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Chan J W - - 2005
Individual triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL) particles derived from human volunteers are nondestructively analyzed by laser tweezers Raman microspectroscopy, and information on their composition and distribution is obtained. The Raman signature of single optically trapped very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), a subclass of TGRL, which play an important role in cardiovascular disease, exhibits ...
Shorten P R - - 2005
The lipid composition of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in plasma is crucial for human health. A pre-requisite for the alteration of VLDL composition is a co-ordinated understanding of the complex interactions in VLDL assembly. In order to determine the potential effects of changes in substrate availability on VLDL lipid composition, we ...
Gilham Dean - - 2005
It is recognized that the majority of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) associated triacylglycerol (TG) is synthesized from fatty acids and partial acylglycerols generated by lipolysis of intra-hepatic storage rather than made de novo. Triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH) is involved in mobilizing stored TG. Modulating the ability of TGH to hydrolyze ...
Fernandez Maria Luz - - 2005
Dietary fatty acids have a considerable effect on plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations and therefore on the risk for coronary heart disease. Numerous studies have been conducted in animal models to elucidate the mechanisms by which different types of fatty acids modulate plasma cholesterol concentrations. In addition, multiple clinical trials ...
Barrows Brian R - - 2005
The present study quantified dietary fatty acid flux in healthy men (n = 6) who were fed a liquid formula through a duodenal feeding tube (continuous feeding group) or who consumed the same formula in meals (meal feeding group). A triacylglycerol (TAG) stable isotope was added to the formula to ...
Timlin Maureen T - - 2005
Sources of fatty acids flowing to the liver may be used for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis. Our objective was to quantify contributions of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), de novo lipogenesis, and dietary fatty acids to VLDL-TAG in the fed state after meal feeding in healthy subjects (n = 6). The effect ...
Masson David - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Modification of lipoprotein metabolism by bile acids has been mainly explained by activation of the farnesyl X receptor (FXR). The aim of the present study was to determine the relative contribution of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), another bile acid-activated nuclear receptor to changes in plasma lipoprotein profile. METHODS ...
Höckerstedt Anna - - 2006
Estrogen fatty acid esters are potent lipophilic estrogens transported exclusively in lipoproteins. They are formed in HDL in a reaction catalyzed by LCAT which is considered a prerequisite for their antioxidative action. Our previous studies in normotriglyceridemic (NTG) individuals demonstrated that estradiol (E2) esterification occurred mainly in HDL3 causing accumulation ...
van Himbergen Thomas M - - 2005
Serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein-associated enzyme that can inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in vitro. The role of PON1 in vivo still remains to be clarified. We investigated the effect of PON1 genotype (-107C > T and 192Q > R), concentration, paraoxonase activity, and arylesterase activity on the ...
Phillips Catherine - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: Fatty acid metabolism is disturbed in poorly controlled diabetes. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, thought to be an atherogenic modification, is partly dependent on LDL fatty acid content whether it be in the form of cholesteryl ester, phospholipids, triglyceride or non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA). Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is deficient ...
Singh Jai Pal - - 2005
Low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) is an important risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Optimum therapy for raising HDL-c is still not available. Identification of novel HDL-raising agents would produce a major impact on CAD. In this study, we have identified a potent (IC50 approximately 24 nM) and selective peroxisome ...
Johnson Ali C M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Triglycerides can accumulate in injured tissues, a process thought to represent flux of excess, cytotoxic, free fatty acids into nontoxic triglyceride storage pools. However, this view may be overly simplistic, given that multiple pathways may impact triglyceride levels. This study sought new insights into this issue. METHODS: Cultured human ...
Wagner J A - - 2005
This open-label, randomized, placebo-controlled, incomplete-block, 3-period crossover pilot study investigated the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha- and gamma-agonists on biomarkers of lipid and glucose metabolism in 12 nondiabetic subjects. Plasma samples were collected before and after each 14-day treatment with placebo, fenofibrate (201 mg/d), rosiglitazone (4 mg twice daily), ...
