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Schmidt Debra A - - 2007
This pilot project began establishing a nutritional profile for free-ranging giraffe. The results will be used as a tool to begin assessing the nutritional status of captive giraffe. In October 2004 serum samples were collected opportunistically from seven adult and 17 sub-adult giraffe being anesthetized for different studies. Seventeen animals ...
Oztürk Zeynep - - 2007
ABSTRACT High serum total cholesterol concentration has been strongly connected with atherosclerosis in numerous studies. Being the main carrier of cholesterol in blood, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is also the principal lipoprotein causing atherosclerosis. Sialic acids are a family of amino sugars that are commonly found as terminal oligosaccharide residues on ...
Herzum Ileana - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Homogeneous assays for cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are currently in wide use for guideline-based diagnosis and monitoring of dyslipaemic or coronary conditions. In some sera from patients with impaired liver function, we measured implausibly low LDL concentrations using a sugar compound-based assay [LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), Roche Diagnostics]. We investigated ...
Kitano Soichi - - 2007
This study aims to measure the oxidative status of LDL from human plasma (n=26) as assessed by biomarkers for lipid peroxidation, total hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (tHODE), 7alpha- and 7beta-hydroxycholesterol (t7-OHCh), and 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) (t8-iso-PGF(2alpha)) after subfractionation of LDL with an anion-exchange HPLC (AE-HPLC). LDL was separated and quantified by AE-HPLC as ...
Noh Hye-Lim - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Most circulating fatty acids are contained in lipoprotein triglycerides. For the heart to acquire these lipids, they must be broken down into free fatty acids via the enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LpL). Although it has long been known that hearts primarily use esterified fatty acids as fuel, different sources of ...
Pérez-Méndez Oscar - - 2007
BACKGROUND: HDL becomes enriched with non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) in some pathologies, such as nephrotic syndrome, as well as after aerobic exercise. However, little is known about the impact of NEFAs on HDL metabolism. We investigated the effects of one NEFA, the palmitic acid, on HDL structure and catabolism. METHODS: ...
Wendel Martina - - 2007
Systemic inflammation and sepsis are accompanied by severe metabolic alterations, including insulin resistance together with increased levels of triglycerides (TGs) and decreases in high- and low-density lipoproteins. Clinical studies have clearly established a link between lipid metabolism and systemic inflammation. Lipoproteins were shown to neutralize LPS and to exert direct ...
Heath Richard B - - 2007
Exaggerated postprandial lipemia is associated with coronary heart disease and type II diabetes, yet few studies have examined the effect of sequential meals on lipoprotein metabolism. We have used 13C-labeled fatty acids to trace the incorporation of fatty acid derived from a meal into apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100)-containing lipoproteins and plasma ...
Denke Margo A - - 2006
All saturated fatty acids, with the notable exception of stearic acid (C18:0), raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. A few less ubiquitous fatty acids also have LDL cholesterol effects. Trans-monounsaturated fatty acids, at equivalent doses of saturated fatty acids, raise LDL cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, at three times the dose ...
Caballero Maria José - - 2006
The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the dietary fatty acid profile on the lipoprotein composition in sea bream fed different vegetable oils. Six experimental diets were formulated combining fish oil with three vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, linseed) in order to obtain 60-80 % (w/w) ...
Ghosh A - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To compare obesity measures, metabolic profiles and dietary fatty acids in lean and obese dyslipideamic Asian Indian male subjects. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTINGS: Asian Indians living in the eastern part of India.Subjects:One hundred and thirty (Group I: lean control, n=50; Group II: lean dyslipidaemic, n=40 and Group III: obese dyslipidaemic, ...
Kubagawa Homare M - - 2006
A fundamental question in animal development is how motile cells find their correct target destinations. During mating in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, males inject sperm through the hermaphrodite vulva into the uterus. Amoeboid sperm crawl around fertilized eggs to the spermatheca--a convoluted tube where fertilization occurs. Here, we show that ...
