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Smith W Grady - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Gemfibrozil is an effective drug in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and its effects on morbidity and mortality seem out of proportion to its lipid lowering actions. There is considerable interest in its potential effects on lipoprotein fatty acid composition and consequent effect on oxidative susceptibility. Experimental results are not ...
Sakuma Nagahiko - - 2002
The objective of the present study was to establish that HDL3 has a greater antiperoxidative effect on the peroxidative modification of LDL than HDL2 has. The protective influence of HDL subfractions on this form of LDL modification was examined in samples by measuring the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS), ...
Morio Beatrice - - 2002
To quantify the various components of splanchnic free fatty acid and very-low-density lipoprotein-triacylglycerol (VLDL-TAG) metabolism in order to gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for the development of fatty liver in severely burned patients, and to determine if decreasing free fatty acid availability by use of propranolol could potentially reduce ...
Ryan Alan J - - 2002
We examined whether administration of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) to pregnant rats increases surfactant phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) content in fetal pre-type II alveolar epithelial cells. VLDL-triglycerides are hydrolyzed to fatty acids by lipoprotein lipase (LPL), an enzyme activated by heparin. Fatty acids released by LPL can incorporate into the PtdCho molecule ...
Bandsma Robert H J - - 2002
Glycogen storage disease type 1 (GSD1) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase, the enzyme catalysing the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) to glucose. GSD1 is associated with severe hyperlipidaemia and hepatic steatosis. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these abnormalities in lipid metabolism are only partly known. ...
Seo Toru - - 2002
We previously reported that unsaturated fatty acids stimulated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle uptake in J774 macrophages by increasing LDL receptor activity. Since free fatty acids (FFA) also change plasma membrane properties, a putative cholesteryl ester (CE) acceptor for selective uptake (SU), we questioned the ability of FFA to modulate SU ...
Haidari Mehran - - 2002
Insulin-resistant states are characterized by hypertriglyceridemia, predominantly because of overproduction of hepatic very low density lipoprotein particles. The additional contribution of intestinal lipoprotein overproduction to the dyslipidemia of insulin-resistant states has not been previously appreciated. Here, we have investigated intestinal lipoprotein production in a fructose-fed hamster model of insulin resistance ...
Maldonado Eduardo N - - 2002
Lipid classes and their fatty acids were compared in plasma from four mammals: a laboratory rodent, the mouse; two domestic animals, the cat and dog; and a wild animal, the South American armadillo, Chaetophractus villosus. In all, the most abundant lipoprotein was high-density lipoprotein (HDL). In the total lipid of ...
Steinmetz Karen L - - 2002
The pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy, drug interactions, adverse effects, and dosage and administration of colesevelam hydrochloride are reviewed. Colesevelam hydrochloride is a nonabsorbed lipid-lowering agent approved for use alone or in combination with hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors for the reduction of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. ...
Dinis Teresa C P - - 2002
Peroxynitrite has been shown to modify low-density lipoproteins (LDL) into a form recognized by the macrophage scavenger receptor, suggesting that it may play a significant role in atherogenesis. Considering that the mechanisms underlying LDL modifications by this agent have not been well elucidated, the aim of this study was to ...
Wehr Hanna - - 2002
The uptake of acetaldehyde-modified (ethylated) low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) by murine peritoneal macrophages is described and compared with the uptake of acetylated LDLs. The fluorescent marker DiI was used. No competition between ethylated and acetylated LDLs was observed. Ethylated LDL uptake was not inhibited by polyinosinic acid or fucoidin. Our conclusion ...
Herrera Emilio - - 2002
During pregnancy, the mother adapts her metabolism to support the continuous draining of substrates by the fetus. Her increase in net body weight (free of the conceptus) corresponds to the accumulation of fat depots during the first two-thirds of gestation, switching to an accelerated breakdown of these during the last ...
Sekher Pannala Ananth - - 2002
Previous studies have demonstrated increased plasma levels of oxidised low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in chronic smokers, which has been associated with the extent of endothelial dysfunction. In this study we examine the relationship between the amino acid composition of apolipoprotein B100 (apo B) of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), by reverse phase HPLC ...
Muna Ziad A - - 2002
We have previously shown that tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA), a sulfur containing saturated fatty acid analogue, inhibits the oxidative modification of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro. The oxidative modification of LDL is believed to be a crucial step in the progression of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the ...
Müller Cordula - - 2002
Dietary hydroperoxides are being discussed as potential health hazards contributing to oxidative stress-related diseases. However, how food-born hydroperoxides could exert systemic effects remains elusive in view of the limited chances to be absorbed. Therefore, the metabolic fate of 13-HPODE (13-hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid), 13-HODE (13-hydroxy octadecadienoic acid) and linoleic acid (LA) ...
Martins Joana - - 2002
Toxic effects imposed to human erythrocytes by low density lipoproteins carrying phthalocyanines used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumors are described. This study was aimed at evaluating cytotoxic effects induced by reactive species produced locally in photosensitizer-loaded lipoproteins and further transferred to the cells. The experimental set up designed to ...
