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Vassilev Nikolay - - 2012
Cells of Aspergillus terreus, free and immobilized in polyurethane foam, were employed in itaconic acid fermentation processes on glycerol-based media. The purpose was to assess their suitability for animal bone char solubilization and the development of a biotechnological alternative to P fertilizers chemically produced from rock phosphate. Animal bones constitute ...
Feder Daniel - - 2012
Purple acid phosphatases are metalloenzymes found in animals, plants and fungi. They possess a binuclear metal centre to catalyse the hydrolysis of phosphate esters and anhydrides under acidic conditions. In humans, elevated purple acid phosphatases levels in sera are correlated with the progression of osteoporosis and metabolic bone malignancies, making ...
- - 2012
The standard treatment used to prevent clinical repercussions of bone metastases from solid tumours consists of an intravenous bisphosphonate such as pamidronic acid. Denosumab,a monoclonal antibody injected subcutaneously, has been licensed in the European Union for use in this setting. Three double-blind randomised trials including a total of about 6000 ...
Li Yuxiao - - 2012
Mechano-growth factor (MGF) is an alternative splicing variant of Insulin-like growth factor I. MGF and its 24 amino acid peptide analog corresponding to the unique C-terminal E-domain (MGF-Ct24E) are the positive regulator for tissue regenesis in bone. A novel biomimetic poly(D, L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) modification was designed and synthesized based ...
Fulzele Sadanand S Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Georgia health Science University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA. - - 2013
Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) has a critical role in bone formation and osteoblast differentiation, but very little is known about the molecular mechanisms of ascorbic acid entry into bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). To address this gap in knowledge, we investigated the identity of the transport system that is responsible ...
Lauring Brett - - 2012
Nicotinic acid (niacin) induces beneficial changes in serum lipoproteins and has been associated with beneficial cardiovascular effects. Niacin reduces low-density lipoprotein, increases high-density lipoprotein, and decreases triglycerides. It is well established that activation of the seven-transmembrane G(i)-coupled receptor GPR109A on Langerhans cells results in release of prostaglandin D(2), which mediates ...
Shi Xiaolei - - 2012
During cocaine-induced hepatotoxicity, lipid accumulation occurs prior to necrotic cell death in the liver. However, the exact influences of cocaine on the homeostasis of lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In this study, the progression of subacute hepatotoxicity, including centrilobular necrosis in the liver and elevation of transaminase activity in serum, ...
La Jun-Ho - - 2012
Carbohydrate malabsorption such as in lactose intolerance or enteric infection causes symptoms that include abdominal pain. Because this digestive disorder increases intracolonic osmolarity and acidity by accumulation of undigested carbohydrates and fermented products, we tested whether these two factors (hypertonicity and acidity) would modulate colorectal afferents in association with colorectal ...
Yin Mei-Chin - - 2012
This study analyzed the content of eight triterpenes (oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, arjunolic acid, asiatic acid, boswellic acid, corosolic acid, madecassic acid and maslinic acid) in ten vegetables and eight fruits. These compounds at 0.5% were supplied to mice for 4 or 8 weeks. The bioavailability, tissue distribution and anti-oxidative ...
Takahashi Motoko - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Aldehyde reductase (AKR1A; EC 1.1.1.2) catalyzes the reduction of various types of aldehydes. To ascertain the physiological role of AKR1A, we examined AKR1A knockout mice. METHODS: Ascorbic acid concentrations in AKR1A knockout mice tissues were examined, and the effects of human AKR1A transgene were analyzed. We purified AKR1A and ...
Abdullah Laila - - 2012
The central nervous system (CNS)-based symptoms of Gulf War Illness (GWI) include motor dysfunction, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Gulf War (GW) agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB), permethrin (PER), N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), and stress, are among the contributory factors to the pathobiology of GWI. This study characterizes disturbances in phosphocholine-containing lipids ...