Lloyd Eric E - - 2007
Type 2 diabetes, a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, is associated with a cluster of lipid risk factors, many of which can be mechanistically linked with underlying dysregulated fatty acid metabolism and elevated plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Thus, we tested the hypothesis that elevated NEFA dysregulates lipid metabolism at ...
Nicholls Stephen J - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary fatty acids on the anti-inflammatory properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and vascular function. BACKGROUND: The effect of dietary fatty acids on atherogenesis remains uncertain. METHODS: Fourteen adults consumed an isocaloric meal containing either a polyunsaturated or a ...
Polozova Alla - - 2006
We examined the effect of the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content of lipoproteins on their metabolism in vivo by a radioisotope labeling and tracking method. Purified HDL and LDL were labeled with (3)H-cholesteryl oleate tracer. To mimic dietary-related changes in fatty acid composition of lipoproteins, we incorporated lipids acylated with either ...
Seidah Nabil G - - 2006
The proprotein convertases represent a family of nine proteinases, comprising seven basic amino acid-specific subtilisin-like serine proteinases related to yeast kexin, known as PC1/3, PC2, furin, PC4, PC5/6, PACE4 and PC7, and two other subtilases that cleave at non-basic residues, called SKI-1/S1P and NARC-1/PCSK9. The present review concentrates on the ...
Carlson Lars A - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the high-density-lipoprotein-raising effect of nicotinic acid and the clinical effects of treatment on cardiovascular diseases, particularly in combination with statins. Other treatments for raising high-density lipoprotein, including changes in lifestyle, other drugs and infusions of 'synthetic' (reconstituted) high-density lipoprotein ...
Ortegren Unn - - 2006
Caveolae are nearly ubiquitous plasma membrane domains that in adipocytes vary in size between 25 and 150 nm. They constitute sites of entry into the cell as well as platforms for cell signalling. We have previously reported that plasma membrane-associated caveolae that lack cell surface access can be identified by ...
Karikas George A - - 2006
We evaluated the serum levels of lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, along with a number of minerals and trace elements such as Ca, Mg, Cu and Zn in a group of children after 6 months of valproic acid monotherapy. Thirty patients with seizures, mean age, 9.8+/-2.6 years and 79 healthy children (controls), ...
Oda Hiroaki - - 2006
It is known that plasma lipid levels are controlled not only by dietary fat and carbohydrate but also by dietary protein and amino acids. Although it used to be thought that the source of protein was important, it is known that amino acid composition, amino acids themselves, and peptides from ...
Bays Harold - - 2006
Omacor (omega-3-acid ethyl esters; Reliant Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Liberty Corner, NJ) is a highly purified, prescription omega-3 fatty acid formulation with high concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (465 mg) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (375 mg) in each 1-g capsule, along with 4 mg (6 IU) of vitamin E. At a typical ...
Siddiqi Shadab A - - 2006
Dietary long chain fatty acids are absorbed in the intestine, esterified to triacylglycerol, and packaged in the unique lipoprotein of the intestine, the chylomicron. The rate-limiting step in the transit of chylomicrons through the enterocyte is the exit of chylomicrons from the endoplasmic reticulum in prechylomicron transport vesicles (PCTV) that ...
Miilunpohja Manna - - 2006
Estrogen fatty acid esters constitute a unique family of extremely hydrophobic hormonal derivatives which are exclusively transported in lipoprotein particles in plasma. In estradiol, the fatty acyl residues are conjugated at the 17beta-hydroxyl of the steroid D-ring, leaving the phenolic 3-hydroxyl group unsubstituted and, therefore, preserving antioxidative efficacy. The 17beta-fatty ...
Hung Tran Manh - - 2006
The methanol extract from Dipsacus asper Wall (Dipsacaceae) was found to show antioxidant activity against free radical and Cu(2+)-mediated LDL oxidation. In further study, to identify active constituents from the plant, six caffeoyl quinic acid derivatives: 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (1), methyl 3,4-di-O-caffeoyl quinate (2), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3), methyl 3,5-di-O-caffeoyl quinate (4), ...