Ashidate Keiko - - 2005
Gentisic acid, an aspirin metabolite, has an antioxidant effect, although its detailed mechanism remains elusive. The present study was designed to determine whether it inhibits low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and the formation of lipid hydroperoxides in human plasma. The susceptibility of LDL oxidative modification was investigated by a method using ...
Ranalletta Mollie - - 2005
Studies were conducted to explore altered substrate utilization and metabolism in GLUT4 null mice. Liver fatty acid synthase mRNA and fatty acid synthesis rates were dramatically increased in GLUT4 null mice compared with control mice and were supported by increased rates of the pentose phosphate pathway oxidative phase and sterol ...
Engler Marguerite M - - 2005
To test the hypothesis that a dietary omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid, improves the lipoprotein subclass profile of children who have hyperlipidemia, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Children who had hyperlipidemia (n = 20) were stabilized on a low-fat diet for 6 weeks and then randomized to receive ...
Lee Ye-Sun - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promotes apoptosis in atherosclerotic plaques in the vascular wall, a process mediated through its oxidized lipids. 4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 4-hydroxyhexenal (HHE), derived from oxidation of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, respectively, are among the major oxidized products in oxLDL. HYPOTHESIS: This study hypothesized that eicosapentaenoic ...
Sakuma Nagahiko - - 2005
The objective of the present study was to establish whether high-density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3) or high-density lipoprotein 2 (HDL2) might show an anti-oxidative effect on the acceleration of the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by ascorbic acid from measurement of the agarose gel electrophoretic mobility of LDL. LDL was ...
Arakawa Reijiro - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Fibrates are widely used drugs to reduce plasma triglyceride and increase high-density lipoprotein. Their active forms, fibric acids, are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activators, but no direct evidence has been demonstrated for their activation of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in relation to clinically used fibrates. We investigated the reaction ...
Draganov Dragomir I - - 2005
The paraoxonase (PON) gene family in humans has three members, PON1, PON2, and PON3. Their physiological role(s) and natural substrates are uncertain. We developed a baculovirus-mediated expression system, suitable for all three human PONs, and optimized procedures for their purification. The recombinant PONs are glycosylated with high-mannose-type sugars, which are ...
Chateau Danielle - - 2005
Intestinal triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) are synthesized from dietary lipids. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of lipid micelles, mimicking post-digestive duodenal micelles, on the fate of apolipoprotein B (apoB)48-containing lipoproteins by Caco-2 cells. Such micelles, consisting of oleic acid (OA), taurocholate, 2-monooleoylglycerol (2-MO), cholesterol (Chol), and L-alpha-lysophospatidylcholine, were ...
Mitmesser Susan Hazels - - 2005
This study was conducted to determine the secretion rate and composition of lipoproteins secreted by HepG2 cells as influenced by the type of fatty acid present in the incubation medium. Cells were preincubated for 24 h with palmitic, oleic, elaidic, linoleic or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and the lipoproteins secreted ...
Putadechakum Supanee - - 2005
The low incidence of coronary heart disease in Greenland Eskimos and Japanese fishermen who have high consumption of fish and seafood has called the attention in the role of eicosapentaenoic (EPA = 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA = 22: 6n-3) acids, the major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish oils, ...
Kratky Dagmar - - 2005
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is thought to be the only enzyme responsible for the catabolism of triglycerides (TGs) associated with TG-rich lipoproteins in adipose tissue (AT). However, LPL deficiency in humans and induced mutant mice is not associated with decreased fat mass. We investigated whether endothelial lipase (EL), a recently discovered ...
Wilsie Larissa C - - 2005
Transport of fatty acids within the cytosol of adipocytes and their subsequent assimilation into lipid droplets has been thoroughly investigated; however, the mechanism by which fatty acids are transported across the plasma membrane from the extracellular environment remains unclear. Since triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins represent an abundant source of fatty acids for ...
