavior of a facial filler determines its advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to look at the relevant biology as part of a logical basis for making treatment decisions. Historical perspectives and biologic characteristics such as local tissue reaction (including phagocytosis and granulomatous inflammation) cross-linking, ...
Nomura Yoshihiro - - 2009
The effect of adding a polyanionic saccharide (alginic acid, pectic acid, agarose, kappa-carragenan or lambda-carragenan) to a collagen solution on the reconstruction rate of collagen molecular assembly was evaluated. The rate of collagen molecular assembly was reduced by the addition of alginic acid and of pectic acid that was containing ...
Winch Susan - - 2009
Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are often used in bioremediation of acid mine drainage because microbial sulfate reduction increases pH and produces sulfide that binds with metals. Mercury methylation has also been linked with sulfate reduction. Previous geochemical analysis indicated the occurrence of sulfate reduction in mine tailings, but no molecular characterization ...
Pacheco Benny - - 2009
A second dermatan sulfate epimerase (DS-epi2) was identified as a homolog of the first epimerase (DS-epi1), which was previously described by our group. DS-epi2 is 1,222 amino acids long and has an approximately 700-amino acid N-terminal epimerase domain that is highly conserved between the two enzymes. In addition, the C-terminal ...
Cacković Mirjana - - 2009
This paper presents the results of 7 years continuous measurement of acidic anions chlorides, nitrates, and sulphates in PM(10) particle fraction in the city of Zagreb, Croatia. The mean annual mass concentrations of the investigated anions in PM(10) particle fraction varied from 0.28 to 0.95 microg/m(3) for chlorides, from 3.21 ...
Stabler Thomas V - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Certain amino acids within proteins have been reported to change from the L form to the D form over time. This process is known as racemization and is most likely to occur in long-lived low-turnover tissues such as normal cartilage. We hypothesized that diseased tissue, as found in an ...
Chen Yong G - - 2009
The aim of this study was to fabricate type II collagen fibrils with surface modified by long-chain hyaluronic acid. Monomeric type II collagen was isolated from bovine articular cartilage and reconstituted into collagen fibrils followed by a reaction with EDC (1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide)-activated long-chain hyaluronic acid. The existence of the hyaluronan ...
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