Fernandez-Moya Valle - - 2006
In the seeds of the high-stearic sunflower mutant CAS-14 a gradient of increasing stearic acid exists from the embryo to the terminal extreme of the cotyledon. This gradient modifies the fatty acid composition of the total lipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids, which can best be appreciated in the triglycerides that pass ...
Bell Thomas A TA - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of liver-specific inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) on the development of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice. Apolipoprotein B100-only low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-/- mice were given saline, a nontargeting control antisense oligonucleotide (ASO), or ASOs targeting ACAT2 biweekly for ...
Ares Mikko Ps - - 2006
High plasma triacylglycerol (triglyceride, TG) levels is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Very large lipoproteins, such as chylomicrons, alone are not considered atherogenic, but TG-rich remnant lipoproteins can penetrate into the vascular wall. Importantly, accumulating evidence suggests that all TG-rich lipoproteins stimulate cytokine expression in circulating monocytes. Very low-density lipoprotein ...
Nordstoga K - - 2006
Pancreatic tissue from young mink homozygous for a mutation in the lipoprotein lipase gene was studied by light and electron microscopy, with the aim of describing the earliest detectable changes in a process which rapidly progresses into overt pancreatitis. The mutation leads to hyperlipoproteinaemia, corresponding to hyperlipoproteinaemia type I in ...
Ascherio Alberto - - 2006
Intake of trans-unsaturated fatty acids (TFA) has been consistently shown in multiple and rigorous randomized trials to have adverse effects on blood lipids, most notably on the LDL:HDL cholesterol ratio, which is a strong marker of cardiovascular risk. When a mixture of TFA isomers obtained by partial hydrogenation of vegetable ...
Magnusson Björn - - 2006
We investigated the role of adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP) in triglyceride turnover and in the secretion of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) from McA-RH7777 cells and primary rat hepatocytes. An increase in the expression of ADRP increased triglyceride accumulation in cytosolic lipid droplets and prevented the incorporation of fatty acids into ...
Guillaume Carole - - 2006
We previously showed that the in vitro intraerythrocytic development of the malarial agent Plasmodium falciparum is strongly inhibited by secreted phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)s) from animal venoms. Inhibition is dependent on enzymatic activity and requires the presence of serum lipoproteins in the parasite culture medium. To evaluate the potential involvement of ...
Li Cai - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lipoprotein lipase activity in a given tissue is the rate limiting step for the uptake of triglyceride-derived fatty acids. Imbalances in the partitioning of fatty acids have major metabolic consequences. Given the central role of lipoprotein lipase in energy metabolism, the discovery of new molecules that affect ...
McNamara Judith R - - 2006
The study of modern lipid chemistry began in the 17th and 18th centuries with early observations by Robert Boyle, Poulletier de la Salle, Antoine François de Fourcroy and others. The 19th century chemist, Chevreul, identified several fatty acids, suggested the name 'cholesterine' for the fatty substance in gallstones, coined the ...
Siggins Sarah - - 2007
The effect of PLTP deficiency on hepatic lipid status and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) biosynthesis in PLTP knockout (PLTP-KO) mice was investigated. PLTP-KO mice exhibited a marked reduction in HDL levels, but also increased triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL), and cholesterol in very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Both male and female PLTP-KO mice displayed ...
Rava Paul - - 2006
Human microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein (hMTP) is essential for apolipoprotein B (apoB)-lipoprotein assembly and secretion and is known to transfer triacylglycerols, cholesterol esters, and phospholipids. To understand the relative importance of each lipid transfer activity, we compared the ability of hMTP and its Drosophila ortholog (dMTP) to assemble apoB lipoproteins ...
Lee Chih-Hao - - 2006
Significant attention has focused on the role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, recent advances have identified triglyceride-rich lipoproteins [e.g., very LDL (VLDL)] as independent risk predictors for this disease. We have previously demonstrated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)delta, but not PPARgamma, is the major nuclear VLDL ...
Pal, S.