Jackson Kim G - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Although there is considerable interest in the postprandial events involved in the absorption of dietary fats and the subsequent metabolism of diet-derived triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins, little is known about the effects of meal fatty acids on the composition of these particles. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of meal fatty acids ...
Berge R K - - 2005
Much data indicates that lowering of plasma triglyceride levels by hypolipidemic agents is caused by a shift in the liver metabolism towards activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)alpha-regulated fatty acid catabolism in mitochondria. Feeding rats with lipid lowering agents leads to hypolipidemia, possibly by increased channeling of fatty acids ...
Pal Sebely - - 2005
Studies in healthy humans have shown that consumption of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) significantly reduced very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) blood concentrations. We propose that decreased concentrations are due to the inhibition of VLDL production and secretion [measured by apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100)] from the liver. To investigate the ...
Asp Lennart - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of ADP ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) in the assembly of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs). METHODS AND RESULTS: The dominant-negative ARF1 mutant, T31N, decreased the assembly of apoB-100 VLDL 1 (Svedberg floatation units [Sf] 60 to 400) by 80%. The decrease coincided with loss of coatamer I ...
Sheena Vered - - 2005
Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) catalyzes the assembly of triglyceride (TG)-rich apolipoprotein B-containing liver (e.g., VLDL) and intestinal (e.g., chylomicron) lipoproteins. The human MTP gene promoter is reported here to associate in vivo with endogenous hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) and to be transactivated or transsuppressed by overexpressed or by dominant ...
Mursu Jaakko - - 2004
Cocoa powder is rich in polyphenols and, thus, may contribute to the reduction of lipid peroxidation. Our aim was to study the effects of long-term ingestion of chocolate, with differing amounts of polyphenols, on serum lipids and lipid peroxidation ex vivo and in vivo. We conducted a 3 week clinical ...
Foresti M Laura - - 2004
This paper presents the results of a MM2 study of the adsorption of oleic acid and ethanol/water in the tunnel and active-site models of lipases from Candida rugosa and Candida antarctica B. The role of an interface polar/no polar in the opening of C. rugosa lipase's lid is also addressed, ...
Osochuk S S - - 2004
Changes in the lipid spectrum of blood plasma and composition of high-density lipoproteins in outbred albino rats were studied during early stages of experimental peritonitis. We revealed an increase in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity, activation of lipolytic production of high-density lipoproteins from very-low-density lipoproteins, and substitution of arachidonic acid in cholesterol ...
Curatola G - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychosomatic disorder, has serious negative effects on multiple organs and systems of the human body. Anorexia nervosa usually runs a chronic course and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In order to elucidate the role played by lipids in AN, in the present study ...
Tesoriere Luisa - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Betalains were recently identified as natural antioxidants. However, little is known about their bioavailability from dietary sources. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the bioavailability of betalains from dietary sources. DESIGN: The plasma kinetics and urinary excretion of betalains were studied in healthy volunteers (n = 8) after a ...
Haas Michael J - - 2004
Insulin induces transcription of the hepatic apolipoprotein AI (apo AI) gene by increasing Sp1 binding to the promoter. To determine the effect of fatty acids on this process, HepG2 cells cotransfected with the plasmid pAI.474.CAT containing the full-length apo AI promoter and the Sp1-expressing plasmid, pCMV-Sp1, were studied. Chloramphenicol acetyl ...
Du Hong - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of death in the developed countries. In addition to lipid-lowering drugs - statins, dietary control, and exercise, new approaches are needed for the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis. This review will focus on the role(s) of lysosomal acid lipase and its use ...
Tinahones F J - - 2004
Recent studies suggest that the biological effects of saturated fatty acids depend on the length of their chain. We compared the effect of diets containing different fatty acids on plasma lipids and lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of lovastatin and with increasing amounts of LDL. Lymphocytes from rats fed with ...