Singer Dustin - - 2012
Mutations in the main intestinal and kidney luminal neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (Slc6a19) lead to Hartnup disorder, a condition that is characterized by neutral aminoaciduria and in some cases pellagra-like symptoms. These latter symptoms caused by low niacin are thought to result from defective intestinal absorption of its precursor ...
van Weeghel Michel - - 2012
Mitochondrial enoyl-CoA isomerase (ECI1) is an auxiliary enzyme involved in unsaturated fatty acid oxidation. In contrast to most of the other enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation, a deficiency of ECI1 has yet to be identified in humans. We used wild-type (WT) and Eci1-deficient knockout (KO) mice to explore a ...
Zhang Lei - - 2012
Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in the world and atherosclerosis, an inflammatory process in the vessel wall, accounts for the majority of these deaths. The tryptophan metabolite 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA) has been shown to inhibit inflammation in different experimental autoimmune disease models. However, the effect of ...
Larrieu Thomas - - 2012
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) cannot be synthesized de novo in mammals and need to be provided by dietary means. In the brain, the main n-3 PUFA is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is a key component of neuronal membranes. A low dietary level of DHA has been associated with increased ...
Ganguly Amit - - 2012
Calorie restriction (CR) decreased placenta and fetal weights in wild-type (wt) and glucose transporter (Glut) 3 heterozygous null (glut3(+/-)) mice. Because placental nutrient transport is a primary energy determinant of placentofetal growth, we examined key transport systems. Maternal CR reduced intra- and transplacental glucose and leucine transport but enhanced system ...
Tanos Rachel - - 2012
We have previously demonstrated a role for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in the attenuation of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. This regulation did not require that the AHR binds to its cognate response element. Based on these observations and other reports depicting a role for AHR in lipid metabolism, we ...
Sinha Rohit Anthony - - 2012
For more than a century, thyroid hormones (THs) have been known to exert powerful catabolic effects, leading to weight loss. Although much has been learned about the molecular mechanisms used by TH receptors (TRs) to regulate gene expression, little is known about the mechanisms by which THs increase oxidative metabolism. ...
Lu Xinping - - 2012
Ghrelin is a gastric peptide hormone that controls appetite and energy homeostasis. Plasma ghrelin levels rise before a meal and fall quickly thereafter. Elucidation of the regulation of ghrelin secretion has been hampered by the difficulty of directly interrogating ghrelin cells diffusely scattered within the complex gastric mucosa. Therefore, we ...
Li Fei - - 2012
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a nuclear receptor that regulates fatty acid transport and metabolism. Previous studies revealed that PPARα can affect bile acid metabolism; however, the mechanism by which PPARα regulates bile acid homeostasis is not understood. In this study, an ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ...
Chiu Cheng-Ying - - 2012
Enzymatically oxygenated lipid products derived from omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids play an important role in inflammation dampening. This study examined the anti-inflammatory effects of n-6 docosapentaenoic acid-derived (17S)-hydroxy-docosapentaenoic acid (17-HDPAn-6) and (10,17S)-dihydroxy-docosapentaenoic acid (10,17-HDPAn-6) as well as n-3 docosahexaenoic acid-derived 17(R/S)-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA). The effects of 17-HDPAn-6, 10,17-HDPAn-6 or ...
Zhang Yuanyuan - - 2012
The bile salt export pump (BSEP) is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that serves as the primary system for removing bile salts from the liver. In humans, deficiency of BSEP, which is encoded by the ABCB11 gene, causes severe progressive cholestatic liver disease from early infancy. In previous studies of Abcb11 ...
Konerding Moritz A - - 2012
Despite numerous advances and improvements in surgical techniques the incidence of incisional hernias after laparotomy remains high. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of single application of ascorbic acid, stanozolol, a synthetic anabolic steroid, copper peptide and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) on laparotomy wound healing in ...
Chen Huey-Ling - - 2012
The Bile salt export pump (Bsep) mediates the hepatic excretion of bile acids, and its deficiency causes progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis. The current study aimed to induce bile acid stress in Bsep(-/-) mice and to test the efficacy of hepatocyte transplantation in this disease model. We fed Bsep(-/-) and wild-type ...
Westphalen Kristin - - 2012
Although gastric acid aspiration causes rapid lung inflammation and acute lung injury, the initiating mechanisms are not known. To determine alveolar epithelial responses to acid, we viewed live alveoli of the isolated lung by fluorescence microscopy, then we microinjected the alveoli with HCl at pH of 1.5. The microinjection caused ...