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Napolitano Mariarosaria - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Though it is now clear that chylomicron remnants are pro-atherogenic lipoproteins, events leading to their incorporation by macrophages are poorly understood. METHODS: This study investigates, in human macrophages, the fate of either [(3)H]cholesteryl oleate or [(3)H]triacylglycerol carried by human apolipoprotein-E-containing chylomicron remnant-like particles (CRLP) and the influence of CRLP ...
Niu Wei-ning - - 2006
The lipases of Rhizopus spp. share a high 1,3-regiospecificity toward triacylglycerols, which makes them important enzymes in lipid modification. In the present study, the extracellularly active production of recombinant Rhizopus arrhizuslipase was carried out with genes encoding the mature region (mRAL) and the mRAL having the prosequence (ProRAL) in Pichia ...
Fruchart Jean-Charles - - 2006
Epidemiological studies have shown that hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol were both associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Furthermore, hypertriglyceridemia is now recognized as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Secondary prevention trials (e.g., LOCAT, BECAIT, BIP and DAIS) in coronary artery disease with drugs acting ...
Miyauchi Hidemasa - - 2006
Arrhythmia is known to cause sudden death in hemodialysis patients. Heparin administration releases lipoprotein lipase from the capillary endothelial cell surface, resulting in an increase in the plasma levels of free fatty acids; higher levels of free fatty acids may affect the occurrence of arrhythmias. This study assessed whether the ...
Dever Gary - - 2006
The oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to contribute to atherogenesis, which is an inflammatory disease involving activation of phagocytic cells. Myeloperoxidase, an enzyme which is able to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl), is released from these phagocytic cells, and has been found in an active form in atherosclerotic plaques. ...
Hashimoto Masahito - - 2006
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) derived from Staphylococcus aureus is reported to be a ligand of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). In this study, we demonstrated that lipoproteins obtained from S. aureus are potent activators of TLR2. A fraction obtained by Triton X-114 phase partitioning activated cells through TLR2. The fraction contained proteins ...
Menuet Robert - - 2005
The metabolic syndrome is a common disorder characterized by central obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, and atherogenic dyslipidemia (including the combination of hypertriglyceridemia, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and a preponderance of small, dense low-density lipoprotein particles). In this manuscript, we review the pathogenesis and significance of dyslipidemia in ...
Kim Se Yeon - - 2006
We previously reported an efficient proteomic approach to identify matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) substrates from complex protein mixture. Using the proteomic approach, apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II), which is a cofactor of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and a component of very-low density lipoprotein and chylomicron, has been identified as a putative MMP-14 substrate. Cleavage ...
Jackson Kim G - - 2006
AIM: We examined the effect of meal fatty acids on lipid and apolipoprotein concentrations of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicron/chylomicron remnants in lipid fractions with a Svedberg flotation rate (Sf) 60-400 and Sf 20-60. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six healthy middle-aged men received in random order mixed meals enriched ...
Vas T - - 2005
AIM: Approximately 20-50% of IgA nephropathy patients develop end-stage renal disease. We have previously found enhanced oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant capacity in red blood cells of IgA nephropathy patients. In this study we assess oxidative stress, non-enzymatic glycation, oxidative resistance of low-density lipoprotein and its alpha-tocopherol content in these ...
Pearce David A - - 2005
Nutrient enrichment is known to increase bacterioplankton population density in a variety of Antarctic freshwater lakes. However, relatively little is known about the associated changes in species composition. In this study, the bacterioplankton community composition of one such lake was studied following natural nutrient enrichment to investigate the resistance of ...
Tachibana Shizuko - - 2005
Fatty acids of varying lengths and saturation differentially affect plasma apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels. To identify the mechanisms underlying the effect of octanoate on very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, chicken primary hepatocytes were incubated with either fatty acid-bovine serum albumin (BSA) complexes or BSA alone. Addition of octanoate to culture ...
Chan J W - - 2005
Individual triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL) particles derived from human volunteers are nondestructively analyzed by laser tweezers Raman microspectroscopy, and information on their composition and distribution is obtained. The Raman signature of single optically trapped very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), a subclass of TGRL, which play an important role in cardiovascular disease, exhibits ...
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