Lee Sangku - - 2004
A series of cinnamic acid derivatives were synthesized and their biological abilities on lipoprotein metabolism were examined. Among the tested compounds, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid (l-phenylalanine methyl ester) amide (1) and 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinammic acid (l-aspartic acid dibenzyl ester) amide (2) inhibited human acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 and -2 activities with apparent IC(50) around 60 and ...
Lewis Amanda - - 2004
PURPOSE: To (a) critically appraise available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) addressing the efficacy of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids as secondary agents for prevention of hypertriglyceridemia and (b) make recommendations for clinical practice. DATA SOURCES: Two independent reviewers examined all RCTs from 1994 to 2003 identified in several databases, extracted data ...
Schmidt Jono A - - 2004
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the most significant bacterial pathogen of the respiratory tract of swine. p65 is an immunodominant surface lipoprotein of M. hyopneumoniae that is specifically recognized during disease. Analysis of the translated amino acid sequence of the gene encoding p65 revealed similarity to the GDSL family of lipolytic enzymes. ...
Nishimura Shunji - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) on the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in bovine articular chondrocytes (BACs) and to investigate whether this increase occurs through binding to the receptor lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). Furthermore, to ascertain whether the binding of ox-LDL to LOX-1 ...
Spohn Renate - - 2004
Bacterial lipoproteins and their synthetic analogues (sLP) are strong immune modulators of the early host responses after infection. Synthetic lipopeptides are strong adjuvants for the adaptive immune system. Lipoproteins and lipopeptides induce signalling in immune cells through Toll-like receptor-TLR2/TLR1 heterodimers. By screening a combinatorial lipohexapeptide amide collection in an in ...
Ruiz Cristian - - 2004
Research on lipase inhibitors could help in the therapy of diseases caused by lipase-producing microorganisms and in the design of novel lipase substrate specificities for biotechnology. Here we report a fast and sensitive colorimetric microassay that is low-cost and suitable for high-throughput experiments for the evaluation of lipase activity and ...
Fu Guoqi - - 2004
Chitosan beads carrying various amino acids (a total of 12 kinds) were synthesized through quite simple procedures for selective removal of low density lipoprotein (LDL). Macroporous chitosan beads were prepared by the phase-inversion method, to which the amino acids were then coupled respectively, via either ethyleneglycol diglycidylether (EGDE) or epichlorohydrin ...
Lee Jin-Won - - 2004
The aims of this study were to obtain concentrated pinolenic acid (5,9,12-18:3) from dietary Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) nut oil by urea complexation and to investigate its cholesterol-lowering effect on the LDL-receptor activity of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Pine nut oil was hydrolyzed to provide a low-pinolenic acid-containing FA extract ...
Augustus Ayanna A Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, - - 2004
Fatty acids are the primary energy source for the heart. The heart acquires fatty acids associated with albumin or derived from lipoprotein lipase (LpL)-mediated hydrolysis of lipoprotein triglyceride (TG). We generated heart-specific LpL knock-out mice (hLpL0) to determine whether cardiac LpL modulates the actions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and affects ...
Hargrove James L - - 2004
Very long chain fatty alcohols obtained from plant waxes and beeswax have been reported to lower plasma cholesterol in humans. This review discusses nutritional or regulatory effects produced by wax esters or aliphatic acids and alcohols found in unrefined cereal grains, beeswax, and many plant-derived foods. Reports suggest that 5-20 ...
Di Biase Antonella - - 2004
Free radicals have been implicated in the etiopathology of some neurological and demyelinating diseases. To evaluate their involvement in the cerebral form of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (cerALD) disorder, characterised by very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) accumulation, we utilised an in vitro model using rat C6 glial cells, enriched in hexacosenoic ...
Miles John M - - 2004
Little is known about the fate of the lipolytic products produced by the action of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) on circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in humans. We studied eight lean, healthy male subjects after an overnight fast. Subjects received infusions of lipid emulsions containing triolein labeled with (3)H on both the glycerol ...
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