Gimeno E - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To measure the incorporation of oleic acid and antioxidants (phenols and vitamin E) to low density lipoprotein (LDL) after acute and short-term ingestion of virgin olive oil. To study whether this incorporation contributes to an increase in LDL resistance to oxidation. SETTING: Department of Food and Nutrition, University of ...
Ziedén B - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: Mortality in coronary heart disease among middle-aged men is four times higher in Lithuania than in Sweden. Traditional risk factors cannot account for this difference. We earlier reported that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in Lithuanian men showed a lower resistance to oxidation, measured as LDL lag time during copper oxidation, ...
Hauton David - - 2002
Background/Aims: The spleen uses significant amounts of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and chylomicron (CM)-derived triacylglycerol (TAG); however, its utilisation of very-low-density lipoprotein triacylglycerol (VLDL-TAG), and the effect of endotoxin on lipid assimilation and fate are unknown. This study aims to define spleen utilisation of esterified and non-esterified fatty acid in ...
Wright Anthony J A - - 2002
Within Europe there are differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk between countries and this might be related to dietary habits. Oxidative modification of LDL is suggested to increase the risk of CVD and both the fatty acid and antioxidant content of LDL can affect its oxidation. In the present study, ...
Pal Sebely - - 2002
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different fatty acids on the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor of cultured human liver HepG2 cells. Previous studies investigating the effect of fatty acids on LDL expression have reported conflicting findings and are limited to measurements of LDL receptor ...
Menéndez R - - 2002
Previous results have demonstrated that policosanol, a mixture of aliphatic primary alcohols isolated and purified from sugar cane wax, whose main component is octacosanol, inhibited lipid peroxidation in experimental models and human beings. D003 is a defined mixture of very long-chain saturated fatty acids, also isolated and purified from sugar ...
Kratz M - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the effects of dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on LDL composition and oxidizability. DESIGN, SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Sixty-nine healthy young volunteers, students at a nearby college, were included. Six subjects withdrew because of intercurrent ...
Elner Victor M - - 2002
PURPOSE: To show that fish oil-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, delivered to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) by circulating low-density lipoproteins (LDL), enhance already considerable RPE lysosomal acid lipase activity, providing for more efficient hydrolysis of intralysosomal RPE lipids, an effect that may help prevent development of age-related macular degeneration ...
Merkel Martin - - 2002
We have previously shown that transgenic expression of catalytically inactive lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in muscle (Mck-N-LPL) enhances triglyceride hydrolysis as well as whole particle lipoprotein and selective cholesterol ester uptake. In the current study, we have examined whether these functions can be performed by inactive LPL alone or require the ...
Tomás M - - 2001
Olive oil, rich in oleic acid, could play a particular beneficial role in the anti-atherogenic effects attributed to the Mediterranean diet. Paraoxonase (PON1) has emerged as the component of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) most likely to explain its ability to attenuate the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins. We hypothesised that oleic acid ...
Paiker J E - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size and composition on the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in subjects with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH). METHODS: LDL was isolated from 20 FH homozygotes, 20 FH heterozygotes and 20 normal controls. Susceptibility of LDL ...
Bayés B - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in haemodialysis patients. Hyperhomocysteinaemia is an independent risk factor. Basic research has provided strong evidence that oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress, lipid metabolism alterations, and hyperhomocysteinaemia observed in haemodialysis patients ...
Lundman P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of triglycerides and free fatty acids on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation. METHODS: Femoral arterial rings from rats were studied in organ baths. The vascular segments were constricted with phenylephrine after 20 min of preincubation with the triglyceride-rich fat emulsion Intralipid, free fatty acids (16:0, 18:1, ...
Scheffer P G - - 2001
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the vascular wall plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. The present study was undertaken to characterise how different constituents of LDL contribute to its in vitro oxidisability. METHODS: The LDL composition, i.e. lipids, antioxidants, fatty ...
Anderson K J - - 2001
Recent epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of cardiovascular mortality. However, little is known about the contribution of nut polyphenols to antioxidant and cardiovascular protection. In this investigation, polyphenol-rich extracts from English walnuts (Juglans regia) were studied and compared with ellagic acid for their ability to ...
Martini W Z - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The primary goal of this study was to investigate hepatic fatty acid (FA) metabolism after severe thermal injury. METHODS: Sixteen pigs were divided into control (n = 8) and burn (n = 8, with 40% full thickness total body surface area burned) groups. Catheters were inserted in the right ...
Wang H X - - 2001
Oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) induced by free radicals is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of various pineal indoles in inhibiting LDL oxidation which is accompanied by an increase in mobility in agarose gel electrophoresis and ...
Jan G - - 2001
Two membrane proteins from the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum have been previously purified using a simple, efficient and non-denaturing method: a lipoprotein P67 (pMGA) and P52. In the current study, the lipid part of P67 was chemically analysed. The molecular structure of the lipoprotein-lipid component was determined to be S-glyceryl ...