Riehl Terrence E - - 2012
Hyaluronic acid (HA), a component of the extracellular matrix, affects gastrointestinal epithelial proliferation in injury models, but its role in normal growth is unknown. We sought to determine the effects of exogenous HA on intestinal and colonic growth by intraperitoneal injection of HA twice a week into C57BL/6 mice from ...
Lally J S V - - 2012
The increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism during exercise has been associated with the release of calcium. We examined whether this increase in fatty acid oxidation was attributable to a calcium-induced translocation of the fatty acid transporter CD36 to the sarcolemma, thereby providing an enhanced influx of fatty acids ...
Houten Sander M - - 2012
L-bifunctional enzyme (Ehhadh) is part of the classical peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. This pathway is highly inducible via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activation. However, no specific substrates or functions for Ehhadh are known, and Ehhadh knockout (KO) mice display no appreciable changes in lipid metabolism. To investigate Ehhadh ...
Kim Sung-Koo - - 2012
Glucose transporter 1 facilitates glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier. By increasing histone acetylation at the SLC2A1 promotor, valproic acid could increase SLC2A1 gene expression. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of valproic acid on glucose transport in astrocyte cultures derived from SLC2A1 heterozygous mice. Primary astrocyte cultures ...
Bartolini Barbara - - 2012
Dermatan sulfate epimerase 2 (DS-epi2), together with its homologue DS-epi1, transform glucuronic acid into iduronic acid in dermatan sulfate polysaccharide chains. Iduronic acid gives dermatan sulfate increased chain flexibility and promotes protein binding. DS-epi2 is ubiquitously expressed and is the predominant epimerase in brain. Here we report the generation and ...
Liu Jingjing J Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, - - 2012
ABCD2 (D2) is a peroxisomal transporter that is highly abundant in adipose tissue and promotes the oxidation of long-chain MUFA. Erucic acid (EA, 22:1ω9) reduces very long chain saturated fatty acids in patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy but promotes dyslipidemia and dilated cardiomyopathy in rats. To determine the role of D2 ...
Carpéné C - - 2012
Uric acid is involved in nitrogenous waste in animals, together with ammonia and urea. Uric acid has also antioxidant properties and is a surrogate marker of metabolic syndrome. We observed that the elevated plasma uric acid of high-fat fed mice was normalized by benzylamine treatment. Indeed, benzylamine is the reference ...
Wall Rebecca - - 2012
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that microbial metabolism in the gut influences the composition of bioactive fatty acids in host adipose tissue. OBJECTIVE: This study compared the effect of dietary supplementation for 8 wk with human-derived Bifidobacterium breve strains on fat distribution and composition and the composition of the gut microbiota ...
Hwang Byounghoon B Richard Roudebush Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN 46202, - - 2012
Although improving glucose metabolism by inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) may prove beneficial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes or diet-induced obesity, it may have detrimental effects by inhibiting fatty acid oxidation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonists are often used to treat dyslipidemia in patients, especially ...
Frochot Vincent - - 2012
An excessive postprandial accumulation of intestine-derived triglyceride-rich lipoproteins being a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, it is essential to characterize the mechanisms controlling the intestinal absorption of dietary lipids. Our aim was to investigate the role of the transcription factor HNF-4α in this process. We used transgenic mice with a ...
Wan H T - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was produced by various industries and was widely used in diverse consumer products. Human sample analysis indicated PFOS contamination in body fluids. Animal studies revealed that PFOS tends to accumulate in livers and is able to induce hepatomegaly. However the underlying mechanism of PFOS-elicited hepatotoxicity has ...
Wanninger Josef J Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Hospital, Regensburg, - - 2013
Adiponectin protects from hepatic fat storage but adiponectin deficient mice (APN-/-) fed a standard chow do not develop liver steatosis. This indicates that other pathways might be activated to compensate for adiponectin deficiency. An unbiased and comprehensive screen was performed to identify hepatic alterations of lipid classes in these mice. ...
Wang Xiao-Dan XD Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, - - 2012
Kynurenic acid (KYNA), an antagonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), a generator of reactive oxygen species, are neuroactive metabolites of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation. In the mammalian brain as elsewhere, both compounds derive from a common bioprecursor, L-kynurenine (L-KYN). Recent ...