Kim T W - - 2001
The water extract of Cichorium intybus (WECI) showed a remarkable antioxidative effect on LDL, and inhibitory effects on the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and the Degradation of fatty acids in LDL. Vitamin E and unsaturated fatty acids in LDL were protected by adding WECI from the effects of ...
Segal-Isaacson C J - - 2001
As knowledge of the fatty acid functions has increased, so has the complexity of making dietary fat recommendations to people with type 2 diabetes. Oleic acid seems to offer a slight advantage over linoleic acid in reducing plasma glucose, insulin levels, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and triglycerides, but may ...
Jensen M D - - 2001
These studies were conducted to understand the relationship between measures of systemic free fatty acid (FFA) reesterification and regional FFA, glycerol, and triglyceride metabolism during fasting. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure fatty acid oxidation in six men after a 60-h fast. Systemic and regional (splanchnic, renal, and leg) FFA ...
Hauton D - - 2001
Utilisation and subsequent metabolic fate (oxidation; tissue lipid deposition) of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), very-low-density lipoprotein-triacylglycerol (VLDL-TAG), and chylomicron-triacylglycerol (CM-TAG) alone or in combination by isolated working rat heart were examined. Cardiac mechanical function was maintained regardless of lipid substrate used. NEFA and CM-TAG were assimilated to a greater extent ...
Panek J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Lipolytic enzymes, such as lipase, phospholipase A(2), lipoprotein lipase, and hormone-sensitive adipocyte lipase are probably implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. The increased activity of these enzymes can cause specific changes in fatty acid composition, both to free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride (TG) fractions in necrotically changed ...
Ruiz-Sanz J I - - 2001
The aim of this study was to explore the possible modifications induced by 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) in vivo on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lipid composition, particle size, and oxidizability. For this purpose, women were recruited from an in vitro fertilization program, ranging their plasma E(2) levels from less than 12 pg/ml to ...
Mardy K - - 2001
The catabolism of rat chylomicrons, labeled in their triacylglycerol (TG) component, was investigated using perfused working mouse hearts. Perfusion of mouse hearts with heparin increased lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in the perfusate. This heparin-releasable LPL pool remained constant over a variety of experimental conditions, including workload and fatty acid concentrations, ...
Fernández-Miranda C - - 2001
The aim of this study was to evaluate the postprandial response to three fat-loading tests in healthy subjects with different apolipoprotein E (apoE) phenotypes. Thirty-four subjects were studied: 15 with apoE3/3 (7 men and 8 women), 12 with apoE4/3 (5 men and 7 women), and 7 with apoE2/3 (4 men ...
Hunter J E - - 2001
This article reviews published literature on how the stereospecific structure of dietary triglycerides may affect lipid metabolism in humans. Animal studies have shown enhanced absorption of fatty acids in the sn-2 position of dietary triglycerides. Increasing the level of the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid in the sn-2 position (e.g., ...
Carr A C - - 2001
Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme enzyme secreted by activated phagocytes, catalyzes the oxidation of halides to hypohalous acids. At plasma concentrations of halides, hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is the major strong oxidant produced. In contrast, the related enzyme eosinophil peroxidase preferentially generates hypobromous acid (HOBr). Since reagent and MPO-derived HOCl converts low-density ...
de Roos N M - - 2001
We tested whether trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids had different effects on flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), a risk marker of coronary heart disease (CHD). Consumption of trans fatty acids is related to increased risk of CHD, probably through effects on lipoproteins. Trans fatty acids differ from most saturated fatty ...
McCall M R - - 2001
Modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) by myeloperoxidase-generated HOCl has been implicated in human atherosclerosis. Incubation of LDL with HOCl generates several reactive intermediates, primarily N-chloramines, which may react with other biomolecules. In this study, we investigated the effects of HOCl-modified LDL on the activity of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), an ...
Buechler C - - 2001
Adipophilin, a marker of lipid accumulation initially described in adipocytes, was recently shown to be induced in macrophage foam cells. We found that even freshly isolated blood monocytes express adipophilin and that the amount of adipophilin protein is variable in monocytes from different healthy individuals. However, the physiological expression of ...
Sanders T A - - 2001
The high intake of olive oil in the Mediterranean diet contributes to the low intake of saturated fatty acids among populations in Southern Europe and is associated with a low incidence of coronary heart disease. Replacement of saturated fatty acids with oleic acid leads to a reduction in low-density lipoprotein ...
Maldonado E N - - 2001
Lipid classes and their fatty acids were studied in the major lipoprotein fractions from canine, in comparison with human, plasma. In dogs, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL), the main carrier of plasma phospholipid (PL), cholesterol ester (CE) and free cholesterol, was the most abundant lipoprotein, followed by low and very-low density lipoproteins (LDL ...
Gouni-Berthold I - - 2001
There are contradictory findings regarding the effects of free fatty acids on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth. In the present study we investigated the effects of fatty acids released from hydrolysis of human VLDL triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase and of the fatty acids most abundant in the hydrolysed VLDL, ...
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