Pellieux Corinne - - 2012
Normal myocardium adapts to increase of nutritional fatty acid supply by upregulation of regulatory proteins of the fatty acid oxidation pathway. Since advanced heart failure is associated with reduction of regulatory proteins of fatty acid oxidation, we hypothesized that failing myocardium may not be able to adapt to increased fatty ...
Nugroho Agung - - 2012
On high performance liquid chromatography, the caffeoylquinic acid (CQ) occupying the highest proportion of the water-ethanol (7:3) extract of Aster glehni (Compositae) leaves was 3-Op-coumaroylquinic acid (46.10 ± 4.22 mg/g of dried weight) among CQs tested. The IC50 of the water-ethanol (7:3) extract was 4.23 ± 0.24 μg/mL in the ...
Palsdottir Vilborg - - 2012
Dietary essential fatty acids have been shown to regulate behavioral and cognitive functions in rodents. However, the long-term effect on behavior, besides memory and learning, of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD), i.e., lack of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, during the perinatal period has not been investigated. Therefore, pregnant C57Bl/6 ...
Kalleian Eserian Jaqueline - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to assess whether the administration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) would lead to alterations in cocaine-conditioned place preference by correlating behavioral data and plasma levels of PUFAs. METHODS: Five groups of C57Bl/6J mice received a linseed oil supplement or a control solution ...
Weerachayaphorn Jittima - - 2012
The transcription factor nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key regulator for induction of hepatic detoxification and antioxidant mechanisms, as well as for certain hepatobiliary transporters. To examine the role of Nrf2 in bile acid homeostasis and cholestasis, we assessed the determinants of bile secretion and bile acid synthesis ...
Watanabe Shiro - - 2012
Three types of animal bile preparation, bear bile (BB), cattle bile (CB) and pig bile (PB) differ in bile acid composition and are supposed to exert different pharmacotoxicological actions. Dietary supplementation with CB at 1% (w/w) for 4 weeks decreased triacylglycerol (TAG) level but increased total cholesterol (CHO) level in ...
Yan Bing - - 2012
The oncoprotein induced transcript 3 (OIT3), also named liver-specific zona pellucida domain-containing protein (LZP), has been shown to be expressed in kidney, and was confirmed to interact with the Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein (THP). However, the function of OIT3 in kidney remains unclear. In this study we found that serum uric acid ...
Jun Hee-Jin - - 2012
We investigated the hypolipidemic effects of Melissa officinalis essential oil (MOEO) in human APOE2 transgenic mice and lipid-loaded HepG2 cells. Plasma TG concentrations were significantly less in APOE2 mice orally administered MOEO (12.5 μg/d) for 2 wk than in the vehicle-treated group. Cellular TG and cholesterol concentrations were also significantly ...
Shinohara Nahoko - - 2012
Conjugated fatty acid is a collective term used for fatty acids with conjugated double bond systems. Seed oils from certain plants include conjugated linolenic acids, which have a conjugated triene system and are geometrical and positional isomers of α-linolenic acid. One of these isomers, jacaric acid (JA, 8c, 10t, 12c-18:3), ...
Kim Jintaek - - 2012
As a part of our efforts to develop potential imaging agents for ascorbate bioactivity, 5-O-(4-[(125)I]iodobenzyl)-L-ascorbic acid ([(125)I]1) was prepared through a two-step sequence which involved radioiodo-destannylation of a protected tributylstannyl precursor 6, followed by hydrolysis in acidic methanol of the protecting groups in 61% overall radiochemical yield, with a radiochemical ...
Sobota Sylwia - - 2012
Fluorine is a lipophilic element and for this reason lipids play a significant role in the accumulation and metabolism of fluorides in organs and bodily fluids. One of the places where interactions between fluorides and lipids can be observed are bones and antlers of deer. Even though the overall content ...
Monteiro Jessica - - 2012
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have diverse biological effects, from promoting inflammation to preventing cancer and heart disease. Growing evidence suggests that individual PUFA may have independent effects in health and disease. The individual roles of the two essential PUFA, linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), have been difficult to ...
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